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American (Whig) Review

The American Whig, printed and published by Anderson & Smith, no. 34 Ann St, $5/yr, in advance—but it’s small size, single papers 2 cents

May 21, 1834 (LOC has just one issue hard copy)

  1. 1 Manifesto says it will be Political in its objects. Notices Greely’s new New Yorker. Poem “Impromptu” by R.S. addressed to editors of Democratic Chronicle, on seeing the Courier and Enquirer compared to The Ass kicking at the Lion,” fine simile, but we’re content to be the ass given that the lion is dying. “Hogarth’s last Painting” he proposed a tail piece, the end of all things, a broken bottle , cracked bell, tavern called the World’s end, etc. and did die right after. “Spirit of the Times” Nation was prosperous and happy 6 months ago, now ruined, Bank was blamed unjustly. P. 2 has an illustration of Major Jack Downing’s last letter, shows him reading the NY Daily Advertiser.

 

American Whig Review

Feb 1845p. 218  Reviews Letters fr a Lscape Ptr, by author of Essays for Summer Hours (Lanman), lacks discernment, what is not to be said

 

Lots of Poe.

 

July 1845 p. 12 “A True Work of Art” C Edwards Lester brought back exquis noble Christ on the Cross fr single piece of ivory by Genoese monk (footnotes Powers on Cinti Museum fossil tusk of ivory), and also cites his opinion of its aesthetic merits, decided against retouching it, praises expression of calmness and dignity and execution

            Headley’s letters fr Italy praised

 

August 1845 p. 199 The Genius and Sculptures of Powers—fr CE Lester’s volume The Artist, Merchant, Statesman

Sep 1845, Wm Wallace poem from US Hotel in NY, The Statuary, if you die, something of heaven is left, and the Ideal, is found at last to lie in that which you have called the Real.

November 1845, p. 532 reviews Cornelius Mathews’ Big Abel and the Little Manhattan, has written with various degrees of merit, but judged unfairly and with discrim. Style attractive for lovers of minute picturing, seeing the pictque in very common occurences, affection for lowlife, but imitates Dickens’ affectations. Too many colons and semi-colons.

            Simms fine but no genius.

Oct 1845 Art and Artists in America, Reviews  C Edw Lester’s Artist etc. Author feels deeply on subject, excuses incorrectness, but topics jumbled together, autobio of Powers, essay on Consular System, letters rambling, style good where he is in earnest, but not too familiar.  Encourages state support for art.

 

Ellet and Fanny Osgood are writing.

Feb 1846 p.220 Critical Notices, Hart’s Bust of Clay. No surprise art has come out of the west, need nature for Genius to assume individuality (and national character). A Ladies Association in char gd taste selected sculp who has executed the only true bust of him in existence, fr his own state. Has surprised connoisseurs, remarkably minute and painfully skilful elab of slightest and most delicate play of attenuated muscles, but daring and dashing vigor of genl effect. Chivalric Hero shines thru. (author says is acquainted personally with Clay to some degree).

 

HH Clements, The Picture Gallery (gothic story)

May 1846 p. 517 Artists of America, renders knowl of our artists widely avail, Lester’s part tho is in usual hurried, loose-shod manner, bursts of vehement expression, best parts are extracts fr artists. Port of Henry Inman rudely sensualized, error in burin? Sketch about as just as might be expected, a happy versatility but not a v great depth of genius characterized this favorite artist.

            Fair, honest crit, keen analys , not often met with in the market. Better for genius to stand alone than be bolstered in a clique, stand out from his time. Tendency of our age to act in masses, societies, cliques, etc, is proof of its poverty. Can’t praise everyone for patriotic reasons, must draw a check on bank of heaven if we want to be paid for telling the truth.

 

Aug 1846 p. 180 Something Abt our Painters. Unavoidably omitted notice of Exhib of NAD, won’t do detailed crit, but speak while fresh in minds. Our ptrs won’t found a natl historical schl by ptg redskins and Revolutionary wars, nor a schl of lscape by views of primeval forests in gaudy dress of autumn. Any artist can do this, no more American than if ptd the Hartz mtns. When we have a settled tone, natl traits will be shown in handling not choice of subjects. Nor shld artists paint pics three miles long bcause this is a ‘great country.’

            We as a new nation were not born but created. Actors in our history were not Americans but Englishmen, Frenchmen, Indians. Modes adopted to foster art, bestowing excessive praise on works by native artists as product of native talent ismost futile and injurious, encourages mediocre, and meretricious pandering to morbid national vanity. To this style of patriotism a large portion of our journals incline, esp if any moral or sacred lesson be attempted, even though they are aware of the injury to the arts. Among marked cases are The Court of Death or Great Moral Pic by R Peale of Phila.

            Exhib here some 25 years ago and met approb of hi public functionaries, who wrote letters, and public favor, but none of that indicates educated taste in the arts. Mayor, Common Council, Governor recommendation fo pic opera or poem has no value. Pic has two or three gd heads of Old Age and Virtue, but equally bad in design,drwg, grouping and anatomy, fatal fault of complete lack of unity. Design of Death as stern judge but feebly carried out, seems vacant. Figs hard and woody, Pleasure is a simpering girl with meagre arms and no alluring expression, no full figure, suggests her body would not be enticing under the ill hung drapery. Grouping produced uncomfortable, uneasy feeling, fr want of proper balance, light and shade not managed at all.

            Peale’s port of Chief Justice Marshall in NAD exhib is a fine head, but wilderness of canvas around it, head of Solon at top and Fiat Justitia at bottom, what might be expected.

            Goes on to lavish praise on Henry Inman, as port ptr no superior in world, more like the men than they were like themselves, rapidity of pencil. Mentions portraits, but expands on his last picture, October Afternoon, children in front of school house, winning reverie.

            NAD exhib far greater merit, elevated char of subjects, Huntington, Blaas, Leutze, Mount, Matteson and Chapman conspicuous, Weir missing. Durand, Cole, Cropsey and Cranch in lscape; Elliot, Page, Ingham and Huntington portraits.

            Huntington highest place among those in highest school 5 pics and 3 ports, our fave Sacred Lesson, tho not so elevated spirituality as his Italy, seems more finished, embodiment of intellectual and phys beauty, high foreheads, broadw low classical brows, feminine expression, no exagg of points of beauty like large eyes and small mouths that mod ptrs do, gives truthful air that some of hotbed taste mistake for materiality. Not sylphs but women, why so beaut. Heads of old men equal char, contrasts the two. Stamp of hi cultivation, hi Poetic order, clear designs, tone contentment, heart symp with sentiment, judgment approves, effects simple direct forcible, no pettiness. Unobtrusive reds, yellows, rich quiet greens, flesh tints in broad masses, cool refreshing. Alms Giving, woman embodiment of charity; master and Pupils, and Woman at Well, fine specimens air of quiet elevated repose; Italy impersonation of her whose glory has departed. Inclined to mannerism of handling, sometimes careless in drwg as in Italy bust is contracted and flat, arm in Alms Giving not well placed. Glazings sometimes patchy, smoky hue.

            Leutze 2 pics, great faults and excellencies. Lscape of Northmen failed to impress, more extravagant than able, its strength does not arise fr symmetry, but striking conception and suggestiveness will have effect on minds of much ideality, who look to aims than what is. Exaggerated action, extrav expression, want of proportion and balance, same occur in Cromwell and his Daughter, arm of female preposterously large, but Leutze has skilful managementof chiaroscuro, color, texture and intensity of his vigorous pencil.

            Pic of much pretension and conspic position, merit enuf to attract attn., so faulty to forbid success, Tasso and his Friends, TP Rossiter, dispos of groups anything but happy, difficult to find any prominent fig, it’s not Tasso, and it shouldn’t be the female on the left. Paints in too hi a tone, compos thruout uncomf warm, unmitigated yellows reds hot ochery browns pervade everything. Foliage never felt cooling breeze. Foregrd cut up by sharp lines of flat legs, backgrd lacks distance and is confused, whole wants atmosph.

            Those who remember the Spirit of 76 by Matteson would hardly have expected this yr Capt Glen Claiming the Prisoners, a successful treatment of v diff subj. Has fancy and imag, temptations to extrav action and exagg expr, avoided but perhaps fallen into some tameness. Prefer extrav of Leutze to present subdued manner, for lackscharacter. Subj devd with judgment, grouping easy and effective, drawn well, actiongd but too quiet, coloring harmonious but lacks richness transp, improved by bolder chiaroscuro. More vig method of handling great advantage. Hung below the line.

            Remember sensation created a few yrs ago by HP Gray, at time thought him rather affecting than emulating low tone of old masters, but Gray’s seem as if had gone thru antiquating process of a pic dealer, now a marked mannerist, become too Grayish. Sapph and Mother and child his best, coloring harmonious, drapery.

            Ptrs apt to wast time and talents on subjects repulsive or without interest, in North Carolina Emigrants of JH Beard, and Fishing along Shore of Mount. In Beard everything is wretched, starved, gaunt, blighted, squalid, as painful as artist could have hoped. Injurious in effect if not untruthful, so unartistic in conception; literal copy of actual squalor and wretchedness not a legit subj of art, objects don’t interest us for their personal or mental qualities, sensations awakened are v painful and to no legit end of art, and accessories that would relieve the pic and awaken opposite feelings, excluded.

            Mount’s boy and negress fishing is v faithful but unpictque and uncomfortable, wasted ability ona pic which pains the eye and shocks the taste. Such as these the lowest place in art.

            Chapman careless of draftsmanship, attn. to detail, truthful air hi finish of his accessories, will not compensate. Edmonds, Wall st artist, maintains skill in handling, but scene fr Antiquary lacks sentiment. Ranney improving despite some academic faults.

            (G, I think) Flagg attracted much attn. when he arrived is losing; late pics full of bad drwg and muddy coloring, his Match Boy would blush to look at them, and his Italian Boy is in same style and equally gd.

            Terry fr Italy abt whom so much was sd in fashionable world, more a connoisseur than artist, faulty drwg, coloring v opaque, tho not gaudy not low toned and lack char. In Perugino style.

            Cole and Durand styles so diff, talnet so great, Durand’s rural sweetness quiet tone grace ease truthful unaffected air irresistibly charming, while Cole’s bold ocmpos freedom of touch vigor handling and certain air of interest alw pleased attn., prominent beauties vs Durand’s gradual ones. Cole more Am in his choice of subj. CP Cranch more Am than Cole, tho differs in handling tone, his compos don’t have air of truth at present, lack atmosph, cold and slaty, but he is acquiring self reliance. Most observant of nature is JT Cropsey, styleof compos and pertinence of everything he introduces, fidelity of drwg, but his palette spoils all. Coloring breaks his pics into gaudy fragments, destroying effect of persp, and fails in atmosph, so pics painfully flat and patchy. Gignoux great credit with still life, lscape sharp outline and want of atmosph, highly creditable. Harvey’s late pics not shown earlier talent, elab to a painful degree, maybe fr his forte in w/c. Wonder ptrs don’t emulate Poussin more, adapted to our scenery.

            Mantle of Inman on Elliott, male portraits the finest, prone to literalism the absence of which gave Inman his wonderful fidelity, but heads are living, breathing, flesh beaut, shadows clear, poses worthy. Perception of char needs cultivation.

            Page a little too inclined to run after theories, heads lack char, bluish half tints destroy flesh, canvas so thinly covered. Fine draftsman. Ingham ports show same delicate coloring, elab finsh, texture, have a weak and waxy appearance, no skeletons.

            Why Wenzler paints such monstrosities with so much ability in them? Pics last yr exagg enough, but this yr v madness of Wenzlerism. To make his figs stand out, descendes to trick of duncolored ground on which their unsoftened outlines sharply cut. Heads finely drawn, but mere copies of so many and such lines, without the slightest expr or char, strange and affected method of half tints gives flesh a cadaverous look, hair seems to have purple enamel. Great staring masses of unmitig blue red green v painful to eye, altogether inadmissible. Throw aside his affectations.

            Osgood ports remind us of White Maid of Avenel as she faded before eyes of Glendinning, and Frothingham gd likenesses done with a house-painter’s brush.Thompson improves.

            Spear’s pic purporting to be a devt of Allston’s unfin Belshazzar’s Feast is a vile libel on Allston, so ridic bad to be beneath crit.

            Admire Blaas’ St Cath, tho not one of our artists, v severe school, austerity of Caravaggio, outlines of Retzch, conception noble, air remarkable. Thought to be the gem.

 

Likes Hawthorne. Not enthusiastic about M Fuller.

Oct 1846 p. 431 likes Anthony Clark & Co creation of scene inclu 100 Daguerreotype ports ofSenate on Clay’s resignation in 1842

Nov 1846 p. 540 Reviews the Engraving of Capture of  Maj Andre, fr ptg by Durand owned by JK Paulding, engr Alf Jones et al, pub by Art Union, speakes well for art of engr; sometimes clarity becomes hardness. On design, strikes our fancy or understandingor both that soldier refusing the bribe is too theatrical, not honest bluff soldier but v honest piece in one of Coleman’s tragi-comedies. Andre has first rate gman like air pleasing enough.

 

December 1846 p. 599 Hints to Art Union Critics. Shd look beyond forms and colors to tone and oneness of composition. Scene of axe murder of son, brain bowels dashed out by insane father, everything perfect and true, but fatal defect is unfit subj, hateful, horrible. Imitation of nature not enug, imitation of what is sublime, beaut or fanciful in nature is object, or fail to be artistic, no more intrinsic value than ballad with villainous accuracy a banquet of vultures or incest.

            True objects of pictorial art confused, need to disntinguish betw poetical and artistical, motion and change versus fixed and quiet. Only moment can be shown are times of rest, pauses, or previous to motion, if try to paint real motion in bodies, produces ridiculous stiffness, as if petrified, or like lay figures put into attitudes that could not be held a moment by live people without pain.

            Vice of studio classed with theatre, ptrs give theatrical air to subjects, actor not of first order, attribute passionate actions to moral emotions, so heroes are naughty boys and ladies forward minxes, lack authenticity. Vice of study and theatre follows that of parlor, ports with silly impudent or artificial stare, desire to give fashionable air, disgusting.

            Choice of contemptible subjects, like The Junk Bottle where haymakers grin over bottle of black strap, mean and pitiful ideas, very unlike handling of Flemish ptr of old school who wants to please observer. Not a pleasure to be irreverently blinked at by three impudent fellows, or if any satisfy, even a coxcomb would conceal. Flem wld make a scene, disconnecting it fr spectator who shld seem to look fr without, affected but not affecting it. Instant we perceive the influence of our presence, the scenical pleasure, business of true art, replaced by diff kind, like effect of actors on audience, produces laugh or hiss. Hiss or laugh in art lands on painter.

            Painter’s personal char shld permit him to observe men scenically, to give true scenic effect; Garrick, Canova or Rubens are objective, so separate in personal fr artistic rln to obj, that nothing of personal appears, lady is not smirking on her partic friend, but lady whose courtesy is good for all the world. Some fine pics have figs that look out on spectator, but effect is of looking beyond or near us accidentally, and strengthens genl unity of piece by the apparent deviation. Or if eyes directed on us, still objective if no lurking vanity. In nature sitter sends out subjective looks? Don’t copy nature, please viewer. Comical vein may turn subjective looks to account, but even folly must be disengaged and indep.

            Modern artist of no schl will put ragged holes in jackets of haymakers, daub them with brown pink to make them look dirty, whileFlemish no stress on dirt and squalor, uses pure and bright tints for flesh, toned to softness, avoiding dirt as poison, no reproduction of harsh and dirty colors so ordinary and so disagreeable in nature. Three Haymakers nothing of interest, merely haymakers, but mod artist of no school remembers he had been happy making hay or seeing it done, so paints it. Fleming instead gives marks of vigor health and pleasure in figs, tho ugly fellows, are wonders in their kind, happy, borne labor easily, enjoy what is before them, Teniers or Mieris. Modern artist’s haymakers look raw, sickly, dyspepsia, brokend runkards whose labors are  agrief and life a  burden, or insolent. Naturally and truly but not agreeably and there fore not artistically depicted.

            Fleming preserves chiaroscuro, while designer of no school, puts glare of daylight, painful and monotonous tho natural, drapery unfinished. The Fleming, plan being to give satisfaction to eye and intellect, without appeal to personal recollections, national or provincial prejudices, orpoetical emotions, chose pov to balance strong lights of sun (muted by cloud) with strong shadows.

            Surface of mod pic carelessly loaded with color in pasty clots or greasy as if daubed with soap and fat, or colors streaked over cold blue or muddy grd quenches brightness of tints, or mealy mux of red and yellow, rubbed with a cat’s paw. Modern persuaded red and yellow only colors, won’t imitate blue effects by mixing blue with them. Vain that Haydon shows Italian colorists produced effects by coats, not muddy mixture, or Remb laid on colors in pure clots, deaf to Hogarth on blue effects, Wm Page may talk and Wilkie hint, no more effect than going to Italy, only continues to copy nature in her dirtiest trim.

            Flemish pleases mind with images of health and rustic liberty, without beauty or humor in figs, imparts sensuous perfection, if addresses no profound imagination, In pic of another order, ages of man, compos exquis and universal not only in forms and attitudes (contentment and repose) but in atmosph and lscape, period is ideal in selection and combo of perfections. Begins with lscape of golden age, sharp snowy mtns behind sea, coast with islands, meadows, two hours before summer sunset, temperate etc forest approaches and concludes with body of a vast oak, covers one-third of sky, stretches a crooked arm over center. Quiet and simplicity, fitting abode for shepherds, grace without grief artifice pride or inequality, impossible to describe because ugliness and imperf alone admit of description, attitudes and outlines studied fr life but glossing inequalities of feature, sacrifice all to beauty of form. Artist draws contours, will not change, want effect of engraving or daguerreotype, no color—long description of putting on colors, following  W Page.

            In composition of these two pics, sensuous and classical, diff ideas: Haymakers pleases us by representing a felicity of an inferior char approaching the animals, animal felicy depicted in perfection in Snyders, Landseer, Rubens and Poussin, reason no sway, lusts and passions have a holiday.But ignorant or characterless ptr can’t do these scenes, must know moral nature or won’t be able to show its absence.

            Poussin master of two extremes, bacchanals’ luxury don’t offend us, for exclusion of moral so complete (where there is no law, there is no sin, only mad sport of nature) and figs sep fr spectator so completely. Arcadian scenes show truth and beauty are one, address cultivated sense. Great ptr gives char to faces naturally mean. Great pics most powerful over innocent and good. Bunker’s hill in Trumbull has fired many a bosom. Pics of somber tone in parlors of old mansion house most admirable ornament.

Gd ptgs shld be like gd bks, so common as to bear moderate prices, when methods of pictorial art reduced to a science, no reason why not.

            Picture mart (Art union) means gd pic will be seen and valued. Collectors in Euro have employed connoisseurs to select forthem, in lieu of which abide by following rules: don’t trust first impression, choose based on location (forest near a window) as first degree of artistical pleasure is in resemblance. Medium size better than large or small, of simple scenes, a fight between two dogs, St John and lamb, virgin, bit of forest, vs crowded theatrical or military composition with monotony and violence. Fancy piecese with titles like Kid Gloves, Unopened Casket etc usually disgust, however beau exec, feeble and flashy, must have a serious or comic idea to be agreeable long, a shallow smirking thing insults once weary of its prettiness. If pic striking and gmanly, hi foreheads and sack coats, for a  tailor not drwg rm. Very national pics not the best. Illus of lit must be excellent to be gd; stage is fatal to ptg. Imitations seldom please. Album faces ofByron beauties are the Cockney school of design, the Children of the Nobility and congeners, artifices heighten effect, large eyes long lashes tapered fingers. Also dislikes German/Munich manner.

            Connoisseur may prefer our own history, but patriotic artist errs, as preventing GW in undignified and affected attitudes, possible only to a Hindoo Deity, symbolical actions that are emblematic not natural. Criticize in detail. Human qualities of grace, beauty and sublimity appear only inpeople, figurative to speak of beaut lscape or graceful animal, they do not possess the moral qualities that flow out of character, only the passions. So in pic of highest order, Idea expressed in human fig, with grace beauty or sublimity in principals. Compos arranges to represent one thing that concerns all diff, as pic now in exhib of Cromwell’s iconoclasts, unity of action admirable tho varied, Idea prevails throuout, with atittudes natural. When Daniellowers his arm from addressing the king, his robe shld not fall abt his legs.

            Describes shade (softness an blending as disagreeable as hard and edgy), color harmony means don’t put brown next to green, or purple on orange, or yellow on red etc without a transitional tint. Not too much of any one. Handling doesn’t matter—shouldn’t be able to tell how it was done. Tone of first imp, shld have clear agreeable grn brwn yell or purple tone. Expression first in importance; color may be exquis, but if idea is wanting or detestable, who will pronounce ptg gd?

 

Hates Sand and Sue, immoral.

 

July 1847, p. 53 22nd Exhib of NAD, 1847

Annual exhib an advert for portrait ptrs, ought to change name. Air of AU is bucolic and rustic, the Acad domestic and refined. One represents nursery, stable, barroom, other the parlor and concert. AU truthful pics of grossest and simplest attract us, in other airs of artificial society. True ends, instruct while amuse.

            Children in the Country, Peele, touching sweetness simplicity easy not slovenly angelic modesty, as in Angel’s Whisper. Grace and feeling, want of coloring and drwg prevents great popularity, figs not substantial, no internal anatomy, mapped, and color raw, little tone, no depth. Akin to Greuze, though he would glaze it to produce mellowness and depth in multiple coats.

            Huntington Folly (buxom lass expecting admiration) and Devotion (modest, downcast) as they listen to a venerable reading, first rank in choice of subj, general human char. Coloring often careless is agreeable andmodest, glazings, mellow tone.

            Leutze Henry 8th attracts attn., composed not designed, like Trumbull, less wholly devoted or get force from one single idea. Miniature painter who designs historical scenes.

            Excellent portraits by Elliott, hair, but complexion of Inman v smutty.

            Page port and design in Ital taste discover his peculiar method, low tone and yellow. Distinguishes himself fr writer who did Hints to Art Union Critics. Page’s beaut mother and child,e xquis, but age destroying color. Attract attn. to their power.

 

Louis L Noble writes for them

Aug 1847 p. 219  Reviews Modern Painters. “Young John Bull” his maddest freak, prove his pics ptd on right principles. Madness is amusing, will only hurt critic or ptr who catch the rabies. Defense of Turner who fr engravings we think inferior to past painters, sappy spongy trees, vulgar expr for figs, compos theatrical and affected. Attacks how lscapes of old masters are praised, their clumsy artificiality and abandonment of individ char held up as grand or historical style of pure ideal, when only grand style for treatment of all subjects whatsoever is rendering specific characters of the given object. Has peculiar sentiment of Oxford tract men, that pics should have moral effect on the mind like music.

 

December 1847 p. 654 Engraving of US Senate, E Anthony. Retirement of Clay, 100 dag likenesses, large, excerpts prospectus

 

American Review: a Whig Journal, 1848-50

Lots of notices for E Anthony’s portraits, engraved by AH Ritchie. Women’s rights is agrarianism and socialism.

Nov 1848 fr Magazzino Pittorico on The Painter Duhobret p. 500 (pupil of Durer becomes rich at an auction)

Sep 1849 p. 301 S reviews TB Read’s poems, title Lays and Ballads, species of light poetry treating of antique subjects in antique style designed as pleasing and romantic pic of days gone by, but not so, all kinds of subjects, lines of every possible length, sound, strength, words hitherto confined to lobbies and street corners here elevated, new figures and lays, no allus to classic lore. Mixed feelings.

Dec 1849 p. 592 Titian’s Assumption, Wm Allen Butler, wondrous art

Feb 1850 p. 216 negative review of Misc works of Rev JT Headley, by EL, straining for effect, critical of the introduction’s overly lavish praise. Writer inspired by Germ school, gained fame for his Napoleon and his Marshalls (EL equates it to the Moon hoax), dressed heroes in theatrical tinsel and style that draws applause fr the benches of the Bowery. Does not write simply, naturally or familiarly, but with bombast, bigotry and Anglo-Saxon prejudice.

Feb 1850 p. 218 review by editor of Gallery of Illus Amer, ed CE Lester, magnify engr of Genl Taylor, Clay and Webster next

March 1850 letter to Editor defending Read’s poems p. 287

 

American Whig Review, 1850-1852, GH Colton and Whelpley

July 1850 review of Allston’s Lectures on Art and Poems, acknowl they are difficult, but genius.

Poems to statues of Homer and by Canova.

Jan 1851 p. 17JDW  review of Lessing’s Laocoon, secret of classic composition, has been little read, not a transcendentalist, artist represents moments of rest. Lessing’s advice much better than abominable miscellaneousness and confusion of purpose of the modern school.

Critical of the Trib.

Emile Vanderburck’s Out door Artist, transl, May 1851, David sort of being humbled to equivalent of Teniers; Jun 1851 has transl fr German The Rival Painters

July 1851 p.51 R  Reviews Nile Notes of a Howadji, expectations hi from laudatory daily journals, written by person of genius, but found false twaddling sentiment, too much puerile alliteration, affectations unsuited to modern idea of chaste and natural style. Fair Frailty inapprop for drwg rm. But likes much of the rest.

Aug 1851 Sketch of Wm S Mount

Sep 1851 Benvenuto Cellini, A Tale, fr French

Nov 1851 p. 408 Journalism in NY: commercial sheets, J of Commerce, C&E, Eve Post, Comm Advert; cheaper and more popular the Express, Trib, Herald Day Book, Mirror, Sun, Morning Star, New-Yorker. Now being added on the cheap plan  are the Times, Natl Demo, and Verdict. NY smaller than London or Paris, but our newspapers outnumber them or any other city of the world. 20-25,000 circ for Herald, Trib and prob now the Times. Singular feature in journalism of NY is its polit complexion, Whig sheets numerous, C&E, Trib, Expr and Comm Advert and others, but until Nat Demo, Eve Post the entire Demo press. Efforts have been made in the past, but failed, e.g. the Globe. Sun is neutral, largest circ, Herald too, and smaller ones in their shadow.

            Weeklies outnumber them three to one, Albion, Spirit of the Times, but satirical ones not the equal of Punch, Yankee Doodle and The Town dismal

 

Alice Cary poem

Dec 1851 p.546 Fine Arts, NY Gall of FA in NAD,new pics, Cole still gives it its character

Jan 1852 Likes Bayard Taylor’s poems, ed of daily paper, eminent ex of Young America (Saxe Stoddard Fields Lowell)

May 1852 p. 400 How to Make a Picture

            When we compare pics of our own artists with hideous daubs of Mex, notion presents itself of an intellig greatly superior and cultivated in our own race. Engravings more in request than music, please immediately. Good pics immed engraved and distrib; a gd pic is an invention, spread thru manythousands of persons, thanks to desire of all to enjoy pleasures of great artists. Pics commonly accepted as mere imitations of nature, colored dags. But not by a true artist, A Cole lscape or fig grp by Leutze or Eastlake is no imitation of nature, its tints are natural productions, dag is not imitation of nature but a product of nature, but when artist lays colors, there isimitation. No pic in a coll of dirty shadows. Invention, design, idea developed

            -critical of those who learn linear persp and art of drawing in hard outline, bits and pieces, learn nothing of shadows or unity, doesn’t help draw fr nature. Critical of the pictque, scratchy. Use charcoal, do shadows and lights. Glazing and toning is a monotonizing process.

            In certain pics at exhib of AU see success in clear and beaut style of coloring over miserable palette style of daubers, mixers and glazers, deep shadows and transparent carnations

 

May 1852 p. 470 Brackett’s Wreck, univ recognized as finest works of art, often compared to Greek Slave. But Brackett at home where models rare, had disadvantages. Wreck fastens aattn, shows correctness in anatomy. Inexperience in comparative want of finish and inanimate rather than passionate expr. A true pic or statue is alw an exagg, a wax fig is a perfect facsimile, and is alw monstrous and usually disgusting. Apollo exults, Laocoon anguish, Venus contemplative. Features locked in lifeless repose are easier.

 

June 1852, Critical Notices: NAD p. 561

Competes with the AU, which is fallen into disfavor, AU artworks have similarity of style, made to order appearance, not in Nat Acad. Hardly seen a work of pure imag in AU since Cole.

            Main defect of Acad is prepond of portraits. Mere specification of pics by number and descript can be of little interest, tho picture lovers who write for papers indulge, no doubt gratifying to know that No 15 is a cow grazing and is excellently well done. Very little service as guides to knowl of advances of art.

            No living artist can paint like Cole, but general qual is better, Durand and Rossiter eg. Prevailing fault of Am artists is imitation not of nature but other works which he has used as models, not as studies. Cure is to see more ptgs, so won’t fall in love with a certain style and sacrifice native genius to that manner.

            Pic most free fr this fault is Norwegian Forest by Cappelen, singular fidelity.

Complaint that Harper’s is very successful bcause can cheaply pillage English lit; Times editor close to Harper’s and defends literary piracy. Nor does Harper’s credit what’s stolen. Hurts foreign and domestic writers.

August 1852 The American School of Art, p. 138

We have one, maybe feeble, but distinct, peculiar, and portraits not inferior to Euro; many call foreign influ corrupting or retarding, but shallow cant, babbling of a Nat scl devoted to illus of Am history overlook that Art has no such limitations

 

American Whig Review, August 1852 p. 138 The American School of Art

 

No national greatness has existed without creation of a national school of art, France, Engl and Germany never so strongly marked as in our time, America tho separated by an ocean from all the influ of Art has her Nat S, no matter how inadeq and feeble, yet distinct, peculiar, and in portrait ptg not inferior.

            Many deplore foreign influ as corrupting purity of nationality or retarding devt, shallow cant and ignorant gossip. They babble of a Nat Sch devoted to illus of incidents in Am hist, overlook that Art has no such limitations, liberty is her birthright. A Nat S is collective genius of the nation’s artists, varied products, where those artists studied or subjects is of no account.

            Of Germans, no leading artist who has not studied or even lived under Catholic Ital Art, Lessing and one or two others the exceptions. French acquired mastery in Italy. English too. Even those who stay at home study galleries or engravings.Muller, Diaz and Couture don’t baldly imitate, but discover great elements. Absurdity of what a pitiful class of Am critics say re should not study abroad, compares it to a scientist ignoring science of past in order to be original.

No excellence w/o knowl of eternal truths and principles of art of great masters, study of nature not enough. Art in rln to nature is representative, but when artist tries to discover how Nature produces her effects, that secret lies beyond prying scientific intellect, but means with which art represents nature are of a higher more creative sort. Nature is source and standard of truth, but can’t teach how truth is to be expressed.

            Decorum key, works must have approp rln to place of destination, or well exec with reference to their idea, but neither case does subj need to be national, local or incidental. Yet artists must hold themselves aloof fr works of genius if follow learned dictates of those who wld have a nat schl made to order upon their own petty and wooden model.

            What does it matter if Lessing, Hubner, Hasenclever et al paint Huss, poachers, etc Cornelius and Kaulbach do the Bible. Neither Haydon’s nor Etty’s best pics were fr English history. Even among number who confine themselves to scenes of familiar Engl life, there is engrafted a body of artists whose works are so unnational and so diff to class that they are cherished under name of Pre Raph.

            Describes an Am Schl that starts with Copley not West, includes Trumbull but says his ptgs are not impressive. Most that can be said of Vanderlyn is that they do not in the least resemble old pics, honestly ptd. Misfortune is that while his pics assume to be subjective in their nature, convey to observer no idea of the artist’s temperament and character. A fault as unless a work professes to be purely objective, magnetism of temperament shld be apparent. This was Allston. Refused to be ltd in his subj. too bad he was weak and irresolute in wrought out his ideas, not much can be said in favor of his literary efforts, merely clever with Coleridgean metaphysics, no use to practical artist.

            To come to far inferior range, Inman’s ports and cabinets show natural taste, and almost perfect want of artistic education. Sully paints in slap dash manner oppos of Duss, yet port of Geo Frederick Cooke one of finest extant.

            Younger and more numerous race rapidly bringing school forward, Page, Leutze, Rothermel, Hicks, Huntington, Gray, Rossiter, Weir, Chapman, Mount, Ranney and others have surpassed their predecessors, will give way to others more vigorous in youth, more orig let us hope in thought, nobler stores of knowl.

            Wm Page, rare promise, adeq fulfilment, has added little recently, just experimented with color. But large intellect, a head of his will still possess so much truth of drwg that to eye corrected and refined by cultivation, pic will wear inestimable charm. One of his Florence works now in AU gall is poor in almost every respect, his Virgin is not in spirit of a believer, Joseph abominable, child mature not childlike. Page prob thought privileged to idealize it, but forgot to do the same for Mary and Joseph. Never has a genuine artistic idea to express, only an intellectual one.

            Leutze his opposite, slashing and dashing away to depict some thought or fancy, regardless of worry about color, meretly to sate appetite for some sort of activity, slurring and blurring, now gd now abominable, alw betraying phys force and blustering nervous vigor, occasional dash of sentiment as exquis and delicate in conception as it is defective and careless in exec. Capture of Mex Teocalli, human figs of monstrous length are thorwn into most inconceivable postures, nor do you care, go about looking for objects of peculiar interest, pssage of genuine pathos. In GW crossing Delaware, sick soldier shivering so touchingly and genuinely true to almost redeem the pic as a work of art.

            That whole pic too melodramatic, too much costume, a tableau vivant, too much dependence on the backgrd as an opposing force in principle of effect, too little reliance on expression of countenance of manly souls, yet figs clear perception of vigorous movement, a converging interest powerfully focalizing the mind, so pic at first blow on eye startles and thrills spectator. With enshrined hero, secret of success, for besides being untrue to historical fact with anachronism on anachronism, faces inexpressive, simply pictque or commonplace. Figs tolerably drawn, varied, want of emotional expr, face of GW fr Houdon’s, inflexible unhuman qual, not exalted into sublime and divine but wooden. Posture and bearing a defying, self-reliant man, animated by faith and confident, had he carried this into face, eye and mouth in corresp action and firmness, harmonizing and unifying the whole, given complete idea of a hero, no exagg. Studied in a poor foreign school, b ut glad to claim him as an Am.

            Rothermel his rival, know nothing of invidious and indistinct distinct betw talent and genius, Leutze mode of treating more epigrammatic, Rothermel marked by reflection and accuracy that constantly subside into mannerism not inap for works of highest order. Careful in all, seldom natural (identical with common nature, as if studied fr models), pleasing tone, evidence of thought, illus prog of freedom of thought. His one work of hi alleg in exec is equal to his best, idea noble, sublime, humanitary, Elevation of Labor, common laborer in garb and implements, Time bears group which prefigures “the good time coming.” Christ gives him hand of fellowship, evil oppression social tyranny vanquished, sky above blue and distant mtns terminate sunny beaut lscape. Noble conception, best thinkers of day, follwers execrably imitate his manner.

            Hicks not yet devd fulness of his powers, ports and cabinet pics of last ten yrs, not larger growth. Most consid is port Gov Fish in late NAD exhib, justly raised him to hi rank wit severe critics and public, we voted for him, but his upright manly face person don’t altogether fill ideal artist might desire for hero, may be a likeness, but diff req of artistic and powerful pic met with orig, beauty, char, hi value, virile strength, vigorous fidelity of natural objects, power of coloring. In his study, simple black, coat, backgrd mass perfectly cold bare plastered wall a novelty, more diff than heavy red or brown drapery conventionally employed, wld have deraned every feature.

            Accessories with truth to nature, massive breadth, loveliness of tone, lead gaze to true focus, head, purity and cleanness of separate hues in face remarkable, once on, not touched again, fresh and elastic touch, does not weakend pure full force of pigments by repeated glazings so result is feeble and destitute of char. May transgress by want of delicacy of finish, smoothness, carelessness, but essential force is intellectual and passional not phys or nervous, no rushing, but elevated feeling, intense, like Gericault’s Shipwreck.

            No artist in Am schl so much erudition, subj to his own use not hanging like borrowed baggage, chiefly lacks exquisiteness of grace, as in Kaulbach, don’t believe he lacks the ambition and spontaneous energy.

            Huntington has enjoyed pop of a master, peculiar color and manner widely known, pupils, finest is Mercy’s Dream, care, sentiment of beauty and sweetness. Gray a pupil who went fr mod schl to charm of old masters, tones proper to old, quiet delicacy renders pics agreeable and soothing, effec on younger student gd, essential element of Am schl.

            No Am artist so widely known as Rossiter. Large pcs exhib thru Canada and US, mostly relig, great reason for their pop. In everything of his a tendency to luxuriance of fancy, utter disregard for proprieties of nature, leaves his works strikingly peculiar without excellence. Three Ideals at Acad last yr and now belonging to AU is one of his most admired, but many objections, no thought, faces have no nature and are bad types of beauty, while draperies suggests a tableau vivant but not gd enuf for that. Full length port ldy in last NAD more simplicity of effect and approximates to excellence, but wants knowl of laws of art so neutralizes this. Industrious, facility.

            Weir and Chapman contrib to nat art in Capitol, latter is disgraceful, former creditable. Weir as a prof might exert powerful beneficial influ, but both seem to have sold their artistic birthright. Conscientious and earnest labor advances dignifies art, as exemp by Baker and Peele, onward seriously, now enjoy distinction. Influ of Ranney also gd, simplicity of idea and treatment.

            Mount and Darley have shown more actual strength than any, both artists by nature with diff means of expr appeal to same sense of humor and apprec of common nature in audience. Mount’s fine things for simple nature hardly surpassed, but he falters at every step for want of knowl of v elemental principles of persp, light, shade and color. But tells story with simplest means, shortest way, with a bee-line, never the slightest caricature in expression, never any exagg in char of figs, as true and natural as if you’d seen the persons in the same places. This naivete is interesting, what one admires in early Ital ptrs, men of real genius with few precedents, disdained learning, faithful to affectionate objects, strictly Am, regret his genius never refined. Woodville’s pics lack that element of naivete, but genuine perception of char.

            Darley simplest means of expr, outline, no such thing in nature so must be more or less unnatural. Compositions dramatic and simple, appreciation of means for illus an idea or story, but drwgs never free fr exagg and often border broad caricature. Beneficial to a dyspeptic. Gd student of anatomy.

            Elliott and Healy portrait ptrs. Page, Huntington, Hicks, Gray Baker and others paint ports of char or historic interest. Excellence of Am schl in this dept consists in objectivity, rare in Euro, purely conventional treatment, Am artist daringly produce facsimile of indiv. Idiosyncrasy of his thought and feeling stamps the work, but unobtrusively , not to interfere with its objectivity and trut.

            Do not esteem landscape as of equal worth with representation of human form and face, art instructs and expands mind, increases true wisdom, stimulates noble htought and action, kindle intellectual and imag faculties, and to do this must possess exalted beauty emotion action, only capable of humanity. When lscape enters allegory, rises to higher sphere of power, but restricted to dead letter, it is inefficient. How are trees etc comparable to Laocoon?  Best power of lscape is sooth and repose like sleep, opiate and anodyne of art, a storm may be represented, iwe see wind working in and upon natural objects, like hate fear love etc on the phys man.  But person exalted are superior in art as man is above the trees and rocks, servile sweetness or rebellious terrors of nature. Some works of Durand, Kensett, Cropsey and Church will be valuable gems.

            Few native sculpt in US, but loth to exclude Powers, Crawford and Greenough as Leutze, Hunt the painter-sculptor in Paris overflowing with genius, or author of Jacob’s Ddream.

            Let Art choose what it will, Gog or Magog, ideal types or future presidents, GW or AJ, cherish it all the same.

American Whig Review, August 1852 p. 138 The American School of Art

 

No national greatness has existed without creation of a national school of art, France, Engl and Germany never so strongly marked as in our time, America tho separated by an ocean from all the influ of Art has her Nat S, no matter how inadeq and feeble, yet distinct, peculiar, and in portrait ptg not inferior.

            Many deplore foreign influ as corrupting purity of nationality or retarding devt, shallow cant and ignorant gossip. They babble of a Nat Sch devoted to illus of incidents in Am hist, overlook that Art has no such limitations, liberty is her birthright. A Nat S is collective genius of the nation’s artists, varied products, where those artists studied or subjects is of no account.

            Of Germans, no leading artist who has not studied or even lived under Catholic Ital Art, Lessing and one or two others the exceptions. French acquired mastery in Italy. English too. Even those who stay at home study galleries or engravings.Muller, Diaz and Couture don’t baldly imitate, but discover great elements. Absurdity of what a pitiful class of Am critics say re should not study abroad, compares it to a scientist ignoring science of past in order to be original.

No excellence w/o knowl of eternal truths and principles of art of great masters, study of nature not enough. Art in rln to nature is representative, but when artist tries to discover how Nature produces her effects, that secret lies beyond prying scientific intellect, but means with which art represents nature are of a higher more creative sort. Nature is source and standard of truth, but can’t teach how truth is to be expressed.

            Decorum key, works must have approp rln to place of destination, or well exec with reference to their idea, but neither case does subj need to be national, local or incidental. Yet artists must hold themselves aloof fr works of genius if follow learned dictates of those who wld have a nat schl made to order upon their own petty and wooden model.

            What does it matter if Lessing, Hubner, Hasenclever et al paint Huss, poachers, etc Cornelius and Kaulbach do the Bible. Neither Haydon’s nor Etty’s best pics were fr English history. Even among number who confine themselves to scenes of familiar Engl life, there is engrafted a body of artists whose works are so unnational and so diff to class that they are cherished under name of Pre Raph.

            Describes an Am Schl that starts with Copley not West, includes Trumbull but says his ptgs are not impressive. Most that can be said of Vanderlyn is that they do not in the least resemble old pics, honestly ptd. Misfortune is that while his pics assume to be subjective in their nature, convey to observer no idea of the artist’s temperament and character. A fault as unless a work professes to be purely objective, magnetism of temperament shld be apparent. This was Allston. Refused to be ltd in his subj. too bad he was weak and irresolute in wrought out his ideas, not much can be said in favor of his literary efforts, merely clever with Coleridgean metaphysics, no use to practical artist.

            To come to far inferior range, Inman’s ports and cabinets show natural taste, and almost perfect want of artistic education. Sully paints in slap dash manner oppos of Duss, yet port of Geo Frederick Cooke one of finest extant.

            Younger and more numerous race rapidly bringing school forward, Page, Leutze, Rothermel, Hicks, Huntington, Gray, Rossiter, Weir, Chapman, Mount, Ranney and others have surpassed their predecessors, will give way to others more vigorous in youth, more orig let us hope in thought, nobler stores of knowl.

            Wm Page, rare promise, adeq fulfilment, has added little recently, just experimented with color. But large intellect, a head of his will still possess so much truth of drwg that to eye corrected and refined by cultivation, pic will wear inestimable charm. One of his Florence works now in AU gall is poor in almost every respect, his Virgin is not in spirit of a believer, Joseph abominable, child mature not childlike. Page prob thought privileged to idealize it, but forgot to do the same for Mary and Joseph. Never has a genuine artistic idea to express, only an intellectual one.

            Leutze his opposite, slashing and dashing away to depict some thought or fancy, regardless of worry about color, meretly to sate appetite for some sort of activity, slurring and blurring, now gd now abominable, alw betraying phys force and blustering nervous vigor, occasional dash of sentiment as exquis and delicate in conception as it is defective and careless in exec. Capture of Mex Teocalli, human figs of monstrous length are thorwn into most inconceivable postures, nor do you care, go about looking for objects of peculiar interest, pssage of genuine pathos. In GW crossing Delaware, sick soldier shivering so touchingly and genuinely true to almost redeem the pic as a work of art.

            That whole pic too melodramatic, too much costume, a tableau vivant, too much dependence on the backgrd as an opposing force in principle of effect, too little reliance on expression of countenance of manly souls, yet figs clear perception of vigorous movement, a converging interest powerfully focalizing the mind, so pic at first blow on eye startles and thrills spectator. With enshrined hero, secret of success, for besides being untrue to historical fact with anachronism on anachronism, faces inexpressive, simply pictque or commonplace. Figs tolerably drawn, varied, want of emotional expr, face of GW fr Houdon’s, inflexible unhuman qual, not exalted into sublime and divine but wooden. Posture and bearing a defying, self-reliant man, animated by faith and confident, had he carried this into face, eye and mouth in corresp action and firmness, harmonizing and unifying the whole, given complete idea of a hero, no exagg. Studied in a poor foreign school, b ut glad to claim him as an Am.

            Rothermel his rival, know nothing of invidious and indistinct distinct betw talent and genius, Leutze mode of treating more epigrammatic, Rothermel marked by reflection and accuracy that constantly subside into mannerism not inap for works of highest order. Careful in all, seldom natural (identical with common nature, as if studied fr models), pleasing tone, evidence of thought, illus prog of freedom of thought. His one work of hi alleg in exec is equal to his best, idea noble, sublime, humanitary, Elevation of Labor, common laborer in garb and implements, Time bears group which prefigures “the good time coming.” Christ gives him hand of fellowship, evil oppression social tyranny vanquished, sky above blue and distant mtns terminate sunny beaut lscape. Noble conception, best thinkers of day, follwers execrably imitate his manner.

            Hicks not yet devd fulness of his powers, ports and cabinet pics of last ten yrs, not larger growth. Most consid is port Gov Fish in late NAD exhib, justly raised him to hi rank wit severe critics and public, we voted for him, but his upright manly face person don’t altogether fill ideal artist might desire for hero, may be a likeness, but diff req of artistic and powerful pic met with orig, beauty, char, hi value, virile strength, vigorous fidelity of natural objects, power of coloring. In his study, simple black, coat, backgrd mass perfectly cold bare plastered wall a novelty, more diff than heavy red or brown drapery conventionally employed, wld have deraned every feature.

            Accessories with truth to nature, massive breadth, loveliness of tone, lead gaze to true focus, head, purity and cleanness of separate hues in face remarkable, once on, not touched again, fresh and elastic touch, does not weakend pure full force of pigments by repeated glazings so result is feeble and destitute of char. May transgress by want of delicacy of finish, smoothness, carelessness, but essential force is intellectual and passional not phys or nervous, no rushing, but elevated feeling, intense, like Gericault’s Shipwreck.

            No artist in Am schl so much erudition, subj to his own use not hanging like borrowed baggage, chiefly lacks exquisiteness of grace, as in Kaulbach, don’t believe he lacks the ambition and spontaneous energy.

            Huntington has enjoyed pop of a master, peculiar color and manner widely known, pupils, finest is Mercy’s Dream, care, sentiment of beauty and sweetness. Gray a pupil who went fr mod schl to charm of old masters, tones proper to old, quiet delicacy renders pics agreeable and soothing, effec on younger student gd, essential element of Am schl.

            No Am artist so widely known as Rossiter. Large pcs exhib thru Canada and US, mostly relig, great reason for their pop. In everything of his a tendency to luxuriance of fancy, utter disregard for proprieties of nature, leaves his works strikingly peculiar without excellence. Three Ideals at Acad last yr and now belonging to AU is one of his most admired, but many objections, no thought, faces have no nature and are bad types of beauty, while draperies suggests a tableau vivant but not gd enuf for that. Full length port ldy in last NAD more simplicity of effect and approximates to excellence, but wants knowl of laws of art so neutralizes this. Industrious, facility.

            Weir and Chapman contrib to nat art in Capitol, latter is disgraceful, former creditable. Weir as a prof might exert powerful beneficial influ, but both seem to have sold their artistic birthright. Conscientious and earnest labor advances dignifies art, as exemp by Baker and Peele, onward seriously, now enjoy distinction. Influ of Ranney also gd, simplicity of idea and treatment.

            Mount and Darley have shown more actual strength than any, both artists by nature with diff means of expr appeal to same sense of humor and apprec of common nature in audience. Mount’s fine things for simple nature hardly surpassed, but he falters at every step for want of knowl of v elemental principles of persp, light, shade and color. But tells story with simplest means, shortest way, with a bee-line, never the slightest caricature in expression, never any exagg in char of figs, as true and natural as if you’d seen the persons in the same places. This naivete is interesting, what one admires in early Ital ptrs, men of real genius with few precedents, disdained learning, faithful to affectionate objects, strictly Am, regret his genius never refined. Woodville’s pics lack that element of naivete, but genuine perception of char.

            Darley simplest means of expr, outline, no such thing in nature so must be more or less unnatural. Compositions dramatic and simple, appreciation of means for illus an idea or story, but drwgs never free fr exagg and often border broad caricature. Beneficial to a dyspeptic. Gd student of anatomy.

            Elliott and Healy portrait ptrs. Page, Huntington, Hicks, Gray Baker and others paint ports of char or historic interest. Excellence of Am schl in this dept consists in objectivity, rare in Euro, purely conventional treatment, Am artist daringly produce facsimile of indiv. Idiosyncrasy of his thought and feeling stamps the work, but unobtrusively , not to interfere with its objectivity and trut.

            Do not esteem landscape as of equal worth with representation of human form and face, art instructs and expands mind, increases true wisdom, stimulates noble htought and action, kindle intellectual and imag faculties, and to do this must possess exalted beauty emotion action, only capable of humanity. When lscape enters allegory, rises to higher sphere of power, but restricted to dead letter, it is inefficient. How are trees etc comparable to Laocoon?  Best power of lscape is sooth and repose like sleep, opiate and anodyne of art, a storm may be represented, iwe see wind working in and upon natural objects, like hate fear love etc on the phys man.  But person exalted are superior in art as man is above the trees and rocks, servile sweetness or rebellious terrors of nature. Some works of Durand, Kensett, Cropsey and Church will be valuable gems.

            Few native sculpt in US, but loth to exclude Powers, Crawford and Greenough as Leutze, Hunt the painter-sculptor in Paris overflowing with genius, or author of Jacob’s Ddream.

            Let Art choose what it will, Gog or Magog, ideal types or future presidents, GW or AJ, cherish it all the same.