HomeKatz's Unofficial Index to Antebellum New York City NewspapersKatz's Notes on Antebellum New York City NewspapersTribune (New York Tribune)

Tribune (New York Tribune)

NYPL misc Weekly Trib. Has a Whittier poem (Whittier also excerpted on Democracy fr Dem Rev) to Henry Clay on Dec 4th, He is Not Fallen, A Marius; defends the Am Institute supporting the tariff, defends agst Cooper’s libel suit

NY Tribune, Horace Greeley, 1 penny, “I desire you to understand the true principles of the Government. I wish them carried out –I ask nothing more.”—Harrison. Office 30 Ann St. pay news boys, 6 pence for a week, doesn’t want subscribers paying directly

Saturday April 10th 1841 is ProQuest’s oldest issue, vol 1 no 1.

Whole first page is legal analysis of 1Robert H Morris’ legal opinion on civil liberty, as serving party not justice

Has p. 2 “A Plain Talk to Whigs” on character and bearing of Public Press, esp the cheap daily press. 3 journals profess impartiality or independence of party politics, now engross the larger portions of the patronage of our city: Sun, Morning Herald, Journal of Commerce. Sun is conducted with decided ability and made up with much industry and care, Editorial dept generally pure in morals and correct if not elevated; advertising exhibit unreproved every species of depravity. But the Editor is Loco-Foco in all his associations and sympathies, and his writings are thoroughly imbued with the spirit of his party, govern and color the columns of his journal, even though Whigs buy his paper. Whigs lost the city two years ago because of attacks in the Sun, and they don’t criticize current govt (Locofoco Mayor Varian) for extravagance (Greeley is very anti-tax)

            The Morning Herald is less bitter, but like Sun it opposes Land Distribution, National Bank, Protective Tariff, Internal improvements and the State Administration, and only left handed support of the Sub Treasury. Fulsome personal adulation of Harrison, Webster and a few others doesn’t compensate for attacks on principles. Would not so notoriously unprincipled a journal to come out in favor of Whigs in earnest. J of Commerce is shrewd, credit for moral character, but Editor’s political sympathies all with LocoFocoism, wears Van Buren spectacles.

Justifies why he’s starting a new paper

April 12 (skips Sunday), 1841

            Front page reproduces poem on April from the Knickerbocker, also excerpts Xtian observer and NY Mirror

p. 2 continues attack on hi taxes and city govt, dislikes Morris being nominated for Mayor and supports J Philips Phoenix instead, Alderman Frederic R Lee; defends John Boardman and Franklin Hotel against the New Era’s accusations of voter fraud (pipe-laying)

p.4 ad for The Future, ed by Albert Brisbane, weekly, out of same office as Trib

Apr 13 excerpts The Dial, the New Monthly Magazine, Knickerbocker, front page. P. 2 is all election news, and attacks Locofocos for calling Samuel FB Morse a Native American candidate for mayor, when Morse is a Van Buren man; trying to decoy Whigs into voting for him

p. 4 quotes Emerson’s essays on Nature, sublime family likeness, resemblance, picture or verse induce same sentiment as a mountain walk

Apr 14, more Emerson, poems from New Yorker

Apr 15 copy from National Intelligencer, Albany Evening J. Dislikes the Argus, supports National Bank. Has a City Intelligence column, not much trial details. P. 4 reviews new issues of The Dial, Arcturus, Metropolitan Mag, NY Review

Apr 16 couldn’t access p 1 where starts serializing Barnaby Rudge; p 2 excerpts NY Sun to refute its support for Morris. Describes meeting of Whigs and Conservatives at National Hall, elected officers NT Eldredge, Ham Fish, James W Webb, Wm L Stone, RR Wood, Van Nostrand, Phoenix, Minturn, Ketchum, Blatchford, Benj Drake etc, Moses Grinnell and MO Roberts and Geo Curtis as secretaries and presiding; Joseph Hoxie made remarks

Apr 17 p. 2 corresp fr DC to editor fr JBM, execution of Peter Robinson for murder of Abraham Suydam, lesson is to care better for outcasts, p. 4 Carlyle, Blackwood’s, and from The Dial, a poem “Art…The Genuine Portrait” which quotes from Lessing, to ask why the portrait doesn’t portray the “circumstances of the hour” April 19, Barnaby continues; p. 2 critical of press coverage of Peter Robinson, with particulars of the butchery and confession, depraved appetite, poison public intelligence, fan hellish passions in Society. P. 4 Thomas Moore poems

Apr 20 continues publishing Biddle letters on the Bank; Apr 21, 22, 23 p. 2 critical of Evening Post (and Wash Globe) for hypocrisy re proscription, or turning party men out of jobs, including AJ Bleecker, when they didn’t protest earlier when Whigs were thrown out.

p. 2 splendid engraving by Sartain fr Painting by White of Charleston, just issued by the Apollo Assoc, of Gen Marian in his swamp camp, nothing can be better expressed than the resolute, self-possessed bearing of Marion or the look of surprise with which the Brit officer regards the scanty preparations for the rustic meal. Plate fine specimen of art, sublime incident

Apr 24 Bro Jonathan and New World advertise; 26, 27 p. 1 foreign news includes bequeathing of library and valuable collection of ptgs of Frank Hall Standish to Louis Phillipe, inclu Murillos; Goethe’s Faust transl embellished with beaut steel engravings, also a work describing ptg galleries in Rome is being published. P. 2 new and splendid full-length portrait of late President Harrison, which as a work of art has prob not been excelled in this country. Engrav on steel by Sartain fr pict by Sully ptd for City of Phila. Splendid work in itself, strking fidelity vouched by friends. A few copies for sale EO Bartlett, No 10 John-st (Turner & Hughes’s Bookstore). P. 4 poem on The Death of Harrison by NP Willis fr Brother Jonathan, disagrees with Herald re O’Connell’s genius

Apr 28 p. 2 “Binding of Satan” orig remarkable group of statuary in Granite Bldg, by young sculptor Brackett, boldest efforts ever attempted, showing moment immediately previous to angel’s binding, Satan a powerful muscular human figure, demoniac face with bitter scorn and grim defiance, angel great beauty of form and mild tranquil expression stands on one foot over the fallen demon. Subj full of interest and power, talent and success handled it, high claims to patronage, some public institution or wealthy individ should order it cut in marble at a liberal price. P. 4 CF Hoffman, Tippecanoe, poem fr NY American. Apr 29 quotes Preston letter defending Tyler. Verplanck a Whig also disliked Morris as Recorder. P. 4 poem fr Southern Literary Messenger. Apr 30, excerpts on free trade fr Hunt’s Merchants Mag with a response by Greeley in the next issue debunking it P. 2 Peale’smuseum pleasant resort, large ‘assortment’ of portraits, many very fair cosmoramical views

May 1, 3, p. 2 started w/500 subscribers, next week will have an edition of 6000, tho expenses have exceeded receipts. Our circulation mainly among the active and substantial Middle Class, those who live by their labor or their business. Bennett has set himself in opposition. Fairly detailed coverage of the Restell trial. May 4, Star of last evening re MM Noah nominating to Judge of Criminal Courts likely to be doomed by 5 Whig Senators, We hope net it? P. 4 excerpts the Evening Signal on conflict betw Sun and Trib newsboys, Beaches were arrested. Sun more of a friend of Demo City govt and opponent of Tyler than the Planet, yet Whigs take the Sun. May 5,(Evening) Tattler allied with Sun agst Trib.

May 6, p. 2 former mayor Walter Bowne removed fr Custom House due to arbitrary conduct toward Frazee, architect of bldg, Trib defends his talents, taste and practical knowledge. Opposed to capitol punishment. Suggests Sun used similar means to crush Transcript, Dispatch, and other morning papers. Notes that he used to work with publisher of Tattler at the New York Whig. May 8, 10, p. 2 “The Apollo Assoc” Exhibition will soon close, collection is very interesting, and we intended ere this to have noticed it more in detail but we most forego it. Done well to avail itself of old pictures, such as that of Pannini, belonging to the Boston Atheneum and others instead of confining to recent. On their table a Petition to Mayor and Council project for a public Gallery of the Fine Arts, free admission. We published in the New Yorker series of letters from an Artist, influenced liberal public sentiment. Many are in favor.

May 11 p. 2 Rule of Advertising. We haven’t refused Theatre ads, but not sought and don’t desire them, because Stage as it is vicious, licentious, degrading, demoralizing, injury to community. It might be an instrument of civilization and refinement, but isn’t now, and can’t be as long as it contains grog shops and places of assignation, nor that performers are libertines or courtesans. Unwholesome moral atmosphere, so we don’t war on it, but don’t want an alliance with it nor can urge our readers to visit. May 12, reports on meetings, including Anti Slavery Society, chaired by Tappan, and with a resolution by Mr Brisbane of Cinti (explains interest in town), also temperance, Sunday School, evangelical. Notes the Albany Argus puffs :The Truth” the new locofoco paper by EA Theller and EJ Roberts as professing independence. P. 4 likes Arcturus, Duyckinck.

May 13, 14, p. 1 reviews Knickerbocker, admires its lively sketches, racy, agreeable anecdote and sparkling wit, wishes he would attempt more than light and graceful essays, lacks earnestness, doesn’t seek to discern realities beneath the surface of humanity. P. 4 “Fate of Celebrated Painters” malady of genius, prone to suicide, mortification, despair, envy, anxiety, sensibilities much stronger than the rest of mankind. May 15, 17, 18, p. 1 story by Hawthorne. May 19, p.2 says Turner’s and Ben Hardin’s comic almanacs are unmitigated trash and so likely popular, May 20, 21, 22, p. 2 announcement that the editor of the Evening Signal (Winchester and Benjamin, published from same place) is going to focus on their weekly New World and are transferring their circulation to the Trib. May 24, 25, 26, 27,p. 1 has  transcript of trial of James Glentworth, who has been an ongoing subject, over illegal voting, under the aegis of Blatchford, James Bowen, Simeon Draper, RC Wetmore and Moses Grinnell, also Robt Swartwout. (anti death penalty). May 28, 29, p.2, We dropped in at the Exhib of the Nat Acad and were agreeably surprised to find it so numerously attended, 3 rooms thronged to inconvenience. Brief inspection so only criticism is we didn’t remark any pictures decidedly superior to the best exhib in former years, there were fewer irredeemably bad ones. Collection is very large for our city, well worth a visit.

May 31, p. 2 subscription over 10,000. Supports Vattemare’s scheme for an Art Institute. P. 4 Ackerman & Miller sign painters regularly advertise, studio 127 Fulton st near Nassau, do signs for Brother Jon New World Tiffany Pictorial Bible

June 1, p. 4, first poem I’ve seen for the Trib, The Last Dutch House, vanishing race, by HND, in regards to relic at corner of Broad and Beaver streets, pulled down.

June 2, p.2, has covered fire at National Theatre (that burned Mrs. Brown’s brothel next door too); notes Park theatre closed when Price and Simpson sold their interest to Astor and Beekman, their landlords. Gives results of horse races. P. 3 S. Draper advertises his auctions, and the NewYork Museum, known as Peale’s also advertises, but no mention of any art; same for the American Museum. FW Whitley advertises that he gives lessons in drwg and ptg, oil and w/c at his Painting Room 112 Fulton st and his residence, 22nd and 6th, opp to study from nature.

Jun 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, p.2 urges women of the city not to attend Mdme Elssler’s performances. Jun 10, 11, p. 2 ad for Splendid Paintings at Apollo Assoc Gallery, Broadway and Chambers, impt coll of 250 Oil Ptgs by distinguished living Euro artists, to be sold by auction. Jun 12, 14, 15, p.2, death of Willis Gaylord Clark, genial and kindly spirit, sympathy with better feelings; puff for Fine Ptgs, crowds of the beauty and fashion of the city visiting Apollo Gallery, reminding one of the brilliant assemblies at NA

Jun 17, 18, ad for NAD closing soon; puff for sale of Euro ptgs; likes Gallagher’s anthology, west at least is not sectional, Jun 19 notices Bunker Hill monument progress, June 21, calls the Sun the Mayor’s instrument, wants a ban on booths at the park for the 4th to avoid drunkenness, support free public education and employment. Jun 22 reviews Life of Swedenborg favorably Jun 23 free public baths, Am Institute encouraged, Daniel O’Connell appeal; critiques the Sun again in saying still need government relief to create a national currency, bankrupt law, etc. Ad for the New World, for Vauxhall

Jun 24 p. 2 notes that the Sun, Herald and Journal of Commerce (all Loco foco papers he says) are against a tariff, which is wrong, but fair and manly, but the rest of the journals unfairly mix up revenue tariffs with protective tariffs. Rejects attempt to separate Clay’s views from Tyler’s as Herald tries to do. New Era claims the Sun is fair; Greeley says fair to locofocos. Jun 25 puffs Vauxhall.

Jun 26 notes advocates of Free Trade (C&E, Herald, Evening Post) don’t require other countries to remove their tariffs. Attacks New Era again, Mayor base imputations on the conduct of Gov and legislature, sentiments of demagogue manners of blackguard. 2 govt ought to protect poor from capitalism/free competition which degrades the poor (factory system). P. 4 reviews Incidents of Travel by Stephens, gives it high praise, wonder that a nation can perish, he concludes that the makers were not deriving arts from Old World, but a distinct independent existence, indigenous.

Jun 28 p. 2 ad from Brother Jonathan devoted to police reports and other popular literature, urging subscribers to defunct Empire State to switch. Disappointed in Campbell’s Life of Petrarch. Jun 29 Am Inst advertises Jun 30 Godey’s advertises. Denies Sun’s accusations that he takes money from the Whigs, says they slander exMayor Aaron Clark, Phoenix

July 1 1841 p. 1 seems to approve of raids and arrests of prostitutes  July 2 Insley’s daguerreotypes advert. Sun’s history of New Yorker false, WM Eldridge, Farmer, Park Benjamin, EG Paige and J Winchester all say they didn’t lose a dollar in it. July 3 p.2 attacks J of Commerce for underpaying its journeymen, specimen of their free trade policy. Recommends his locofoco readers go hear Orestes A Brownson in Washington Hall, evils that oppress Laboring Classes, but crude notion of remedying them, but he pulls down some errors. Having been recently turned out of office by the new Admin, he will doubtless give Whiggery a dressing. NY American stigmatized as aristocratic, but it is liberal and republican. “Doing a Large Businessman: fr a Paris paper, anecdote of a young Englishman at the annual exhib at the Louvre, robbed by a beaut young woman, fashionably attired, tried to return him someone else’s watch, turned out to be a Jewess p. 4 Blackwood’s is best of British monthlies, likes NY Review, Arcturus continuing Puffer Hopkins, not very good at political caricature, rest of monthly is good, manly criticism

(July 4th a Sunday) Jul 5, missing July 6, Weds  Jul 7, Jul 8, ad for American Mag, Jul 9, defends Whig paycut at Charleston Naval yard, attack by Evening Post,  p.2 happy Land distrib bill passed; Herald is humorous paper for those who understand it, Van Loom daguerreotypes ad

Jul 10 Eve Post tries to answer a report fr the American Institute (recommending protection?), wants people to buy American.p.2 ok with Sunday papers, would like them not cried on the streets. P. 2 notes death of Willis Gaylord Clark (member of a Whig Society), Brownlee interrupted when he was anti-Catholic

Jul 12 notice abt Biddle being prosecuted, glad dogs are being shot though people protest and try to stop it  July 13 continues series on what shall be done for the laborer, points out that they can be industrious, temperate and economical and still suffer poverty and privations.  Responds to a reader that must publish crimes, tho not in attractive garb and avoid ones that show the church badly as another penny paper does. Loves The Dial, tho doesn’t alw understand it. Excerpts Spirit of the Times on p 4

Jul 14 advertises Am Mag

Jul 15 collab with Courier and sometimes with American on getting news dispatches; poems fr The Dial

16 p. 1 “Don’t Believe It” The Cinti Microscope says an artist in that city lately ptd a locomotive steam engine on canvas which as he gave it the finishing stroke burst thru the wall, run down the street, and over the hills and has not been heard of since! P. 2 Locofoco mtg in the park small despite Herald’s claims, denounced stockjobbers, bankrupts and bank aristocrats, condemning the Admin, gray haired man made  a short speechso indecent and obscene, confessed very vulgar but excused himself that truth was alw sublime. Papers won’t repeat it. Britain behind a Natl Bank. Robt C Wetmore has a long defense of his conduct. 3 Van Lean photo likenesses

17 p. 2 more slams at Sun,no paper read by so many of the great middle class of our citizens, best for advertising. Re attacks on Wetmore as Navy Agent in Herald and other locofoco papers, aided by several Whig papers, his accusers don’t pay their debts and aren’t qual to be govt contractors

19 friends w/Geo W Kendall, ed of NO Picayune; likes his relative Amos Kendall postmaster though he is a locofoco

20 is covering the Restell trial tho without much comment; criti of Park Benjamin in New World for his attack on Francis Granger of the General Post  Office, ed of a nonpolit journal shouldn’t criticize G for being a first rate Abolitionist. (New World a freq advertiser) Bennett indicted for libel in his paper 15th June 1840 re trial of James Ritchie, libeling Judges Lynch and Noah

21 rejoices at Restell’s conviction. Likes Commercial’s correspondents on the bank. “HB” has been slandered in Herald, wonders if he should cowhide editor.

22 letter fr JH that young ladies health and form are damaged by book education, likes Fanny Osgood’s book of flowers, embellishments most exquis ever issued

23, 24 p. 1 Tariff necessary to stop factory exploited labor in Europe fr destroying our manufactures; notices Brackett’s group of Statuary in Boston highly extolled by journals of that city, gifted artist bust Chas Sprague

26 p. 2 What can The Sun mean by publishing such articles as that entitled “Fanny [Elssler] Divine and the Sculptor” in Saturday’s paper? Reduce the public morals to a level with their own? Blasphemy, indecency and moral rottenness, that article has hardly a parallel

27 p. 2 records an Elssler conflict over lodging, hostile. City hotel advertises.

28 p. 2 Free Circulating Advertiser making war on us scurrilously and falsely, didn’t know it was author of atrociously filthy article on Elssler (see above). Puffs Catherwood’s panorama of Rome

29 p. 1 at late mtg for Society for the Encouragement of FA in London, 1st prize for oil ptg won by Gustave Girardant, 9 years old. P. 2 notes exhib at Castle Gardens of Grand Eruption of Vesuvius, the popularity of Stephens’ travel book; recommends system of social security or mutual insurance so all have subsistence

30 p. 1 very anti-vigilante justice. P.2 Isaac Varian spoke at locofoco mtg at Park. Won’t give name of owners of brothels. P Grain’s miniature rep of Niagara Falls, Acad FA in Barclay st

31 p. 2  Thomas McElrath joining him as publisher. More on locofoco mtg at Park, all the officers were there, including Walter Bowne, John Targee, Jesse Oakley, John W Edmonds, Prosper M Wetmore, John I Morgan, Chas L Livingston, but not Ming. So it was the moderates, makes their positions all the worse. Likes Hunt’s Merchants’ Mag 

August 2 1841, one cent, No 30 Ann St

p.4 Arcturus selecting with more discretion, doesn’t cater for low tastes or furnish food for thoughtless, senseless mirth, feed the mind with soothing opiates, but hearty appreciation of whatever is manly, strength-bringing, calls earnest voice man away fr husks and vanities to beaut, ennobling,t rue. Puffer Hopkins better, design commends to favor, Duyckinck pleasing, JS Buckingham and OA Brownson come in for critiques, Stephen’s Central America is quite severely criticized

3, 4, Saml Swartwout back in town to testify

5, 6 approves of Wm L Stone’s indian books; p. 2 notes that Greenough’s statue is of such dimensions to require removal of a portion of the wall of the capitol. So Lit messenger ad.

7 p. 1 Facts for Parents cont, re Benjamin West a native of Penny who prob excelled any other in drwg and ptg, commenced his art by sketching a sleeping infant, his niece, while babysitting. He excelled others, bcause his lessons were principally fr nature, and alw under a gd teacher, viz: Benj West, who was not only his first but his only teacher. Many perhaps most children are so eager to take lessons in drwg as to bring punishment, but mechanics need to understand it. “JH”. P. 4 excerpts Sigourney fr Democratic Review

9 p.4 Daguerre doing more experiments

10 p.2 correspondent gives account of JF Cooper’s commencement speech at Geneva College, of 2 hours, his sympathies English and sees evil in everything American, tried to vindicate himself and friend Com. Elliott fr charges in press, voice of the people was alm alwa wrong, people en masse gen’ly in wrong, not actuated by judgment but act regardless of consequences. Public Opinion a despot ina Democracy, led by demagogues, attacked public press as devoted to the interests of the few, could be easily bought, manufactured public opinion,

Also attacks as liar the ed of New Era and Money Reporter of the Herald, and Fernando Wood, sarcastic toward them all. Recants a bit abt locofoco Roosevelt on Bankruptcy, notes that slave insurrection described earlier was a fiction. Wiley & Putnam advert a lot.

11 p. 1 runs Sedgwick excerpt critical of opera dancers/ballet as immoral and immodest

12 p. 1 report of Am Inst, author a merchant, recommends protective tariff. Loves Sedgwick

13 following the Mary Rogers case

14 gives Tyler credit for his principles in vetoing bank bill

16 commend Wm Gouge’s J of Banking for attacking Moses Beach’s bank, even tho Gouge is a locofoco

17 p. 2 disgusted by journals moralizing over necessity sweeping Indians fr face of the earth, that’s the tyrant’s or villain’s plea, no such necessity any more than there is for the slave trade or piracy, we rob them because we are strong and they are weak. National crime, esp exile of Cherokee whi arrayed moral sense of country agst last Admin. Attacks Thom Jefferson and his pretended admirers.

18 p. 2 supportive of Tyler, acting on principle. Arrest in Rogers’ case of Joseph W Morse, wood-engraver, of 120 Nassau st

19 runs a defense of the Am Inst, voluntary officers who do a lot of work, , no sinister motives involved. Secy salary is $100/yr to cover expenses. Signed A Friend of the Arts.

20, 21, 23, 24, 25, p.1 rips JS Buckingham’s bulky volumes of useless matter, trivial commonplace or imperfectly understood, prob because of ignorance of conceited smatterer whose portrait faces title, but slanders on Whigs malignity. (America, Historical, Statistic and Descriptive, harpers). P. 2 notes death of Gideon Lee, exMayor, supporter of Harrison. “Mr. SS Osgood who when in London encouraged by people of highest distinction, is now in NY, w/rms in new Granite Bldgs, Chambers st and Broadway. Visit exhib rm, portraits of remarkable interest and beauty a full length of poetess Mrs Norton, Ld Lyndhurst, etc, hardly excelled as a painter of female portraits, drwg and coloring exquisite.

            GW Dixon saw Morse and Mary Rogers together in Ann St. Distressing accident to sign painter Chas Wm McGinnies

26 p. 1 women shun domestic service as not treated equally, women should serve themselves by being willing to labor in the home. Graham’s mag advertises.

27 p. 2 “Neutral Press of NY” J Commerce, herald and Sun, hostile to Whigs. P. 4 excerpts fr Knick on White Mtns

28 p. 1 Am Inst committee dined at Amer Hotel. P. 2 Herald and J of Commerce both see Clay and Webster acting for personal ends, not for gd of country, lang of gambler/game. Notes August Belmont’s duel with Mr. Hayward, disagreement over a lady at Delmonico’s

30 p. 2 strongly defend Edw Everett’s appt as English ambassador; coterie trying to stop him as an abolitionist. 4 ad for engraving on Wood by Marx Hart, at office of new World

31 p. 1 “Temperance, Art and Improvement” corresp wrote initially to Evening Post re improving condition of laborer and continues here, wants members of Temperance Society to put in $20,000 into a fund to buy artists’ materials (books, engravings etc) to be sold to artists w/underst that their works are to be deposited in the hall of Temperance, galleries for exhib and sale, credit of artist based on value of his works. Artist will be relieved of difficulties. TWW. P. 2 published as true something fr Dixon’s Polyanthos. P. 4 longer but still critical review of Buckingham, an English Radical

Sept 1, 2 p.1 likes Ladies Companion by Snowden, tale by Mrs Ellet. P. 2 support the Democratic Review bcause attached to demo principles, never hoping to agree with them on measures or men. But regret that they are opposed to Natl and Socl Prog, a universal Calhounism pervades it, the best Govt is that which governs least, is absurd, no schools, roads, bridges, advantages of civilized life left to individ caprice. A savage and jealous individ independence, regardless of social and general well being is ideal. Select for pictorial immortality old Federalists, aristocracy, monopoly and treason. Lit dept able.

3 p.2 puffs a sale of oil ptgs 259 Broadway advertised Temperance and the Arts continues no 3, want to put arts under patronage as they are a way of attracting people to cause, plus arts need more support than portrait sitters, at Nat Acad Public can only see a few hundred Portraits of Ladies and Gentlemen. Without support can’t rival France or England. Cole, Huntingdon, Alston Sully and Weir all availed themselves of foreign resources, just as our novelists et al have full access to works of great exemplars of the past in a library, and our painters need such resources too. Civic and military companies, firemen and mechanic assoc have done more to advance arts than than those whose affectation of superior taste is the cause of so much hesitancy in purchasing pictures by Americans p. 3 ad for Tiffany, Young and Ellis, oppos City Hall, splendid oil ptgs, largest and most varied and magnificent, on metal! Originals and copies. Seward proclaims a reward for info on Mary Rogers death.

4, 6 p. 1 likes godey’s, engravings by Dick, Ellet, Simms etc. Temperance and the Arts continues, artists employed by various associations more constantly employed so better paid and higher degree of perfection than the N.A.’s and A’s. The Associations judge value of Pictures by the emotions they excite, heedless of dogmas of pictorial quack, insensible to imported rubbish of Euro market. To great injury of artists and arts there exists in City a set of speculators in Pictures and pimps crying down every thing modern, for richer spoils from the humbug in which they are engaged. Want instructive American history. 2000 frames ordered for fall market for reception of European pictures, growing taste for the arts, need to direct to Americans. P.4 poem by LEL attacking gossiping women

7 has been helping organize clerks to quit work at 8 pm instead of 9 pm

8 HG describes A Visit To Mt Vernon, mansion is a plain and modest white house of goodly size, around which half a dozen humbler dwellings, tenanted by families of black laborers and servants, are scattered with little regard to order or symmetry. New mausoleum of brick in 1837, marble sarcophagi of GW and MW, by T Struthers a Phila artist

9, 10, p. 4, Letter fr the Heart of Europe (Munich), in the Fine Arts, splendid collections, encouragement given to Modern School, seat of the Arts, no city north of the Alps greater for traveler of taste, chiefly owing to patronage refined taste and exertions of reigning monarch, accumulate treasures splendid receptacles to contain them, lavished private purse. 600 artists flourish, employed in decorating bldgs., statues, monuments, new Palace has frescoes, arabesques and bas-reliefs by first artists, throne room 12 colossal statues in gilt bronze of Dukes of Bavaria by Schwanthaler, neatness, strict classical taste and beauty will surpass every palace in Europe. Arts of ptg in encaustic and glass revived, carried to former perfection

11, p. 2, disgusted by Henry A Wise in House, insane, ungoverned, glad he’s renounced the Whigs. Praises John M Moore of this city as a humorist, satirizing Irish and Democrats. Is covering the Cinti riots moderately and pretty fairly.

13 hard to see their masthead, three women pointing forward, a sun, excelsior, a sword?It’s new, and on p. 2 explains, it’s the blended arms of the Empire State and her Empire City, wealth and greatness, rich inexhaustible treasures of her soil, triumph of her arts, prowess of her arms, commercial splendor of her great Metropolis, guardian deities of Commerce, Ag and the Arts point earnest and admiring to scenes of our conquests, bright sun of glory rising in the distance throws its beams over the scene, proud motto Excelsior only time is the condition of renewed and still higher prosperity and greatness to State and City.  Praises “Veto” in the Evening Post and his plans for reforming city govt.

14, 15, 16, 17, 18 v supportive of Webster hanging on with Tyler

20 p. 4 Edgar Allen Poe story, Eleanora. 21 p. 2 refers to an organ of this city as calling itself that of the “young and vigorous” and clamoring for the cabinet’s resignation; notes Park Benjamin had to pay $375 for libeling Effingham, the wholesale libeler and traducer of Scott.

22 p.1 likes Bulwer’s nonfiction essays, free fr seductive and demoralizing influence that hangs around every work of fiction he’s given us p.2 must be a joke that Grand Jury has found true that Noah, Eldridge and moses Beach libeled the character of Bennett

23 p. 1 likes HT Tuckerman’s style, easy grace and simplicity, good taste

24 p.1 praises ED Mansfield, ed Cinti Daily Chron, dignified, best principles, morality, many and decided, not personal

25, 27 p. 2 puff for full length portrait of apostle of temperance Father  Mathew in New World

29 p.2 Mr White is gmanly reporter (politics?) for New Era

30 p. 1 “American Artists” Cinti Chronicle publishes note fr gman in that city on Powers and Clevenger, letter to Mansfield, re a letter fr talented Painter fr our city spending time in Florence, who says Powers leaves everything behind him in busts, all others, ancient and modern are marble, his flesh. His Eve will surpass Venus de Medici in many points of truth, modesty and beauty of expression. Clevenger is next to him. A lady who sat says Powers’ price for a bust was $400, more than the leading Italian sculptor Bartolini, $250.p. 2 New World permitted a locofoco into its columns, to argue Whigs lack principles and so will dissolve. P. 4 “consolations of poverty” and the unhappy rich

October 1841

1 p. 1 reviews Arcturus, still don’t like Puffer Hopkins, dull and monotonous, but criticism good p. 2 Auction monopoly, prior to 1837, need commission to be Auctioneer, only obtained by fealty to Van Burenism or purchase of someone else who had so acquired it; commissions openly advertised in journals and price to political heretics $500/yr. Verplanck defeated for mayor in 1834 by Auctioneers, who serve the Albany Regency. This abuse has been corrected.

2 p.1 Advice to Young Gmen, don’t believe people of no standing, but higher class, may adopt opinion as your own without examination “PH” p. 4 Longfellow poem fr American

4 p. 1Trollope’s crit of smoking correct.

5, 6, critical of mob violence in Cinti; 7, 8 p.1 all scholars must have poems of Ossian, p. 4 Seba Smith story. Praises Albion

9, 11 puffs phrenologist Fowler lecture, who advertises

12 denounces Albany Argus, like J of Commerce and Globe, as not Whig papers, but decrying Whig measures

13 p.2 notice Am Inst Fair, more discriminating than it has been, unusual abundance of fancy work

14 p. 2 notices fine Port of GW on steel by Sadd, fr pict in Faneuil Hall, pub to accompany volume Monuments of Washington’s Patriotism, already noticed several times

15 p.1 likes the Gift annual, with Mount’s Tough Yarn, irresistible

16 p.1 column in favor of phreno. 2 defends Am Inst Fair variety, has covered it extensively.

18, crit by Emerson fr Dial, 19 p. 2 v respectful of homeopathy, announces fall exhib of Apollo Assoc,  with 100ptgs and drwgs by 67 Am Artists, favorite resort of taste and fashion of our city. Dag Ports, a puff that in looking at the specimens at the Am Inst Fair, those taken by Morand, corner Broadway and John st, decidedly best likeness and style of execution, feature and expr fully developed, much greater strength of light and shade than any

20 p. 1 review of Trumbull’s reminiscences, vol rich in anecdote and illus, inflexible Federalist who disliked Jefferson bcause of his atheism, fine portrait and 22 drwgs and sketches

21, 22, 23, 25, 26, p. 2 “Portraits of the People, or Illus and Sketches of Amer character, NO 1” issued by Sunday Atlas, with The Old Bachelor, The Old Maid, and The Reporter

27 p.1 approves Lewis Cass’s roseate portrait of King Louis Phillipe of France

28 p. 2 notes that NP Willis is no longer connected w/Bro Jonathan, Weld is sole editor, p. 4 a Mrs Ellet story

29 p.2 Sigourney’s poetry not the highest order, but has won popularityfr its goodness of Xtian woman; refers to divorce of Rev Dr Jarvis. Ed of Comm Advertiser a personal friend who alw helps the LocoFocos to a profitable Whig quote fr his columns—tone is aristocratic

30 p.2 describes Whig Rally, headed by Philip Hone, J Phillips Phoenix, also Edw Minturn, Nath Weed

November 1841

1 Dubufe’s Don Juan advertising,

2 Bishop Hughes card re school fund society, defense

3, 4, Ladies Companion, not marred by any fashion plates. Fanny Osgood, Park Benjamin, Simms, John Inman et al. p. 4 fr Brit Ct Gazette satire of the Domestic Man, a market visitor, effeminate

5 p.2 ad for Salutia B Smith at granite bldg. who teaches painting and shorthand. GWG is Geo Washington Greene for Knick, Consul in Rome. Loves Knick and its editor.

6 p.1 reviews CE Lester’s Glory and Shame of England, fair forceful volumes, vivid, visits poor as well as great, but anal of causes is flawed, gives too much credit to benefit of England getting rid of her tariffs

8, 9, p.4 letter fr Winfield Scott, wld run

10 p. 2 lots of coverage of Mercantile library addresses, with calls fr their audience for speeches fr Hone, Col Stone, and Webb

11, 12 notices Braham, an advertiser

13 p.1 Demo Review has vg Port Van Buren fr miniature by Mrs Bogardus, replete w/character, creditable lit contribs fr HW Herbert, John Inman, Walter Whitman, JA Shea and others (Shea also excerpted in Trib previously). P.2 Comm Advert enlarged having absorbed the Evening Star 2 weeks ago, v liberal patronage as commercial and family paper, sound in morals, strong in talent, but professing to accord with the Whigs, educated inmost bigoted school of ancient Federalism, destroys the Whig party. P.4 Mexican population idle, vicious, rabble

15 p. 2 Mrs Mowatt pop at Stuyvesant, but he thinks her readings exaggerated

16 p.2 Port of Henry Clay announced in another column to be ptd by A(llen) Smith (ad says one of first artists in the city), 63 White st, will be worthy the subject. Notes that the Herald praises Jared Sparks lectures (as does Greeley) but condemns the Mercantile and Lyceum series as speakers are incapable of elevated mental effort. Explains Herald has a grudge against them as won’t advertise.

17 p.2 long description of Merchants Exchange, Isaiah Rogers architect, classical emphasis

18 p. 1 doesn’t approve of horse races

19 p.2 Allen smith writes in to correct the ad, the supposedly original portrait of Clay is a copy fr Chas Feuderich’s splendid Litho.

20 p.2 reports critically of Cooper’s suit agst Thurlow Weed and Col Webb for libel

22, 23, 24 p.1 likes WmHC Hosmer’s poetry, thinks Mrs Ellis’s work (Sarah Srickney) no power, but pure

25 p. 2 recounts Burritt’s lecture (at Lyceum) which worries that common idea of Nature is irreverent as are the goblins Genius, Talent, Natural Gifts, all fatal ideas

26 p. 2 Buchanan is as moderate and able as any locofoco, glad to see so respectable an old Federalist. Notices TL Nichols new racy daily Aurora.

27 p. 4 epigrams fr NY Mirror

29 p. 1 ad for Dag Likenesses by M. Villers, MD, 233 Broadway, facing the park, taken in all weather, ‘secure the shadow ere its substance fades’ p.2 very complimentary of dinner at Astor Hse for Prince de Joinville; likes Jared Sparks’history of currency and need for paper, Cooper is now suing the Trib

30 p. 2 complimentary to dinner for Ld Morpeth at city Hotel, appropriate statuary, ptgs and national banners arranged around the saloon effective and beaut manner, over head of table was Stout’s celeb port of Queen Victoria, at other end transparency of his home, speech by Ogden Hoffman. John Van Buren’s rrd advertises.

December 1841

1, 2, 3, 4, p. 1 Ladies Companion has hired Willis as contributor; Greenough’s statue raised to its lofty pedestal, with President present, but in center of Rotundo a most unfavorable position with regard to light

6, 7 gives whole front page to sending home of Cinque and Amistad Africans (will be missionaries)

8, 9, Knick advertises.10, likes Schoolcraft’s lecture  on Indians at Lyceum; anti-slavery excerpt

11 p.2 splendid litho print, port of Fanny Elssler, ptd by Inman and drawn by Henry Ph Heidemans, so perfect and so striking, excellent likeness, large plate, beauty of picture, elegance lithod, $5 subscript JF Atwill 201 Broadway

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20 p. 2 Cooper responds to press in Brother Jonathan; p. 4 “our admiration of the graphic art is notoriously not intense; yet we know it has its uses” can make vague misty idealisms real, objects of heartfelt interest (illustrated Bible)

21, 22 p.2 enthusiastic abt HW Beecher’s talk on unltd human potential for educ and progress, inclu women

23 covers New England Society annual mtg/dinner at Astor hse, joseph Hoxie, pres, S Draper, Thomas Fessenden

24, 25 p.1 liked Eames’ lecture to Lyceum on Amer scholar, too much condemns past authors as slaves of prescription and tradition, wants Amer lit based on universal Manhood

27 p.1 praises John Keese’s poets of America

28 staunch supporter of New York and Erie Rail Road (along with Prosper Wetmore, Wm Aspinwall, Wm Havermeyer, Ogden Haggerty, Chas Stetson, Peter Cooper)

29 p. 2 last Evening Post announces that James B Glentworth, the confederate or tool of Jonathan D Stevenson, alias Jarvis, jesse Hoyt, Benjamin F Butler, Mayor Morris, and John W Edmonds, in the pipelaying conspiracy to defeat Harrison has prepared another set of disclosures of Whig iniquities. Locofoco adventurers who have bought Glentworth on spec will find him a corner lot bargain, even if they prove some Whigs cooperated in his operations re fraudulent voting

30 p.2 differs from Express, likes having a Young Men’s Whig org. 31 Slamm is ed New Era

Jan 22 1842 p.1 Colt’s trial, has extensive account of Selden’s critique of pictures in the Herald and Tattler extras of the 20th, witness describing the Granite bldg., Ridner kept the Apollo Rms, 28 and 29, did not lodge there, large rms designed for exhib pictures and for business connected. Stanton ini 26 was a portrait drawer, 27 was Page also a port ptr, 5th story is a daguerreotype room of Fenlope. On third story Charles Adams in 21 and 22, the owner of the bldg. 13 occupied by Kemble miniature drawer studio, 24 Flanning exposing pictures (dags?). No 11 opposite Wheeler is Brackett the Sculptor, but at the time occupied by Osgood, portrait drawer. No 1 occupied by Van Bright, a portrait drawer, and Barker, a portrait drawer.

Feb 3 1842 p.4  HT Tuckerman writes for So Lit Mess, excerpted here, also a Bryant poem fr Knick, disclaimer re his politics

July 6, 1842

“NAD” by AB p. 1. “Art is a divine thing!” noblest sentiments and conceptions fo the human Soul, deep pleasure true Art brings to cultivated mind, knows how to appreciate it. Have among us artists of v hi order of talen, gifted by Nature, if demand were made for grand works, if society wanted productions of genius, and intellectual riches are wasted in empty imaginings and conceptions. Patrons just want port or drwg room pict, public taste scarcely at all cultivated, so artist deprived of true and judicious crit that points out defects while holding up true ideal. This feeling particularly on entering the exhibition this year, fragment partial manifestations of talent. We did not see Durand, Inman, ?, for example, we saw but the hundredth part of the native powers they possess. Durand possesses varied talents, don’t know what dept would most excel, now with Cole the first lscape ptr of the country and among the best living. Incessant toil he will attain a degree of eminence beyond time and country. Has delicacy of taste, chaste conception, strong perspective powers, historical composition on a large scale might be his forte, have seen some sketches which show great power.

July 27, 1842, letter fr Cinti notes 9 cheers for Farmer Harry (Clay), Mechanics Fair pop and Acad of FA at same time had eleg coll of Ptgs and Statuary, has more disting artists than any city of the size, two artists fr Cinti now in Italy and a third, Nathan F Baker recently left

July 30, 1842, p. 1 gives gd review to So Lit Mess including excerpt fr a story where a fashionable young woman of Virginia is reproached for encouraging inferiors to laugh at their betters, thus diminishing their superiors’ influence (the superior in question is a bluestocking who studies, paints, plays instruments, and plays with her lapdog). Followed by a sonnet fr Washington Allston on a statue of an angel, immortality

            p.2 notes fire in Rotunda destroyed Catherwood’s panoramas of Thebes and Jerusalem

Aug 7 1842 p.1 describing a kind of Association in England, has taken over a mansion, dining rm embellished w/exquis frescoes

Sep 29 1842 p. 1 poet Alfred B Street’s forte is lscape ptg. P. 2 glad that Merc Lib is bringing in Dana as a speaker, last winter’s lectures ok and at least infinitely more worthy than the theatrical performances they in gd degree supplanted. Great names and a wide rep no matter for what had by far too much influence in the choice of public teachers, persons of note rather than worth.

Nov 4 1842 notices Mirror has engr of Trumbull’s Signing of Dec p. 2

Nov 14, 1842, p. 4 Powers, the Sculptor, from London Atheneum fr Mrs Trollope’s recent tour in Italy, recalls mtg him in Cinti, where he did the wax figs for Dorfeuille, talent out of the common way. Did a bust in clay, wonderfully perfect likeness, now meet him as man of genius in hi fashion, rooms with admirable busts, all with more of that magical air of life that we see and feel in ancient sculpture than in any coll of modern marbles. Asked him if he had tried any ideal work in marble, some group, something imaginative. Shows her one of the things he fancies and would like to execute, full length large as life, veiled with cloth, in clay, some labor and more thought, Eve, blended dignity and simplicity, from hand of Creator, before accident of earth tarnished her perfection, slight shade of anxiety on heavenly composure of fair face to show she’s human. Compos more than grace and loveliness has severe simplicity.

December 1842

7 p. 2 notes Brownson’s able and profound lecture on govt. “The Apollo Assoc—Ptgs” passing up Broadway a friend stopped us at Rms of Apollo 321 ½ Broadway to examine collection purchased for distrib. Lscape view on Hudson Riv by VG Audubon, son of great Ornithologist, great merit, quiet everyday scenes that lovers of arts so much admire in Ruysdel. Water with gentle breeze passing over, sun partly obscured by cloud, western shores melting into distance, simple lifelike views. Durand’s View in the Appenines another work of merit, figs partic well drawn and give grt animation and distance striking view of cold and treeless ranges of mtns. Weir’s councilor admired by all who saw it in spring exhib of NAD, little gem. Ver Bryck’s “One shall be taken and the other left,” full of sentiment and poetry, v beaut lines published in the Churchman on this pict, portion of readers will prize it. Oddie has 2 lscapes in his usual happy style. Chapman’s Old Mill all delicate handling of best work, gratified if had given a little more vigor to his foregrd. Waugh, an artist several yrs in Italy, small interior Italian Inn nr Naples, valuable to those who’ve visited. Gignoux, a French artist, 2 picts afford fine example of French schl, well drawn and handled in masterly manner but exhibiting brush too freely to make us forget we’re looking on a simple piece of colored canvass. Fine lscape of Shaw of Phila, 2 spirited marine views by Bonfied, excellent study by Burnham of Boston, 2 clever works by Hicks and Baker, young artists here. Cole, Grey and others are at work on picts, so some 30 artworks distrib, more than any year since commencing.  With right management will double subscribers and artworks, glad Committee has resolved to change its name to Art Union, better understood.

March 16 1843 p. 1 Apollo Assoc, rec’d copy of Transactions, annual exhib of private loaned picts discontinued as thinly attended and unprofitable, less formal display instead.$1000 for engrav of Vanderlyn’s Marius, which won a gold medal at Louvre, purchased 35 picts for $5413, petitioned Legislature for new name and a subscription agent. P.2 says Noah’s Union and Aurora (merged) are Tyler organs.

May 3, 1843 p. 1 “NAD”: 18th exhib opened so quietly only knew bcause of a friend, couple of hours agreeably Sat evening, 400 works, mostly ptg, half doz sculptures. As a whole better than last year, at least one quarter of the pictures being tolerable. Fashionable to complain of great preponderance of Portraits, how that is to be avoided we don’t understand. Cole has several Landscapes, two of consid merit, though ? be over-colored. Best thing in historical way seems universally agreed is The Return of Columbus in Chains to Cadiz, 100, by E Leutze, a young Philadelphian in Europe, of whose mature efforts grt things expected. Sir Walter Raleigh, 234, by same also gd. Best Port is of JR Lowell, the Poet, 211, by W Page, who has  rather a strong head of himself 179 and a v disagreeable pict of Our Savior with thorns, 166, several of his Ports are gd. Durand has several gd picts. Among miniatures, a gd one of Mrs R?bury, a speaking likeness of Bishop Hughes by Mrs Bogardus, 350. Best are Queen Vict 349 and Duke of Sussex 318 by Mr Freeman, from life, countenance beaut and expressive, beyond unmeaning image given her in prints current. Testimony to its likeness, Royalty not apt to be so favored by nature. A full length of Gov Seward by Mooney 163 is correct rather than spritied, and 1-2 by GW Flagg of New Haven 19 which we liked.

            Cites Willis’ letters published in National Intelligencer. 

May 9, 1843, p.1 on The Knickerbocker’s attack on Coleridge as a bore (May issue?)—disagrees and contradicts. 

May 26, 1843, p. 2 “NAD” continues well attended by capable connoisseurs, leisurely loungers and curiosity hunters. Who predominates? Many go to see ptgs, more to admire tableaux vivants, and be seen themselves. Generally pleased ourselves, no detailed crit as no leisure to examine them and lack of confidence in our judgment. Equal to former years, tho no ptgs of quite equal merit to some, few will forget Allston’s Vision of the Bloody Hand. He has only 1 pict this yr, a cabinet sized sketch fr St Peter liberated fr prison for Sir Geo Beaumont. Still bears stamp of his genius, no other artist could have made it, the mark of power upon it such as few but old masters have shown. Coleridge said, as in his Table Talk, that Allston was by far the greatest and most gifted ptr American had produced, still true now. “Return of Columbus in Chains” by Leutze universally recognized as finest ptg, took first prize at exhib in Brussels, worthy of all the praise. Fig and port of Columbus most dignified and lofty, nor could least of subord figs be improved. Raleigh—subj seems less suited to his genius but admirably handled. Of Portraits, Page’s have born away the palm, some are capital, those of Lowell and himself the most striking. Huntington sustains his rep and his Port of a Lady 53 is most admirably done. Inman not aimed at surpassing previous efforts, nor need he, his ports alw among best. Page’s Ecce Homo merits more praise, expression of countenance to which exception been taken, is marked and lofty, and if indicates mental suffering, crown of thorns…something of sublimity in grief expressed, and pict, tho not faultless, of extraord merit. English Harriers by JW Audubon admirable for truth and accuracy.

            Some ptgs of a hi degree of merit, greater number decidedly wretched, can’t admire any of Rousseau’s, don’t know how allowed a place. His Anne Boleyn and Fanny Ellsler are decidedly inferior to Fashion plates in magazines, tho resemblance in style is v exact.

            NAD advertises exhib.

July 14 1843, p. 2 Tribute to Allston by Nat Acad. Special mtg convened, fully attended, Pres Morse’s speech reported, artist scholar xtian gman, winning sensitiveness of his manners, feminine delicacy of his sentiments, chastened enthusiasm, salutary influ. Artists passed resolution commending him as lofty example for imitation, GC Verplanck invited to deliver eulogy, and Edmonds, Gray and Chapman appointed to procure a bust.

22 Aug 1843 p. 2 “Mr Freeman’s Port of Q Vic” mentioned this miniature in our notice of the late Exhib of NA and still regard it as finest pict of Queen ever seen, of its fidelity can’t judge, but has a truth to Nature which can hardly be connected with falsehood to the individ, counterfeit presentment of a lovely thoughtful graceful woman, corrob by all the best points of other Ports of her. Our notice elicited fr other sources remark that the artist guilty of a false pretence, never been honored with sitting, his pict was a copy, so called on Freeman who showed us note fr Ambassador Stevenson informing him that the Queen consented to sit, and notes fr others involved also commending its fidelity and excellence. London paper says Queen honored Geo Freeman with a sitting, may be seen at his rooms 404 Houston st.

            Disapproves of Webster’s cooperation with Tyler in the last two years; hostile to Webster somewhat generally

Sept 12, 1843, p. 1 “Literary Notices” takes anecdote fr Knick of “improvements in Orthoepy” that many affected persons interpolate superfluous letters into words, to make them more high-sounding. “That is a fine burst! What a calm, beautiful forward!” said a lisping young lady, one evening at the Nat Acad, as she called the attn. of her cavalier to Launitz’s lovely ‘Rose of the Alhambra’ in breathing marble.”

            -also has a story explaining why abolitionists should vote for Clay, a slaveholder; notes Robinson 142 Nassau just pub amusing caricature “A Sawney in Ireland trying to pass for an Amer Gman” founded on O’Connell’s scorching and just rebuke to Bennett of the Herald. Notes Puffer Hopkins is concluded, pub at Sun Office. 

Sept 28 1843, p. 4 Thurlow Weed’s Letters series, on his visit to Abbotsford, owned by Scott, chaste and elgant, filled with armor, weapons, relics of darker ages, busts of Shakespeare and Scott in dining room, and portrait of Scott and his favorite dog Maida by Raeburn, with portraits of Mary queen of Scots, Earl of Essex, Duchess of Buccleaugh etc, in the Waverly Sanctum are two portraits of Maida, portrait of Claverhouse and small full-length of Rob Roy

26 Dec. 1843 p. 2 “Mr Cole’s Ptgs” we have before noticed that Cole had a coll of Ptgs in the NAD but wish to call public attn. partic to them as so many gd ones seldom together this side of the Atlantic. 4 alleg pieces repress voyage of life rank among first class of Ptgs. The second is by far the best, because it has more natural scenery in it, lscape being his peculiar dept. Self-confident, ardent youth, finely exec, and guardian genius abt as spiritual a being as can be ptd. Great moral effect well secured, but the trees that hang wealth of foliage along glassy stream wrought with a naturalness that almost cheats the senses; no tree more perfectly ptg than magnificent elm standing on the left. H will travel 60 miles on foot to find precise kind of one for his canvass. Stream if any fault is too glassy, water so pure and transp seldom seen, only in deep hush of summer noon will a shady pool reflect like this. In first piece, flowers are the most natural things, except, perhaps, the very little island nestling close to the bank, which is nature itself. Wish he’d let some one else paint his faces, as our sculptors never make the hair on their heads, but leave it to a specialist, Cold shd have allowed some excellent port ptr to have finished his portraits.

            -among Whig committee for NY are Jos Hoxie still, but also JW Blauvelt

            -p. 1 notes that Somerset Hse in London has opened a class for women to learn wood-engraving

Dec 29 1843 p.2 Apollo Assoc, Rev Dr Dewey spoke re artists abroad, loves Brown’s copies, Terry, Clevenger, Crawford, Powers he thinks superior to all, better than venus de Medici who wants intellect and expression and char, raves on Grk Slave, but we think Eve the finer, the very crit of Venus that she is doing nothing applies to Gk Slave when compared to Eve, just expresses sadness at her fate, she is suffering beauty, nothing but submit, while Eve has done something and is about to do something, shows mental struggle, great and beaut in woman. 

Feb 24 1844 p. 3 “Letter fr the South” AD for Trib, in Charleston, houses have plain furniture, not patrons of mechanic arts for ornament of houses, but taste and knowl of Fine Arts our superiors. Good pics met with in houses with neither Brussels carpet nor mahogany chair, no pier and mantle glasses, works of a higher art. Didn’t see as many of Allston’s as expected, Spoliato tho of highest poetical conception, compos admirable, great merit is action, passion pervades every limb, not just countenances, chastely illus, flesh fine in tone, draperies feeble indicated.

March 16 1844, p.1 Glimpses at Europe by a Traveling New-Yorker, no. XXIII, foreign corresp of NY Trib, WMG. Wanted to see ptgs of Correggio at Parma, attract tourists, patronage of arts worthwhile. Assumption in Cupola,perfection of grace, wonderful foreshortening. Camera in convent 1519 ceilings covered with arbor of vines, cherubs, sport with dogs, bows, horns, chase, frolicking, Correggio’s Bower. Ducal Gallery has indescribable golden glow of his Madonna of St Jerome

            -also goes to Florence, etc. urges creation of gallery in NYC, with copies by Am artists rather than doubtful old master origs

            WMG LOVEs Rubens

April 1844

24 p.2 takes fr Evening Post blurb on Exhib of Academy of Design, that it’s thought by many artists, who are the best judges, to surpass previous exhib. At first the number of staring portraits was rather alarming, but bad picts generally make their appearance first, those that were rec’d late have redeemed the collection. Many works of high merit by younger artists. Arts Union members get season tickets.

25 p.2 “NAD” anxiously awaited rather more than average display of merit, less than usual striking faults paraded. Perhaps one of most successful attempts at the quiet, deep and anti-convulsive schl of lscape ptg ever made in this country is the sunset October view in Orange Cty, no 63 by Cropsey. Sacred stillness of evening rests broodingly on scenes, fires of the rich sunlight dampened by the slow stalking shadows of evening, very sky and air seem deepening into a rich and golden glow, miraculously ? even the soul of the beholder. This is the power of genius

            Noticed another truthful, lifelike and sterling picture, no 105, the Miser and the Beggar Woman, so homely a thema, elevated by power of mind and genius with it is handled, like Ole Bull’s Yankee Doodle, to the magnificent and the sublime. Ptg of that housemaid, her natural and rudely graceful attitude, her benevolent, honest, anxious face, her appealing look, relieved on one hand by rugged foregrd of the old man’s shaggy eyebrows and forbidding and apprehensive eyes, and on the other by painfully suffering bravely hoping face of the Beggar mother and infant are a poem full of heart moving pathos, tenderness and nature. Nothing to be desired in this picture—name with pride, FW Edmonds, NA

            Nos 81 and 89 lovely boy and sweet virgin beauty, faces tender remembrance, Durand and HC Pratt. 72 a faithful port of TW Weitley (Whitley), well known and esteemed as a man and an artist now in Ohio, by E Mooney, as fine a specimen of port ptg as in the rms. 102 one of those terribly beaut and supernatural faces dart a magnetic force fr their thrilling lines to chain the beholder, face comes back to soul in dreams and assumes capricious and tormenting shapes and aspects and Titania’s visions, is a head of Bianca Visconti, owned by NP Willis and ptd by GW Flagg. Pict, owner, subj, one knows not which most appropriately belongs to the other, freshest and rosiest lips ever dreamed of or died upon. 35 is a sweet sad Cinderella face by J Jagen. 30 is head of a poetess, and in a pretty considerable rhapsody, JD Blondell. 35 a most unexceptionable cross band green velvet vest is most prominent feature in port ptd by Frothingham, who can paint better things than cut velvet and was never meant by Nature for a tailor. 11 A brilliant, saucy irresistible Lady Gay Spanker head and bust, admirably drawn and colored by PP Lawson. 176 a sister and bro by CG Thompson v touching and beaut. 236 Exquisitely voluptuous, not in keeping with its designation on the catalog, PF Rothermel. No room to say more than a passing word of Crawford’s 2 immortal poems in marble, Genius of Mirth and Autumn.

p. 4 has Emerson’s Young American fr Boston Mercantile Assoc; John Schoolcraft purchased $500 ptg Cupid and Psyche by Freeman, for many yrs artist of rep here, this pict and another of a beggar boy are consid 2 of finest productions of modern art in Rome

26, p. 4 “Past and Present” for the Trib, by ADF Randolph,  suggested by Cole’s Picts, describes the two of them, middle ages in primal strength and magnificence, ruins of the castle. Poem: castle, ancient pride, towering giant, monarch, throne, one sits who bends myriad minds to his own, lofty monument built on wrecks of freedom and of mind, where virtues perish and vice is born to degrade and enslave mankind, where men live on tyrant’s word, shrink at his nod and fear to speak live and die as vassals. Gay appearance, pride, noble, beauty, but in humble heart broods despair, but lo change, gone is gloomy power, feudal thrall, war, death, myraids hold life upon another’s will, and still a mightier change, the sounds of labor break upon the ear andshouts of joy, when time destroyed the ruins power, broke a link in grim oppression’s chains. (but notes that this stuff about labor and joy etc are not expressed by the picture!)

27, likes Columbian Mag

29, p. 2 publishes Clay’s Raleigh letter

30 continues the Photographic Sketches of the Prominent Members of the 28th Congress, taken fr the Ladies’ Gallery, sarcastic descriptions

May 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, likes CP Cranch poems; bust of Ptolemy dug up in Africa for Brit M. 7 May 8, contradicts C&E aspersions on character, tho dislikes controversy with another Whig paper as it won’t bear on political contest; Greeley unlike Webb didn’t support Clay’s candidacy in 1839

 9 loves Augustus Snodgrass poems, they are in all the time

May 10 likes new editor of So Lit Mess, notices v beaut excellent full length likeness in highest style at Looking glass manufactory of D Egan on Canal st

May 11 p.2 moneyed interest demands annexation, as does the glorious Anglo-Saxon race (sarcastic)

May 13 agrees that Bennett’s conduct toward Fanny Elssler was justified, she was not a victim of him

May 14, p. 1 notices portraits of Clay by JW Dodge, engraved by HS Sadd, best likeness ever pub, a gd miniature by Clover in NAD, and a full length by Wise, engr by Sartain, which we commend. Clay has been abominably ill-used in pretended likenesses. Also praises a medallion of him bya Polish artist in exile here, and a portrait of Frelinghuysen engr by Sartain fr a ptg by Rembrandt Peale p. 2 publishes elections of NAD, no academicians, but some associates including Cropsey, and Inman and Whitehorne declined re-election

May 15, May 16 p. 2 oppose annexing Tx not on grounds of impact on slavery. Puff Clay’s vp Theo Frelinghuysen’s dag at Morand & Co on Chambers st superb likeness is best one to be procured

May 17 p. 1 enthusiastic abt J Winchester’s publication of Parke Godwin on democracy. Express and Commercial fondle Native Americanism.

May 18, 20, 21, May 22, p. 1 letter (first published in the Courier on the 20th) fr Bishop Hughes to Mayor Harper, defending his positions and denying he’s a politician, and saying that  a reporter of Bennett’s at a “political” speech at Carroll Hall, altered it to make up one of Bennett’s excitements, copied into Commercial Advertiser by Col Stone, and followed columns of abuse in other papers,J of Commerce and papers of that stamp, NY Sun and briefly the Evening Post, slanders have been perpetuated in Native Amer and Tammany parties; has heard that Bennett blames him for his inhospitable treatment by O’Connell, but that was due to Bennett attacking O’Connell’s wife;  p. 2 has Bennett’s denial of writing anything about O’Connell’s wife and having defended the man, with the Sun’s contradiction of this from Nichols’s Life and Writings of James Gordon Bennett where he says his wife shamed O’Connell by collecting young women he seduced. Elsewhere describes Nichols’ pamphlet as printed in a very dirty style, composed of extracts from the Herald, appalling dunghill. P. 4 likes a new Griswold anthology

May 23, May 24, 1844, p. 2. Not opposed to annexation of Texas?  “Warning to Countrymen—Mock Auctions” on Chatham st.

May 25 1844 p. 1 has Glimpses of Europe by a Traveling N-Yorker, in northern Italy, notes monument to Ariosto in Ferrara, lofty marble column with sculptured vine and statue of poet at top; his portrait in ptg of Paradise by Dosso Dossi on monastery ceiling nearby. Church has remarkable ptgs by Garofalo, and an echo; Cathedral variety of architectural decorations without any use except as example of misplaced ingenuity; fresco of Last Judg by fave pupil of Michaelangelo, includes wife among blessed looking triumphant on a rival. Anecdote of devotion to a bust of Mary

            Bologna given name to Eclectic school, Guido Caraccci Guercino et al, public gallery has fine specimens, foremost is Guido, grand and solemn compos of Crucifixion, atmosphere sympathizes with gloom. Parallel betw it and Rubens at Antwerp very curious; massacre of innocents full of feeling, heart broken despair, beaut even in agony; Madonna della Pieta still more wonderful in its abstracted, unearthly grief. Domenichino two grt ptgs of double nature, wonderful force and reality but upper parts mixing fact and imagination for heaven that destroys effect of the whole. Likes Ludovico Caracci best’ Raphael’s St Cecilia here with expression of simple purity of heart contrasting to more commonplace figs, her expression almost the only merit of this picture, lines are hard and angular, cherubs obtrude themselves. But single face gives inestimable value. Notes bust of lady professors at University

p. 2 notes The Picture Gallery, v elegant periodical, successful hit, spirited and corrrct engravings of The Tombs, Installation of Mayor Harper, Queen’s Drawing rm, Babe the Pirate, hits at phreno-magnetism, wish its reading material more original, local and striking

May 27, 1844 p. 2

Nat Acad—(Second Notice)

No 69 Bishop Moore: Inman—Doubtless an accurate resemblance, and v well colored pict, greatest fault is in left eye too high and directed above the spectator, the other directed to the eye of beholder. No 56 J Talbot, a v excellent and well-colored picture—the aerial persp v fine; altogether equal to most of the better picts of this kind in anycountry.

No 44 The Sisters: T Sully, well colored and drawn, but too slight andnegligent in finish to bear examination. No 42 Portrait of an Artist: Winzler—Colored evidently under influ of a rainbow or the prismatic spectrum, but w/o any appearance of the cause elsewhere, a great fault. Left eye too hi to be in drwg, but this artist will improve.

No 36—A Solitary Oak: Durand, a pretty gd lscape. 26 A Magdalen, HP Gray, like all picts by this artist, too much yellow-brown tint and too little variety of coloring to be natural, but there is considerable merit. 24  Shower coming on at Little Falls on Passaic, JFCropsey, v beaut ptd pict, full of variety and richness, as well as transparency of coloring, wood and foliage equal to any other; 68 View in Orange Cty with Greenwood Lake, Cropsey, another admirable lscape by this artist, full of rich and harmonious coloring. 61—A well and truly colored Portrait: CL Elliott. 60 v  masterly Picture (Interior of the Bedford Woods, near Brooklyn) placed shamefully too hi, Gignoux. 81—a Pict of v great merit, De Soto discovering the Mississippi, PE Rothermel. 99 Summer View of Falls of Niagara, T Birch, v correct and effective pict. 100 View of the Tiber etc, GL Brown, one of most glowing and beaut colored lscapes that can be seen in any collection, conveying with great truth and effect that peculiar character of hazy, bewitching indistinctness so freq seen and felt both in that and our own atmosphere at a certain period of the day. 144-Lscape view fr Greenwood Cemetery, T Doughty, v well colored and pleasing. 148 WW Wotherspoon, excellent, still better had due attn. pd to horse as seen with his rider nr foregrd. 163 a v natural andw ell-colored portrait, Durand. 164 Scene fr Ivanhoe: JW Glasse, v clever pict. 174: Compositor setting type: CE Weir, v truthful pict, both as to color, expression and drwg. No 197—An excellent Head of a Child, W Page, well drwn and colored, save the shadows of neck and body, which are much too violet to be in harmony with the head. 200 Beatrice Huntington by CL Elliott, a finely colored head, altogether a gd pict. 262—Port of Mr Dickinson, Cl Elliott, one of the v best ports in the Exhib, beaut drawn and transparent as well as natural in color. Hanging committee know best why it was doomed to hang so hi. 229 Brigand delivering up his arms, SB Waugh, coloring and drwg v gd and story well told. 263 Portrait of Dr Anderson, the earliest Wood-Engraver in the US, JG Chapman, excellently colored and drwn head. 270—Log Road in Hamilton Cty—R Gignoux, a finely ptd lscape. 271 English Lscape, HG Boddington, also a remarkably clever pict.

Also slams Herald for treatment of Bishop Hughes; squirming re his calumnies on the School Question, atrocious libel written by an assistant in his office, report of Bishop

S remarks made by reporter for Catholic Freeman’s Journal. Not fair or manly. Compares it to the J of Commerce’s treatment of Hughes.

28 miniature painter JW Dodge an advertiser

29 has a history of the Mexican and So American Republics, which took a great deal from a series in the Democratic Review. P. 2 defends Gouraud agst plagiarism

30 likes Tuckerman, Herbert, Paulding, Gimber. P. 4 has a Clay Song by JG Freeman

31 Plumbe dag ad; Temple of Buddah at Washington Hall ad

June 7, 1844 p.2 blurb on West’s Painting of Christ Healing the Sick, will be exhib in room under Nat Acad of Des, where it will attract universal attn., currently on tour in the west, sublime composition, cites the New Orleans Bee on it being popular, with 60+ characters size of life, and it in turn quotes fr a London history of West, no ordinary genius.

p. 4 letter fr Wm L Stone rebutting John Hughes, who styles himself Bishop of NY. Hughes has now published a second letter too. Stone says he is in a gladiator attitude in contest with Bennett, a vanquished man ashamed of the antagonist who has defeated him

june 9, 1844, a J Herrick Fisher and others petition Board of Aldermen p. 3 to estab a Public Gallery of Fine Arts submitted to people at next election.

July 1 1844 p.1, Glimpses of Europe By a Traveling New-Yorker, foreign corresp of Trib, no.XXXiL, signed WMG. Printed it out, advocates for a gallery of art in NY, admires Florence’s collections.

August 2 and 3, 1844

p. 4 Obits from Knickerbocker for Frederick Agate by FEW

Oct 4 1844 p. 2 “NY Gall of FA” young but promising, opens Monday in Nat Acad rms, growth of taste, gd pics by Am Artists by late Reed, fitting nucleus, corresponding influ on Am Art and the public, added a number of fine pics thru liberality of NY Artists, and engr fr Raphael and old masters.Commercial Advertiser says: thanks to friends of Reed.

            -likes Orville Dewey’s Sermon on Slavery and Annexation of TX, bad bcause it extends slavery. Jos C Neal of charcoal sketches is a locofoco but able

p. 1 review of The Gift for 1845, like best The Trap Sprung ptd expressly by WS Mount, but Washington and Harvey Birch engr fr ptg by Durand will please many, tho GW’s face is less forceful than that of the Spy. Wash crossing the Allegheny ptd by Huntington gives us one of best faces of Washington. Of the female heads, think The Roman Girl fr a ptg by Huntington inspired Cranch’s accompanying poem. Old set of annualists (Willis, Hoffman, Tuckerman, Sigourney, ellet etc) supported by Emerson, Longfellow, Cranch, Neal, Simms, Kirkland and others. Graham of Littell’s works out of Trib office. Puffs JG Wellstood’s medallions of Clay and Frelinghuysen in plaster, most exquis style, parlor ornament, at Nat Gall, corner of Murray and Broadway 

Nov 12, 1844 p.2 NY Gall of FA, in NAD, chief attraction is Course of Empire, but notes also Mount’s Truant Gamblers and Bargaining, best ever produced, truth of expression, happy selection of subj. Stranded Ship by Durand never before exhib, sublime, also his Dance on Battery, Peter Stuyvesant, Pedlar. Capital lscape by Huntington, honest repres of a truly Am scene. Lady Jane Grey, Princes in Tower, Match Girl, Flagg’s earlier and best works, resemble Murillo, awakens sympathy. Sibyl HP Gray  tone and color reminds of best Venetian school. FW Edmonds’ Am Boy’s Inheritance, subj home to every New-Englander, youth setting out in life with nothing but mom’s prayers and sister’s tears. 74 Day Dream by CC Ingham sweet thing. Several fine pics by deceased foreign artists, Dogs Fighting by Morland one of his  best, Huntsmen’s Tent by Fyt rare and valuable, Synder’s not surpassed. Durand’s copies of deceased presidents, and CC Ingham’s Lafayette ptd from him, full length in Albany. Engravings of great value, Raph’s frescoes at Vatican.

12 Dec 1844 p.1 * loves Cranch’s poems

December 30 1844 p. 1 “Am A U” letter fr DLS asking why some Artists entirely neglected while others patronized with 3-5 ptgs ea? Why none fr talented young artist HP Gray?  Editor agrees with DLS. (had earlier in describing the distribution noted that there were none by Gray)

Jan 3 1845 p. 4 Am AU for Trib, by A Member: corresp why no ptgs by HP Gray, Committee act with utmost impartiality, have other years distrib him, but he had none finished for sale within the means of the Comm, can’t yield to extrav prices for any painter, no matter their repute. How far the systematic opposition of Gray to objects of Institu may have operated on minds of Comm I will not say, well known he has in presence of patrons and others condemned its purposes and impugned its usefulness. Nevertheless was invited to paint a sketch as a subj for next eng with other artists, but it was not distrib. Society in face of oppos fr a discontented few, managers must disregard vanity of those who condemn but demand its patronage at enhanced prices beyond intrinsic value of their works

Jan 6 1845 p. 2 Case of Bishop Onderdonk. Seem to be fairly neutral. A Painful result, surprising that those who voted not guilty voted to suspend him, his friends say he was attacked fr personal hostility over his course in the Puseyism controversy (he had ordained a Mr. Carey despite accusations that Carey was a Puseyite/Romanist), but seems disproven. (Herald reporter at the September Episcopal Convention a controversial figure, as Onderdonk’s name was to be discussed)

            Onderdonk’s obsequies had big turnout, May 8, 1861 p. 7, lots of efforts had been made to restore him

Jan 28, 1845 p. 2 reports Mayor Harper (of nativist party) vetoed giving rotunda to NY Gall of FA, precedent estab by bill a dangerous one, Mayor done his duty avoiding waste of public property, renting it for $1 yr when could get $3-4000.

            Feb 10 1845 gets letter fr A New Yorker objecting to editorial approbation of Harper’s veto; it’s a public school

Feb 14 1845 p. 1 T writes letter to ed re Art Union, why a third successive commission for engraving given to same artist? Principal portion, the figs, the telling side, by the same, no others deserving encouragement? All interested have seen improvement of this artist, but variety is called for, esp since engr sole employment of months or years

18 April 1845 p.2 Annual Exhib opened to public, picts more numerous than usual, proportion of good ones large. As usual feared that hanging committee not done to universal satisfaction. Picts that don’t please uniformly found to be hung in a v bad light.

24 April 1845 p. 2 “NAD” sometimes think the Acad shd appoint a crit committee to decide without mercy on ptgs that deserve a place; many daubs injure rep of young artist. A year’s oblivion is easier remedied than a year’s ridicule. The ptg of John the Baptist in first rm will injure artist more than a v excellent ptg cld benefit him. Take away the cross and would make a capital Italian beggar boy. So no 13, sketch of Brig Genl Le Boumfort, do v well for a sign board, with Col. Pluck written on his chapeau. Greatest caricature of the Phila riots we’ve seen. But some gd around this vast quantity of bad ones. 39 An Old Man’s Reminiscence by Durand has all the completeness and exquis finish of that artist; his one excellence over Cole, his picts bear closes scrutiny in every part, a harmony thruout, so pleases as much in detail as in effect of whole. Cole is often v unequal in same piece, he will produce finer effects than Durand, which come upon you like bursts of sunlight then leave you in comparative shadow. As if he exhausted himself or grew weary in producing one splendid effect and so hurried over the rest of the pic. No 188 by him, View across Frenchman’s Bay, exhibits his peculiar excellence, the mist driving inland fr the sea, the vexed waters, the spray shooting up fr every rock and deep green of waves are all true to nature, and seem like a remembrance to one who has witnessed such. But 97, Elijah at the Entrance to the Cave, pronounce a failure. Indeed, it is a scene not to be ptd by any one, least of all Cole. The abrupt and terrific are not in his vein. The exquis and beaut harmonize with his whole nature, and the delicate structure of his mind is unfit for scenes which require a bold and dashing pencil. But perhaps has done as well as any one, for any repress must fall below our imag. The grandeur of the scene, as the Almighty passes before the astonished prophet, can’t be represented in one aspect, it is the succession of blast, shower and earthquake, can’t be represented any more than the still small voice. 10 Italy in the Olden Time by Hicks possesses great merit. 14 Forest on fire by Cropsey may do v well for those accustomed to bonfires in Canal st but for one who has seen flames at midnight over a mtn shooting toward heaven from 100 aged trees like beacon lights, v tame representation. A backwoodsman would tell didn’t equal burning of common tallow. 63 Port of Fashion by RC Clarke exhib qualities of fine limner, minuteness and perfection of copy of nature reminds us of younger Weir. 

25 April 1845 p. 2

Letter to the Editor signed S re observations on the 24th on NA of Ptgs at Society Library bldgs. Conceived in a spirit of crit entirely out of keeping with the object of the Acad, to foster advance of our youthful artists. Let this hypercrit have its wilful effect by permission, young artists will forsake pencils in disgust and despair, NA go extinct. More magnanimous and judicious in critic to ask himself are we advanced enough in Ptg to dare criticism? Prepared for censorship of the captious or merciless judgment of severely capable? A man asking these qs and desiring to do justice to the Institu so laudable in direction and design would hesitate and raterh counsel than correct or denounce. The Society of Brit Artists in London is never less than liberally criticized, the general spirit of remark is “v little of hi art, but enough pleasing productions to gratify.”

            Offer observations on some Ptgs full of promise, deserve encouragement. 119 Port Capt Ericksson, CL Elliott, best ptgs most excellent likeness, fine judgment discernable in every part, expression admirably lifelike and characteristic, same is true for his 94 Port of an Artist. 163 a bold and elab ptg of a Grk by Fine, a light fig most admirably relieved agst a light sky, hazardous attempt successfully accomp, full of character and striking effect. 222 highly finished and faithful of Cropsey, the Artist, life-size, by J Cafferty, coloring excellent, indicates earnest effective study. 202 a port by same hand, the best cabinet pict this year. Cafferty also has a Lscape 117 well worth notice of connoisseurs, sterling promise, hope he will devote his excellent talents specially to ever beaut presence of Nature. 

April 26, 1845 p. 1 “NAD”

Exhib better attended than usual, tho not as attractive as last year. Notes of pictures that struck us. No 1 Death of Abel, simply managed, w/attempt at startling effects, yet when eye has dissipated veil of dead white light the ptr managed to throw over the whole pict, some fine beauties are apparent. Great truth and sentiment in drwg of Eve, coloring dazzlingly beaut, position natural and lifelike, expr of face is too intensified, mind we do not mean too intense. Face of Adam only decided failure in piece and best point next to shoulder of Eve is admirable portraiture of the dog, full of naturalness and expression. Abel’s dead face a sweet piece of pencil-work, so sadly beaut on the elastic cushion of those fair locks. With all its faults, inclined to think best pict in exhib.

            7 wonderfully lifelike port of sweet woman, wife and mom, as raying light of gentle eyes surely tells. A pict to love. 36 face of a cherub philosopher of 4 yrs old, exquisitely ptd by Lazarus. 50 Beatrice, neither Shakespeare’s nor Shelley’s but a v beaut Beat for all that. Thompson shd have called it a Madonna. 78 A genuine Lady Gay Spanker, pted, however, with a  dry brush. 88 Cole has thrown together some fine and startling effects in this sea-piece. He is a bold man. 107 Sugaring off, one of the most unassuming and successful ptgs we have ever seen. You are led to expect nothing, yet in examining up the piece, continually charmed by some fresh beauty. Female faces are most admirable, full of home love and simplicity, worthy of the hallowed temples of the forests, where human face recovers fr stunted and frightened expression imparted by the excitements of city life. Matteson has done everybody a favor by ptg these sweet faces.

            134? The Girl and Prism, tender delicate tracery of most beaut thought. Unfinished bust and drapery look as graceful and elastic as sea foam. Expr of face sensuously exquisite. Too much blue in the flesh and right arm looks cold and dead. 237 an eager, earnest prophetic head, ptd by Wenzler. 227 New Scholar, by Edwards, full of truthfulness and humor, don’t wonder the bright, cheerful hearted little fellow hates to leave his sister and trust himself to that sinister looking old ogre of a Schoolmaster. Bet a trifle too that he sees an end of the ? despite the efforts of the old man to keep it out of sight. 218 Spirit of 76 a failure, complete and irretrievable. With another name it would be a gd painting. In truth, it is a tearful face. 171 sweet and fragrant Lscape tasting of Flora and the country green.

            There is little sculp in Gallery, one, the relief by Crawford is not worth speaking of as his, the other a beaut Bacchante bust by HK Browne, wonderfully fine effect in hair, looks alive.

April 28, 1845; 29 at odds with C&E, Trib is too radical. 30.

May 1845

1, 2, 3 p. 2, Kneeland, the Sculptor, visited his workrm, surprise regret that talent so strong and cordial be a stranger to fame. Bust of Mapes evidence of great power seizing both secret and details of character, keen intuitions, large and genial sympathies and a free hand. Subj of great range, fr variety and balance of developments, may be seen in NAD exhib, and in Artist’s rm, Broadway and Chambers st. Bust of Ericcson also there, subj too a fine one for the concentration and force both phys and mental that it exhibits. Needs employment. Underst many houses/magnates order picts and statuary as furniture, vulgar to consid beaut obj merely as means of display, also instructive to children, cheerful eye and generous thoughts.

5, 6, 7, 8 ex Mayor Clarke became a Dem? Titian’s Venus, we hear but one opinion re this magnify work of art at Gallery, 449 Broadway, unqual praise, art near perfection, roundness of limbs, magical gradation of tints, richness of color. Judge for yourself.

9, 10 excerpts from Mrs. Child’s letters story re Leonard Sturmvogel: melancholy like seeing portrait in an auction room, drwgs characterized by exquis delicacy, grace, touch of the supernatural, oil ptg v beaut in conception tho imperfectly executed, under venerable old oak, aged man, leaning on staff, listening, between parting clouds fig of Hope harping, but became an alcoholic, wretched home, beaut crayon drwg of head of Plato near heap of chips and sawdust, protruded an exquis graceful arm, frag of small statue, plaster cast of God of Silence in cobwebs, theory of synesthesia

12 Plebeian is dying, will be eaten by Morning News; had itself consumed New Era and Aurora, gave it bad breath. Sun locofoco enough of a paper.

13 p. 1 Letter from a Painter turned Planter of the Vine, etc. TW Whitley writes to Greeley, fr Covington, KY, March 16, 1845. Praises Cinti Horticultural Society, industry and talent, (has written letters previously), can now speakof groups and coloring of the great natural pict he has been commissioned to paint, 1800 vines planted, orchards. Cinti advancing to opulence and greatness. Urges people in petty shop keeping and commerce, shifting and shirking, come west. American wines esteemed now. Likes Marg Fuller; WH Graham publishes Fred Douglass, Fuller, other reformers Greeley promotes, praises Broadway Journal

14, 15, 16, notes that the Post Office in the park has been improved, for reception of pictures of the Art Union, new interest in the fine arts

17, 18, 19, 20, 21 p. 4 fr Mrs Norton, the Visionary Portrait of a man at his lonely hearth envisioning a wife. 22, 23, 24, 26, 27 AB Meek poet of Alabama gets Demo patronage fr Polk

28 p. 2 City Items: NY Gall FA get into new quarters in June, hope increase number of ptgs. “Beauty Ptgs” 4 warm and delicious lscapes at Art Union, 322 Broadway, fr Geo L Brown in Italy in rome, first ones fr him we’ve seen, not a touch of rawness or stiffness, glow and breathe beneath the deep life genius infuses into her creations and take at once hold upon the heart, like beaut scenes in Nature. Exquisite. Veil misty beaut skies of Italy hangs before them, communic soul indescribable languor which beauty in repose invariably imparts, sky, water, palaces domes persp mtns beaut, nothing obtrudes itself over the other parts of the whole to which it belongs (Vesuvius, Florence, Feast of St John, Castella. Owned by Rev EM Sawtells of NY, C Tiffany of Baltimore, two others purchased; $500 and $300.

29 loves Goethe’s essays on art, long review, few look on art as any thing else than a luxury, a picture like a horse, few see it as divine means of harmonizing conflicting tendencies of humanity, pov fr which all is seen as gd, influ extends overall men thru all time, but we just ask our artists to produce an agreeable impression, a pleasing emotion. P. 2 circulation 10,000+, doesn’t get money fr the party

30 City Items promotes Titian’s Venus of the Bath again, attract attn. of all men of taste, a repetition of the celebrated pict in Florentine coll taken to France by Napoleon, then in Thom Lawrence coll and Pall Mall gallery, perfectly formed woman after bath reclines luxuriously upon couch while attendants select drapery, drwg, coloring and life like expr the perfection of the art, quiet chasteness of the face can’t inspire any but purest thoughts in well regulated mind

31 City news notes Matthew Wilson of Brooklyn is in N Orleans to paint port of Prof Silliman, ladies of City commissioned, handsomeply complimented for manner of execution

June 1845: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 p. 2 visits Robt Stuart’s sugar refinery, illus of benefits of present Tariff. Notices Chas Lanman (has mentioned him before) taking over the Monroe Gazette in Michigan, has been a resident of this city, reviewed by Trib last winter his "Letters by a Lscape Ptr,” young but heart in right place.

7, 9, 10 also notices Gouraud regularly 11, 12, 13 p. 2 notes fire at Acad FA in Phila, collection of statuary much damaged, Murillo’s Roman Daughter, a Raeburn, but Allston’s Dead Man Restored was saved and West’s Death ona Pale Horse in mutilated condition, cut fr frames

14, 16, 17 p.2 death of Edw Carey in Phila noted, inspiration to marble and canvas, Powers sent a masterpiece (Proserpine) to him just recently, Landing of the Norseman by Leutze was going to put in his house, liberal and judicious, mind in finest mould of beauty

18 p. 1 excerpts fr a London paper Flaxham’s Shield of Achilles, a transfer may have effect of direting the ambition of our artists to ground of competition, article vindicates national claim of Brit sculptors, what Lawrence called a divine work equal to genius of Michaelangelo, has now been engraved. Notices Anthony, Edwards & Co, National Miniature Gallery. Publishers of the Evening Mirror arrested yesterday for libel on Dr LSComstock, in Monday’s Mirror.

19 p. 2 notices a View of Capitol at Wash engr by Alfred Jones, beaut, empl by AAU last 3 years on plates, creditable, compare favorably, low price.

20 Willis too Euro, not rooted in the soil, but still enjoyable. 21. 

June 23, 1845 p. 2 notes Healy takes his port of Gen Jackson to Lexington, to paint a port of Clay, also has a commission fr King of France for Webster, Adams and Calhoun. Same page has WH Channing anti-annexation, and oddly echoing Lincoln’s ideas in Gettysburg; favor of Association for laboring classes.

p. 1 has long attack on C&E, who abused Webster in 1841-2 when Webster stuck with Tyler, and Webb didn’t get NY Post Office appointment. Webb committed to Clay nomination, gloried in enmity to Webster, but in Oct 1842 changed course after a bankruptcy. True friends of Webster are Express, Commercial Advertiser.

June 24 1845 praises Charles C Green’s drawings/lithod in book Nubian Slave pub Bela Marsh in Boston, a young artist, new to fig drwg, many defects, but soul. 7 illus, with poem. Having rec’d a good part of our educ fr Flaxman, hii notion of benefit of outline. Delight to see interest in public in pictures, when they are not just expensive furn for ignorant rich or amateur lux to cultiv few, art will be born, not from pictures by traveled artists or annual but out of our own life, what beats in the national heart and mind, illus great pop subj. Even the pict of the wreck of the Swallow hawked on streets at time of calamity, even for that style, interest in showing need felt of a pict for the imag where men had a feeling in the heart. Just like love for street ballads shows poetical energy, as polished court verses never can. Signed *.

July 11, 1845, p.1 Reviews The Indicator, by Leigh Hunt by *. Takes Hunt to task versus Byron for too much of Cockney school, a vulgar personal familiarity, cuddles close to his subjects, does not know his distance fr gods and heroes, can’t keep in his proper place, cool and graceful, his warm hands and breath are on them, and the closeness of his scrutiny and the pettiness of detail to which it leads are, at times, quite sickening.

            Cockneyism is shown in that habit of mind which a person acquires fr being brought up more among objects to use in the house, to wear, and esp to eat, than those which appeal to the higher faculties. The children of the city begin life in too close intimacy with tea-kettles, ice-cream and blacking, and will never let us forget them. Leads to comparing foam of waves of Mediterranean to whipped syllabub. Wish the critic or narrator to keep his distance; be cool that he may be graceful and pure. Not cold, the deep glow of enthusiasm dictates the soft and reverent touch, the observation of spiritual distances. He is often praised as genial, but this sociability is the impertinent familiarity of manner that puts an end to all beaut intercourse. The perfect medium betw coldness and vulgar freedom may be seen in great works of art. Raphael—however closely figs may be grouped, never intrude upon, never heat, never push one another, makes the presence in a crowd of refined so v diff fr that in a crowd of unrefined. Perceptible in crush of omnibuses.

Aug 5 1845 p.2 Express accuses Trib of being in league with Young America, the National Reformers, the Empire Club and the locofocos. Sun crit of Am Inst.

Aug 27 1845 p. 2 notices Cropsey pic at AU lscape great breadth, cool and pleasing in tone, atmosphere happily drwg well made out boldly, tree with such truth a model for some older Knights of the brush

Sept 1, 1845, p.2 starts puffing Christ Healing Sick, and continues noticing it for several years; Dc correspondent in March 14 1846, p.2  e.g., and Providence RI July 14, 1846 p. 2

Sept 8, 1845 p.2 Christ Healing the Sick, letter from Joseph Morris, (its exhibitor?) who writes about authenticity of great picture, every bill distrib throughout exhib refers to its originality, a copy fr orig by West himself. That was the consensus in Boston, but a clique of Cinti artists rejected it after they were refused free admission.

            June 7 1844 p. 2 notes that the ptg is coming to city in lecture rm under Acad of Design in Broadway (elsewhere says it’s in the Tabernacle), were 3 versions of it by the artist, popular in Mobile, gives long bio.

            June 7 1844 p. 4 has Letter fr Wm L Stone to John Hughes styling himself Bishop, responding to Hughes’ letter to Mayor in C&E; and on June 8 p. 2 neatly refutes Stone

Oct 8, 1845 p. 1 “4th Annual Exhib of Works of living Artists at Brooklyn Institute” privilege of the age that Art, mighty public teacher of gd, exerting on minds, hearts, habits of all classes in Europe, so more sensual enjoyments losing their influ and intellectual pleasures powerful sway over multitude. Lovers of Art shld pay silent worship to genius, will regret if don’t see exhib. Many previously at NAD, but some of best fresh fr easel. On entering see a large Winter Scene, Brooklyn 27 yrs ago, well ptd, suggestive of startling convictions, a type of our collective state, the past and present, in juxtaposition, scarcely disting by the historian of another age, lonely village to a large city teeming with wealth and splendor. Works not familiar to public eye are several fine Lscapes, 4, 7, 16, 89. Portraits, some best by regular producers, 42 by Frothingham v masterly and equal to more familiar 32, also has 115 a port of GW, urges buy it. Henry Inman finest works of masterly hand, port of Judge Lefferts, 123. Promising works of young artists, won’t spoil with praise or injure with blame. Most impt pict is noble production fr Huntington, his most recent pict, conceived in the finest taste of the past, when aim of Art was expr of sentiment, but made agreeable to present by robing solemn thoughts in brilliant colors, steeping grief in beauty. Artist/contributors elected their own Comm of Arrangements.

Oct 10 1845 p.2 reviews Am Inst Fair; and recommends the Daguerreotype beaut specimens there, those in want of pictures (and who is not?) should go, few things more pleasing and attractive, those by MB Brady rooms on corner of Broadway and Fulton st best, coloring equal to any thing, uncolored also gems, rec’d first premiums last year. notes he turned down offer of city govt printing when Whigs had city in 1842-3, those who did apply for it charged too high; says he’s never printed ads for theater and inserted daily puffs for them, and differs from C&E in that will review reputable books even if publisher doesn’t advertise. Puffs a magnify coll of Ptgs, Ancient and Modern, in Granite Bldg Broadway

Nov 4 1845 p. 2 notices Xtian Examiner has article on FA

November 21, 1845 p. 2 City Items—notices C of D by Remb  Peale, of remarkable interest fr its origin, history and report of its excellence we learn fr Evening Post fr Phila, not been shown for more than 20 yrs. Also notices remaining sale of ptgs at  Granite Bldg, including Durand’s Athens restored and picts by Both, Hachaert, Lebrun, Carlo Dolci etc.

Dec 4 1845 p.2 notice fr Sunday Mercury that AAU prospects better than last year, higher character of picts for distrib, 80 specimens fr own artists, inclu Inman, Cole, Durand, Kensett, Gignoux, Bonfield etc

13 Dec 1845 p. 2 Peale’s C of D: famous in annals of Am art, seen to gd advantage at Society library. Stress is laid in ads on the moral purpose or influ of the pict—we must observe that moral influ is not the legitimate obj of works of art. It may naturally flow as beauty is identical with health and virtue, but obj is to express thoughts in forms more perfect than the common course of nature furnishes. As all obj in a hi way beaut and perf are intrinsically pure and noble, mind who contemplates is elevated and expanded, but not province to preach of vice or virtue, sin and its retributions. Relig has afforded the best subjects bcause it presented types of the universal: Madonna a  hi and grand form of maternal tenderness, which may teach lessons, but does so incidentally. Christ reproving Peter affords moral instru, but true Artist subordinates all petty details and inferences to the sense of a being so raised above the region of doubt, speculation and and special precept by a thoro intellig of divine will that He and Father are one.

            Adverts seem to say that a work of Art needs some pretext or obj beyond its natural one of representing what is most excellent in thought, clear in imagination, and by doing so to confirm impressions already common enuf that prevent people fr looking at works fr the true pov.

            In our own way will inquire as to obj of artist, his mode of treatment, degree of success. Obj is twofold, moral one of giving juster ideas of death than usual, and other, true poetic or artistic object, to express in orig way artist’s own feelings abt death. Death here is a Power and a Fate, a conception open to philosophical objection, since Death is not positive but negative, not a power but the absence of power or life, but conception is still poetical, corresp to feelings that arise in the mind when we see souls cease to sustain the bodies, and is well expressed by stately form of old Egyptian calmness and grandeur, with foot on corpse in fullness of strength. Statuesque stillness and drapery, shadows, coldness and rigidity of corpse, form center of cold and dark, bring bold relief to forms and colors of groups on either side, giving great effect, calculated to produce emotions of solemnity and awe if not deep sadness rather than the serenity Peale says was his object. Even Descent fr Cross or Alston’s touching of the Dead Man’s bones, where centre was cold and dark, had this effect, while in Nativity, where light proceeds fr central group of warm living figs or the body of child, emotions induced are of peace, hope or joy. How otherwise? Centre alw winning eye to itself, and gives character to whole pict.

            Leading figs on either side finely conceived and colored, gazer may attach allegorical or human interest to them, according to his turn of mind, lesser fancies are equally optional to be seen or not (smoke fr Pleasure’s cup hiding presence of death fr her victim) according to quality of mental sight. Warrior group most powerful part, stern light in high poetic contrast with other parts, attitude and onward motion admirable, great force. In effective grouping, lights and shades and uniting of expression, Peale a patriarch. Signed *.

            (ad notes exhib at NAD rooms)

Dec 22 1845 p. 1 Art Union—annual distrib, JT Headley excellent speech, pointed to Powers as an example to be emulated. Headley writes Trib’s Letters from Italy.

27 Dec 1845 p. 2 “City Items”

Pupils of Deaf and Dumb Institu visited C of Death yesterday, scene intensely interesting, to watch play of eye and feature as ptg was explained to them, and its deep and holy meanings opened on their senses

            - JB Cummings, NA, school of higher order for instruction in Arts of Design, member of NAD, will have careful and well digested principles. Drwg fr antique, living models in chiaro scuro, lscape, fig, still life, persp mechanical and ornamental drwg, principles of Composition, oil and water colors, size of life and miniature on ivory, apply at his residence 50 Walker st.

22 Jan 1846 p. 2 “City items”

Quarterly mtg, so prosperous can pay death benefits, Inman’s widow first to receive it, committee of 12 appointed for benefit exhibition. Funeral of Inman many hundred friends and mourners, fr Murray st, prayer fr Rev Dr Alexander, to Reade st, members of Odd Fellows, pallbearers were Durand, Ingham, Morton, Cummings, Fosdick, Buckman, McMurtrie, Prof Mapes, FW Edmonds

Jan 30, 1846, p. 2, City Items, Paintings—The Ct of Death—great compositions that give the ptr permanent fame and are stamped with true genius are not valued here, a great composition in statuary takes up no more room than a bust so can ornament a gman’s library or drwg rm, but no magnificent galleries for grt ptgs. Artist who knows true mission is to instruct and refine spends yrs producing grt work that becomes useless property on his hands. Public galleries ltd demand, so artist makes public exhib. Mr. Levy just completed at Rome a magnif ptg of Christ disputing with the Doctors, spent yrs, has it here but won’t dispose of it for full value. People must gaze on these to become a correct judge of ptgs, can’t become a critic by looking at portraits, sketches, etc, only learn true principles of art by visiting freq magnif pict of C of D than by looking at all the little lscapes in the country. Most people if a ptg does not stri­­ke them favorably conclude it is a failure, but ptg requires study, one reveals all its beauties at first glance has few beauties, must be seen again and again to discover them. Effort to evolve great idea not extempore, not can it be caught in a glance. See it close, then fr distance, some figs before disliked will be found absolutely necessary to harmony of whole. Picks out Old Age stooping, sullenly moving waters, exquisitely beaut divine form of Virtue, is striking fr any point of view, but doubly fr a distance, seem a spectator of a distant but actual scene, retirement and mystery of cavern more sensibly felt. Near by the actors seem performing a part, but at a distance seem absorbed and you the unseen, unthought of spectators. By gaslight another effect, strongly pronounced fig of Conflagration possesses twofold vividness. Impression leaves on mind, will think more abt great principles of Art and power of ptr than by annual visit to NAD.

            -another city item on the 30th records AW Clason 31 Wall st attacked JG Bennett with cowhide re affair of McLachlan and Templeton; Bennett and Noah are exchanging libel suits, Bennett for articles in the Sunday Times, the Black Mail Lectures.

            -and notices CofD again in subsequent weeks, e.g. Feb 13, 1846, p.2, visited by thousands, our first artists have spent hours in appreciative study of its grand conceptions. Notes on same page that McLachlan of the Evening Mirror is going to receive a concert (recently attacked by Herald); also  

18 Feb 1846 p. 2. Same page cites NY Express as saying Trib professes to be Whig, but glorifies low and degrading, are barnburners, locofoco traitors in the Whig ranks, Whig in name only

6 March 1846; 16 March, NY Evening Mirror supports Trib reporter Persimmon who got ejected fr the house for criticizing a member eating at his desk; Mirror worried about sordid habits of members, public man, ought to reprobate grossness so Demo and Dirt are not tied together. 23 March 1846, Inman hasn’t been paid his $500 yet for his portrait of Mayor Harper

See above--advertisement for TS Cummings, Prof of Arts of Design in the U of City of NY, $12/quarter (12 weeks) for drwg, more for oil, less for juveniles; March 30, 1846, p. 3. On p. 4 is a poem for the Trib “To a Lady with a Miniature,” by J of St. Louis, man has exposed nature’s secrets, but within this little case caught and fastened by Daguerre, feelings warm and kind rise while you gaze, would I had secret art to stamp them on thy mind (religious devotion preferable to romantic perhaps)

9 April 1846 p. 2 notices hanging of NAD, unusual interest and variety, should open around the 15th. Beaut Ptg of Venus at the Bath, after or by Titian, has returned to city. Wm H Graham exposes Odd Fellowship, Tribune bldgs., assures us pamphlet is correct—it’s a joke, though.

            Alw quarreling with O’Sullivan of Demo Review and I think of the Morning News.

10 Long Island rrd in hands of stock jobbers, who kept news to themselves for half a day, so Trib estab an alternative

11, 13, 14, 15 has about 5 woodcuts of Pilot Boat the Trib/Sun sent to get the news from London on its perilous journey; p.3 notices Clarke’s gallery auction

16 p. 2 City Items: NAD opens this morning, coll quite large and with fewer ports than ever before, gratifying as seems taste for pictures as pictures (as remarked by Eve Post) is on increase. Post’s editor says Cole has one or two fine things, some exquis lscapes by Durand, and an admirable pict by a Germ artist ar Rome repress St Cecilia, divinely beaut. Paid a hasty visit ourselves and found many many things to admire, a sweet and deep-toned lscape by Cranch, touching pict by Durand (A Passage in Life of Woman), bold and successful port by Wenzel, fine things by Ingham, pensive thoughtful head of dreams and music by Osgood.

            Launitz the sculptor repairing monument in St Paul’s by his father

17 p. 3 Card to ed of Trib fr Lester re Powers, argues a third party hostile to Lester is behind Powers’ accusations, proves thru letters that Powers read and approved the manuscript

18, 20, 22, 23, 24 p.2 Whigs nominated as delegates to Constitutional Convention included John L Stephens, tho a Demo, would act independently of party. Puffs Plumbe’s dags. City Items: NA: institution has reached the age of manhood, more fine pics and greater matured talent than in any two of the last five. Attendance full and public interest in National Schl. We have never seen great relics of olden Inspiration Greece and Italy, so scarce speak in detail, but feel there IS a standard of the Beaut within our souls, but so obscured by ignorance and inexperience and the incalculable rubbish of current criticism that can scarce disting its outline among dreamy and imperfect visions. Yet everbody who pretends to be an Editor must pretend also to be able to crit everything, so we will point out our favorites:

1 Tasso and his Friends, a gd compos, somewhat stiffly executed, head of sick Poet finely drawn. 2 River Scene in NHampshire, most creditable, 9 by same artist (Richards) is exquis thing. 14 Camilla and Gil Blas, Colored w/all of Flagg’s usu depth and richness, drawn with more than his usual accuracy. 23 Pick-Nick Party, one of Cole’s admirable lscapes, so true to Nature, so warm, so fresh, remains nothing to be desired. 42 Alms-Giving, ptg of much force and expression, one of Huntington’s best, his 47 also excellent. 46 lscape composition, glorious pict by Durand (this is the one in the Met?). 54 Dead Courser, sm pict by Ranney, hung low and unfavorable, but powerful and startling, hold a higher place in yr memory. 65 Italy by Huntington, wild, dreamy, enthusiastic, relig poetical head, full of everything that Italy is while remembering what she was. 76 Juliet, Balcony Scene, a sweet face, but not our especial Juliet.

            77 Lake Champlain fr near Burlington, w/Adirondack Mtns, grand and at same time delicious pict, trans undiluted to soul v spirit of scene. 78 Joshua Spencer, massive head, full of fire of thought, too handsome and too young for original, but not too intellectual. 82 Landing of the Northmen, Leutze has created a style for himself to which he strongly adheres, tho this pict is more blending and graceful than usual. 103 No Carolina Emigrants, pict full of deep and sorry truth, make one who has seen the orig here so well depicted both langu and weep, very saddest burlesque upon real life and yet real to the life. 139 Pick Nick Party, CP Cranch, best and sweetest lscape compositions whose intense beauty we ever drank in, rising fame of this true-thoughted young artist. 144 Mandolin, SS Osgood, never seen a more beaut head, attitude bewitching and white little hands with blue veins as exquis as Spring flowers. 156 Port of a Lady, one of most striking picts, effects simply produced, to a severe critic harshness in the contrasts, but please and fascinate beholder. Lady is really reading, not often seen in a pict. 179 Lady, Ingham, the most delicious colorist, soft and velvet transfusions to canvas of delic and evanescent tint of woman’s beaut not seen elsewhere. Head and arm are a study for best and most skillful. 202 Angels bearing St Cath, C Blass (?) fine ptg a new name to us, destined to be familiar. 290 A Passage in the Life of Woman, beaut ptg by Durand much and justly applauded, the gem of exhib.

25, 27, 28. 29, 30

May 1846

1, p.4 notices Bonvard’s work in Louisville on grand pan of Miss and OH rivers, on a 3 mile canvas, finest scenic effect and truth and accuracy, character of Western rivers, wonderful force

2, 4,5,6, 7 full length port of Gov Bouck by CL Elliott being ptd, for City Hall, fee $1000, Bouck chose Elliott. 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 mostly about declaration of war w/Mex, but notes Geo W Dixon raising a regiment with a liberty pole, and the Empire Club (Isaiah Reynders); a free exhib of larg beaut coll of modern Euro ptgs in Chambers St Gallery, Granite bldg., for auction, valuable lscape fr Bonaparte, originals by Boucher and disting masters, 14 praises Edw Mansfield’s Life of Winfield Scott. 15, 16, 18, 19 mentions Plumbe, Peale’s C of D in Boston, Titian’s Venus at the Bath in Broadway, and sale of modern oil ptgs in Chambers st, by Tuttle and Declurrau. 20 describes the composition of Mexican troops as dusky aborigines making the great body, but not feeble serfs. Notices that the large ptg of Mr Spear of Boston, known as Belshazzar’s Feast has arrived; Peale’s CofD now at Boston. 21, 22 Letter from The Old Man of the Mountain (part of a series) accompanied by woodcut of lscape, Yankees are enemies of trees. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30

June 1846

1 defends V Clirebugh agst accusations of Templeton in the Herald (Clirebugh wanted to be paid for promoting Templeton). 2, 3, 4 defends Am Inst for not doing more for the Great Fair in DC. 5 p.2 CE Lester and Powers the Sculptor, reprints his letter to the Courier, responding to Powers’ letter in the Courier on the 16th May, defending the accuracy of what he said Powers’ opinion of the Genoa Crucifix was; could shame Powers if he wished by exposing him further but won’t.

6, 8, 9 promised to review Allston’s Belshazzar some days ago, but hasn’t. 10, 11 puff of Rare coll of picts, choice, truly valuable, R Gurley & Co 304 Broadway at Duane, lscapes and other subjects by Huntington, Doughty and Birch, plus v fine ptgs by the old masters. Excerpts Boston Transcript that Clevenger’s Last work, fine bust marble Henry Clay, left abroad unfinished, is on view at Athenaeum. Powers finished it, sold for sculptor’s benefit.

12 p.1 “Belshazzar’s Feast: An Attempt to Fulfill the Unfinished Design of Washington Allston by Thomas Spear.” Everyone knows the history of this, while still a mental sketch, was bought and sold by subscription, lay boxed for years, died. To those who venerated in him the purest repress of realm of beauty, ptg was a full expression of his inward life, a consecrated object. Viewing unfinished pict regret and awe at being admitted to secret stages of devt in mind. Had no pupil, design left confused. Spear requested to copy what was on the canvas and carry it out was naturally refused, fear of tampering with fame, a caricature of ideal. So Spear drew privately on his hat, ptd according to his idea of ptr’s intentions. Aim mercenary? Advertises it as Allston’s. But if he is justified, we are pleased to see it, degree of success justifies it, conception shines out very visibly if not with effulgence. Canvas rich with motion, concentrated thought and fullness of forms. To those disappointed in the prophet, Allston’s orig did not promise much more. That central form is no Prophet, in all save the beard not more powerful in expression than the ministers of our modern synods. Force of the design is in the astonished figs of the voluptuous and reckless court, with its unworthy royalties. Yet even in their odiousness, grandeur. Allston had finest understanding of effects of dress, arrangement of hair and jewels, the poetry of social life stood at his command. Granite Bldg. Signed with * .  p. 3 reviews libel trial agst Webb, David Hale of J of Commerce and Greeley both testify.

13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24 Buchanan and Bennett in cahoots  25, 27 p. 2 The Art Union rms in Broadway, ought to all notice, but goes along so quietly almost forget, even tho pass a cool, calm and pleasant Temple of the Beaut, peace and happiness, Soul may lose herself in undulating waves of loveliness issuing on all sides. A corresp of the Eve Post says: capital pict, a port of lady a la Turque, dignified and classical, ptd by Kellogg, an Amer artist in Florence. Exceedingly well ptd, gd likeness, K a native of this state tho a resident of Cinti for some time. All our artists abroad shd consign works to AU to observe, Fraser the superintendent would exhibit

27 p.2 City Items, excerpts fr corresp of Eve Post re Art Union rms in Broadway capital pic of port of lady a la Turque dignified and classical fr Kellogg, gd likeness

29, 30 Stewart’s fine port of Genl Wayne at Brockebank’s Pict Store 556 Broadway 

July 1846

1, Flagg, whose beaut pict of Shylock and Jessica has been so greatly admired has put it up in a raffle, $5, pict a gem worth $300

2,3, 4 Express after election favored annexation. Notes Henry J Raymond has for 3 yrs been in editorial dept of C&E, has purchased a third of the paper. Was assistant editor at the Trib fr 1841 until 1843.

Stopped at the 4th.

July 12, p. 2 long enthusiastic obit for Allston, notes his marriage to a Channing and a Dana, friendship with Coleridge, Biblical ptgs, rare genius didn’t care for wealth or honors, lofty style embodied ideas of the superhuman and divine

Aug 21, 1846, p.1 GGF translates fr La Phalange, article on the Louvre exhibition, by D Laverdant. Harmony and unity are the key terms in this, as Art’s domain, the world of the Ideal, get rid of false tones and discords that destroy the effect, must efface deformity to let Beauty reign. Art has a double mission: it is the Critic when it reflects the povery, disorders and sufferings of Man and Nature to awaken our pity and horror; when art sings of splendors and smiles of life, then it is prophetic. Rosa, Carravagio, Rembrandt, Delacroix, Scheffer are powerful Critics, cry of struggling protest. Claude, Veronese, Corregio, Raphael are prophets of harmony, Corot, Huet, Francis, Diaz. Speaks of diff kinds of ptgs, begins with Landscape: if heart is cold and unsymp spirit, just a portrait of objs selected at hazard. Enthusiastic soul reproduces beauty or deformity to enkindle and instruct us. Work assumes character of social instruction as he recombines dispersed elements of the Beaut in order to reveal laws of Order and Harmony. Omits the mean, base or hideous, or collates them into a repulsive and frightful pict, which has its social usefulness, to depict the hell in which we are or to reveal new Golden Age. 4 themes are Primitive Eden or virgin Nature, Desert or Savage, Nature abandoned in ruins or desolation; Civilization, campagnard, Nature distorted by misdirected labor of man, trees cut down by outrageous taste, farms strewn without convenience or symmetry, walls of broken bottles, stagnant waters, grotesque poverties. Earthly Paradise or beauty fr wise cultiv of soil.

September 1846

21, 22, 23 publishes Marg Fuller on Amer Lit, says we don’t need an indep one yet, just plays to national vanity, ok if methods of Euro survive in us, dislikes cheap publications and reprints of English books. Prescott greeted with warmth abroad, but doesn’t have higher powers of the historian, great leading views, tame.Bancroft more vivid, leading thoughts. Channing and Emerson, profound thinkers, Irving and Cooper, Sedgwick and Kirkland. Poets don’t write with sincerity, write for press in imitation or vanity, cherished by magazines as corresp to tawdry pictures of smiling milliners’ dolls in the frontispiece, only a fashion. Style of story in mag too are flimsy, except perhaps for Child and Stephens, an opiate and adulterated. Bryant, Halleck, Willis, Dana, but Longfellow artificial and imitative, but not mechanical. Lowell absolutely wanting, stereotyped. Hawthorne the best of the day

24, 25 seems enthuse re Millard Fillmore, gives gd review to Altowan ed by J Watson Webb

26 Wiley & Putnam pub Bayard Taylor’s travels, ed NP Willis; also Chas Lanman’s travels

28, 29, 30

October 1846

1,2, 3,5, notices a sign painter on Nassau, superb, and the ivory crucifix, rare beauty. 7

Oct 8, 1846 p. 2 “City Items”. Great Fair, has coup d’oeil of Great Saloon. Have read so many catlogical diagrams of Annual Fair of Am Inst and NAD that not adding to monument of critical folly which they only don’t make because of perishable newspaper. Gave way to caprice of moment, stopped admiringly before a shining Porcelain Minerva, undulation of the line of beauty with most Praxitilean symmetry, Battle of Navarino thru Cosmoramic wreaths of smoke, whole galleries of Portraits by the people. It was like standing in the middle of a Flemish picture and seeing it gradually become alive and walk up out of the dead shades of the back-ground.

p. 1 has coverage of woman’s rights convention, also the Trumbull phalanx in Ohio. Publishes fr Cinti Enquirer a letter fr TCH Smith, saying that an anon writer in the 23rd(?) Trib believes that I tried to induce Mr Powers, Mr Longworth and others to discountenance Lester’s Artist, Merchant and Statesman. Only discussed it with Longworth when he received a letter repudiating Lester. Nor does he think the interlineations in the MSS were by Powers.

Oct 22, 1846 p. 3 “City Items: Vanderlyn’s Great Picture” great work has power to confer immortality on its author, from moment finished, another Amer name took rank among the Undying Ones of Earth. Stern and masculine character of the subj, remarkable that first and most powerfully strikes you in this pict is exquis exhalation of the softest atmosph of Beaut. Not in it except in unnoticed and far persp, a single female form, and nearest approach to this crowning grace is fig of kneeling boy. Yet so intensely wrought out and subdued are artistical effects of composition, so thoroughly in every touch imbued with the life? Of Genius, that we first are enchanted, and so pass down to admiration and calm enjoyment of the scene. Columb discov a new world, but Vanderlyn has created one. Idle to talk of ‘points’ in ptg, yet the point of the sword in hand of Columb can’t help mentioning. Whole blade seems? Actually waving gently thru the air, pt of such hi-bred steel as wld attract a magnet. Hand of Columb is part of noble form and ? expressive face and attitude of navigator, sweet young head bowing above the boy’s shoulder, kneeling boy himself, lifelike devt of form and muscle that everywhere meets the eye, the full deep classic repose that fills the excited soul with peace and serenity of the beaut, points in foregrd or main body of ptg that most powerfully enchain the attn.. But light, languid, desultory ? sea which smiles like Nature around, heavy languishing air seems to weigh the very exuberance of forest branches into a quiet and sleepy grace, dim needles of dark that pierce the misty light seawards, these soon win their way to the heart. Dark forms of the natives gliding away lost in dim forest, typing the destiny of their doomed race, joyous attitudes and faces, eager graspers after supposed golden sands of new world, are worthy of this great compos, and the unity of all these details, which dwelt in the artist’s brain, and has so well succeeded in embodying, can never never be forgotten.

            To critics who imagine duty not done til faults found we leave ungrateful task of disenchantment and dissection. Have never admired surgeon who showing how human form is made destroys divine construction. Love to lose ourselves in delicious dreams of wand of Art, hold communion with the Perfect, and forget that Deformity and its malicious child Criticism (alw in search of its parent) exist. Landing of Columb on exhib in Gallery of NAD, up some 18 or 20 flights of stairs.

23 p. 2, City Items, The Arts, tour in search of pictque, AU rms, Cole magnify tho lacks aerial persp that Brown so eminent in, equal in pt of exec if not subj is Durand’s The Old Man’s Lesson, lscape, nature not idealized as admit in his pics generally; in nature and humanity a latent ideal visible only to eye of Genius, high priest of Nature not merely the showman. Rms have some of brown’s finest lscapes, glad to know he’s appreciated, love him. Stop at Academy, Vanderlyn’s great pic, shall speak again and again, chaste beaut simple majesty admirable relief, finest historical pic an Am artist yet produced, faults, but merits so superior don’t have eyes for them. Visit studio of Dubourjal at Murray st and Broadway, better known elsewhere, miniatures lifelike and speaking, regret Dag, remind us of a poem only heart more true fixer of form than the Artist

7 Nov 1846 p. 2 “City Items” like to lounge on Broadway on fine days, after visiting the menagerie (these animals are the type of moral evil, all their ferocity and cruelty will disappear when man becomes all good). Next climbing the panorama of staircases to NA where Vanderlyn’s great pict still fills air with beauty and makes classic the very walls that shut in so much of the true dignity of Art. Who can stand before that ptg and not actually feel his frame tingle, sharp and sudden pleasure his soul has been permitted to take in at a single inspiration so much of the Beaut. They go on criticizing, while we go on admiring.

            Art Union keeps up interest, at fashionable hours filled with visitors. Paige’s new pict there attracts a gd deal of attn., gives rise to many discussions, in which we do not choose to mingle.

            Second notice of Vanderlyn, the talented artist advanced in years, lost his first installment of money fr Congress, had to do other works for support, thus the delay of two years, wants to retrieve his misfortune

Nov 14 1846 Art and Artists in NY, fr a characteristic letter by Lydia Maria Child to Boston Courier, visits Art Union, arrested by Leutze’s new pic, extreme beauty and harmonized richness of coloring, best yet, ordered by Robb, liberal patron in N Orleans, Iconoclast Puritans. Fine materials, and fanatical mob is graceful in effect, all the poetry is with the Catholics, clamorous protesting of intellect agst intense conservatism of sentiments, tho necessary to keep moral balance of world, is never poetic, alw jars on artistic souls, even while they reverence its bravery. Puritans did a great work for human freedom, but when I think of them I hear a man walking behind me with iron shoes ona stone pavement.

            Unusual no of gd pics in AU, Durand’s of old man by brook talking to grandaughter v beaut, pervaded by golden haze gives poetic char to his lscapes. Seldom closes in vision, aversion to law of limitation, delights in sunny opening in distance where cld wander. Brown’s lscapes here, one of best, Moonlight in Venice for Geo Tiffany of Baltimore, more orders than any ptrs abroad, rich in his style, but still want transparency in atmosphere, absence of life in objects, remind me of extremely beaut worsted work.

            Gall of FA, Bostonian would say “Rather New-Yorky” for some v fine, ordinary, and some v bad. Tammany Hall dispensation on all we do here. Common and mean everywhere force itself alongside elegance and beauty. At first annoyed by this, took away my pleasure in looking at really beaut pics to see them surrounded by mob of ordinary ones. Crowd of inexpressive portraits of Lady Gman partic vexed me, only use to send them to large parties instead of going in person.

            Demo heart reconciled me to indiscrim exhib, like that every man have chance to manifest talent, many above mediocrity instead of one or two towering giants. Don’t complain when performers want to do their own compositions instead of Mozart, expression of a man’s own life, if unaffected and true, has individ vitality and beauty fr that alone, may lead to more real growth than constant reproduction of vastly superior works.

            Cole’s series of lscapes—focuses on Voyage, thinks Old Age too gloomy. Likes Horace Kneeland’s excellent bust of Prof Mapes. Carey of Phila thought he should make an equestrian statue of GW, cast in bronze in Berlin, on his deathbed spoke of it and Powers’ Proserpine

Nov 17 1846 p. 1 Foreign Corresp of Trib, Glances at Mod Germ, by a Young American, no. VI in Present State of the Arts. Germany of late impt stand in fine arts, scarcely an artist of middling celebrity since Durer til the last half century. Now as Italy falls, Germ rises. Poetry heralds way for diff embodiment on canvas, Schiller, Goethe, Herder and Richter precede host of artists. Dusseldorf and  Munich schools resemble universities, artists so great as to constitute peculiar class, no less than 700 in Munich. Berlin, Dresden too. No want of encouragement, works of merit sold for full value. But patronage of rulers has shackles, very rich or very noble rarely have true taste or spirit, influ by vanity or appearance, not love for arts.Obliged to execute designs of his patron, chafing of lofty spirit, Daunecker first Germ sculptor such an example, have classic eleg and beauty of Greek style, masterpiece Ariadne, colossal busts of Schiller and Goethe. Rauch scarcely inferior, Schwanthaler adorns splendid public edifices, but not first rate, excels in individuals not ideal subj, as in 24 painters at Pinakothek. Wagner young artist in Rome and others show signs of excellence. Launitz of Frankfort has works in US, worthy pupil of Thorwaldsen.

            Lessing and Cornelius in ptg, followed by Retsch, Schnorr, Kaulback, Veit. Highest and grandest style of hist ptg and except Vernet without rivals, diff in style but equal in genius. Lessing tinctured with Duss school, wonderful skill in grouping and expr, correct drwg and harmony of coloring. Censure of Germ art as deficient in color, cold and hard vs Titian or Rubens, true for Duss, colors brilliant and arranged for striking and dazzling effects beyond nature, not clearness, warmth and golden transparency of old masters.

            Lessing may be less warm and glowing, but subjs don’t require it. Grandeur and sublimity of thought to compos, scenes convey great moral or mental lesson. Cornelius rich and glowing, scriptural, fresco, but imperfect in general effect.

            Schnorr powerful, gloomy, strength of conception, old minstrel epic of Germ, coloring hard and dry inferior to deceiving reality of Lessing, fine feeling for sublime. Tho others not free fr mannerism of mod Gem style, have ardent enthusiasm.

            Fine lscape ptrs but most have hardness of style, copy Nature v closely and coloring gd, but lack atmosphere necessary to a perfect lscape. Lessing’s have not this fault, strikingly true and beaut. Pose a young artist counterfeits Nature. Open windows. Dahl esteemed, young and rising.

Nov 20 1846 p. 2 City Items, New Pictures-Vanderlyn has added another view of Niagara to his exhib, fully equal to its companion. Pair are among the finest in country, abt to be purchased for NY Gallery, he was founder designer and builder of Rotunda. His Columbus is still attracting crowds, which speaks well for taste of city. Art Union daily adding to coll, Beard just sent one of his v best picts, a port of the Italian White Mouse Boy, beaut and ought seen by all. NY Gall recently got a new pict by Rothermel which attracts attn. Columbian Mag spending a lot of money, with Willis and Morris back in harness for Home J should go well (on p. 1 excerpts their prospectus)

Dec 1 1846 p. 2 City Items—Mr Vanderlyn and the Rotunda: Is V an American? Was asked us the other eve when seated b4 pict of Columbus. Gives his history, we owe him patronage, he’s doing portraits. 

Dec 12, 1846 p. 2 City Items

Stopped last eve at studio of Brown, the sculptor, in NA, only glanced at fine statuary, but enough to go again, Boy and Dog pay for a long visit. Vanderlyn’s pict is now a fashionable evening and morning resort, and if could remain until our citizens became fully conscious of its great merits, wld be regularly thronged. Influ of ptg is so still, and calm, and cool, that a pict has hard work to struggle its way along in a city as fullof excitements and rushes as NY. If he could engage a first rate orchestra and unite power of Music and Ptg, everybody would attend levee of beaut sisters.

            American Review articles has Hints to Art Union Critics (by Thiers?) which is very good; also likes Redwood Fisher’s articles on Monopolies (Dem Review in Jan 1847 also does Art Union; Hunt’s does it in June or July)

Feb 6 1847 p. 2 notices appearance of Literary World, modeled on London Atheneaeum, Evert A Duyckinck, various depts. In approp hands, Duyckinck intends to avoid conventionalities and give Truth. Also social improvements, shows editor not unaffected by growing humanity of age.

            Lit crit not profound or orig, any gman of good ed ought to write and not regret. Dislike a severe crit of Geo Sand’s Jacques, whose appearance in English is no occasion for gratulation. Critic has unjust prejudices, insinuations. But genl conservative tone of World ok.

Feb 8, 1847 p.2 fr Literary World an announcement that Wm S Mount will live in city, will likely make more ptgs by being surrounded by them

Feb. 18, 1847 p. 3 Law Courts, trial of Edgar Allen Poe vs Hiram Fuller and AW Clason, for libel. P in article in Godey’s criticized Thom Dunn English, who pub articles in Eve Mirror, accusing him of getting money with false pretences and forgery. English’s deposition said Poe wanted money to get the Broadway Journal in his own hands, Fuller lent him the money, but never got a share in the Journal. A merchant T, Judge Noah and Freeman Hunt testified Poe’s character good except drinks. Poe won. P. 4 sonnet by C to HT Tuckerman.

Mar 8, 1847 p.1 City Items, repudiates Eve Post accusation that music critic is voice of a clique, just want reliable criteria, poor cry of clique whenever tread on pretence and error

April 1847

2, likes Neale 56 Carmine st mezzotint by Sadd of The Spirit of ’76, grouping and expression of figs eminently effective and beaut, highest style. 3, 5, C&E and Trib notice Melville 6, 7, 8, approves of Yankee Doodle the mag 9, 10, 12, 13,14, 15

16 p.4 City Items (this is a puff): Rossiter’s Pict of Ruth, Naomi and Orm? This ptg well worth a visit, unique and unrivaled in grouping and coloring, clime of Orient faithfully delineated. Gleaming mtn, sleeping boy beside donkey, Ruth and devoted Daughter, beaming with affection, nr majestic Naomi, contrast beaut w/sorrowing prid of sister. Glad Amer boasts an artist who won admiration abroad by talents but is justly esteemed at home, was ptd at Rome, bears stamp of true genius, inspired by congenial scene around him.

17, publishes a Boston defense of Griswold, who has too often behind the scenes, and has viewed too closely the ‘dirty ropes and greasy pulleys’ by which the great stage delusion of the independent Press is prepared and managed, to be at all affected by malevolence in the mask of criticism…”Also from a series “Rambling Notes on the Old World” an essay about free public exhibitions; the opening of the picture ands culp galleries of France free to all classes has had its effect. Brit mus has ptgs enough to form a unique and splendid gallery, finest Sculp in the world, vide Elgin Marbles, beside a Nat Gall of picts by the Masters and Raphael’s Cartoons, all free on certain days. Coll at Pantheon with chief of Haydon’s ptgs, also free, beside the fine picts and statuary of the churches and abbeys. Influ of dumb but eloquent agents of civilize beyond stats, turn multitude fr lower excitements and estab crit taste, educ. The herd catch a grace of thought and sentiment fr Arts hail them every turn, Close free exhib on holidays, when most needed, and on Sabbath, better than pubs. US ought not to wait until market of art is empty. 19, 20

21 April 1847 p.1 “NAD” (Charles Dana)

Have delayed speaking of it fr desire to observe it fully and allow our impression of whole and parts become complete; exhib as an indication of present state and tendencies of art among us shouldn’t be given hasty crit. Exam of more striking pictures would be profitable, of works of diff artists and their genl and partic features also useful if not alw agreeable, but must defer, just speak of exhib collectively.

            Surprise at number of v poor picts, many which would do no credit to a sign ptr, can scarcely believe admitted by well informed committee in charge, looks much more like an indiscriminate reception of all comers, than judicious selection of worthy honor. Standard shld be higher. Leaving aside picts that fr extreme wretchedness exercise a bad influ only on a comparatively small portion of visitors, what of those form main features? Of a hi or low order, what tendencies? Qs of interest to public who enjoy art intelligently and would demand the best did they but know what that was. For the public taste 2 parties directly responsible, artists and critics, mass of people may delight to see pictures but lack sufficient education of the sense by which the delight is received to trust their own impressions. They are aware that the artist ought to possess a truer judgment than they do, and to that judgment they commit themselves. If work be striking ready to take for granted it is true to Nature, or in accord w/rules of art, which they perhaps suppose to be something diff fr Nature and above Nature. Community like ours where no long familiarity with works of merit has refined the perceptions of public, artist too easily finds admirers for everything, and faults become confirmed by very trial that ought to correct them. Even fr professed conneisseurs v little really judicious crit reaches majority who visit, those who really know what is excellent content to express opinions to friends, not caring to oppose a genl tendency among artists or attempt enlightenment of a public they don’t respect, while those who seem to speak with authority are frequently the mere echoes of what shld never be echoed but condemned and if possible corrected.

            To speak plainly, prevailing features in picts are superficiality and extravagance. Fr first to last with but few exceptions, indications of a low estimate of art, hasty observation, most shallow perception of Nature, and employment of tricks and clap trap rather than a sober and studious endeavor after truth in execution. Not in spirit of fault-finding, but because gd purpose.

            Estimate the artists put on their art, quite inadequate. Art no pastime, legerdemain, trifle of the day or hour; worthily cultivated by those to whom it is a great and absorbing reality. To create a work which shall live not mere piece of manual dexterity requires deeper sentiment more earnest efforts than a boy makes in whistling, or gman in switching his cane, whole soul of artist shld be stirred to its deeps as Nature is when she heaves up a new Continent. Sincerity, serious devotion, don’t dally, serve, practice like a relig, a spiritual necessity, enter studio as priest into temple, reverent and pure of all impulses save sacred sense of duty. Art is new higher creation man and nature in more intimate sympathy, and he who regards it as a thing beneath not above himself, a vehicle of amusement or profit, prostitutes and turns into mere dabbler, ceases to be an artist, loses noble aspirations and true artistic power. Eminently true of ptg in which science can’t supply place of integrity and elevation of soul. Musician may perform by rote, but ptr must create as well as embody his creations.  Of such supreme reverence find no great traces; Art regarded as convenient companion and means of satisfying passing necessities rather than all-demanding but generous mistress. Spirit of artisanship not Art, too much a trade of noble calling, why don’t produce higher results.

            Mode and degree of studying and understanding Nature: as Nature is basis and medium of all human life, insight into it is requisite, so that Nature shall appear in picture as in her own proportions and relations. Passion, character or action can only be seen thru its natural material medium, but harmony betw spiritual fact and material embodiment, appreciation of which is only ground of truth to Nature, requires long patient pious study. Don’t laugh at Goethe like superficial persons for making artist enter into nature of sheep. Must seize its essence, or won’t have unity in pict, for most dexterous can’t depend on eye for that unity, must work like Nature fr central principles or will only caricature not imitate her.

            Picts generally superficial—destitute of such genuine insight, copy surfaces fr glancing at surfaces, not fr understanding of interior characters and rlns of things themselves. Portraits esp evince this fault, seem dashed off at a few sittings, some chance looks are enuf for quick fingers to follow, done in a week or so. Human face, the last perfection of Nature, highest obj which art can attempt, can’t be represented by trifling or thoughtless, wise artist will not think to underst save by sympathetic and profound observation, or copy w/o laborious careful efforts. But most grave bcause most prevalent fault is extravagance in execution, every man paints merely to catch the public eye and the strife is which pict shall be most gaudy and glaring. What ptrs call tone is almost wholly lacking, everything is made as prominent as masses of white paint can make it. No effort to be true to Nature, to keep within the limits of means at artist’s command, every one must have some striking particular in his pict no matter at what sacrifice. Each fears to return to sobriety and attempt what is solid, lest he shld be unnoticed, so far has this prostitution of art for sake of notoriety been carried that the exhib looks better by lamp light than daylight, when want of tone made up by yellow glare of gas, a fact artists evidently not ignorant of.

            By day complaint that rooms are too much lighted, so false the prevailing chalkiness of exhib is felt to be, as if good works could have too much of pure light of heaven. Healthy or promising state of art, in which picts ptd merely for exhib, designedly to arrest the public gaze by a flashy glare? Not space to enlarge or touch on minor points of this head, but commend artists to reflect, do something to arrest rapid progress of false taste, put themselves in true positions toward the public. Be true to their convictions, any descent into what they must know to be a false, gaudy and unnatural style of working is a personal degradation; when art is degraded, they are degraded, how much more when they perpetuate the wrong! Can’t we have an Am Schl of Ptg disting not for meretricious but for substantial qualities, a School orig in greater depth and breadth in which it apprehends Nature, greater truth and purity reproduces it. Let us avoid that passion for mere show, for glitter and gewgaws, to so great an extent vitiates society in this new rorld!

            Add that a notice of Rossiter’s Ruth and Naomi in our columns a day or two (16th) since fr some friendly hand bestows on that pict a degree of praise in our judgment not just, tho exhib by itself, it forms no exception to the genl course of our remarks on Acad exhib.

Account of legislature of NY mentions Mr Shumway of Buffalo, judiciary committee, a bill opposed by Mr Beach.

27 May 1847 p. 2 “City Items” “NAD” critic of the Commercial Advertiser in paper published Wednesday May 26, 1847, said “truthful analysis of the features of present exhib appeared in Trib of 21st April and was written by an artist of untiring zeal in his vocation…” happy to find so judicious a writer concurring in rather decided views of that article, flattered by attribution, but disclaim for our humble effots, every word came from pen which usually occupies this column of the Trib.  (Charles Dana) Plan to apply to partic picts the genl principles laid down.

28 May 1847 p. 2

Notices a Port of Gen Taylor, life size colored litho of Old Rough and Ready fr a drwg by Henry Clay, engr by F Michelin, 111 Nassau st, accuracy as a likeness certified by various personally acquainted officers, sold Long & Brother, 38 ? Ann st.

Charles Dana “City Items” “NAD-Second Notice” former article characterized present exhib as having a low estimate of art, superficial study of nature, prevailing extrav and flashy mode of execution, in order to have facts come home to public and artists and have any serious effect in arresting downward tendency, must employ examples. It is said, this exhib not much worse than those gone before. We can’t say, not having been familiar with them, never having seen but one and that some ten years ago, don’t criticize bcause worse or better but bcause possesses strongly marked qualities need earnest condemnation and resolute avoidance. If evil be habitual and deeply rooted, more need to set it in true light. Not ignorant that the tendencies are by no means original or exclusive to the Academy. Modern Art has abandoned Nature for a poor kind of trickery, in Engl, France, Italy and Germ, and except for a few gifted unwearied souls who maintain trad aspiration for better, artists lost on false paths lead to worse than nowhere. Not dreaming that Art is not handicraft, but rests on deepest subtle principles, waste lives seeking dubious fortuitous success, a happy accident, not conceiving that the artist is not an imitator, they copy antique or caricature modern nature, not knowing what is substantial and permanent, whitewash pics into a flaring, gaudy flimsiness, not driven by overmastering impulse, despair of coming near the awful boundary still girds abt the old masters, as if they were more than earnest men of genius who saw into nature with their own eyes and by patient thought learned to repeat what they saw. Sad weakness of modern art shown by involuntary confession that the old masters can’t be approached.

            A more striking evidence of truth of our strictures couldn’t be found than in first pic of catalog, Cortes, professes to repress Mex adventurer when his soldiers find he’d destroyed their ships. Artist has just enuf dexterity with brush to prevent absolutely uninformed seeing true character of his work, but can’t impose on any one with a little knowl of art in idea and exec, it exemplifies every fault we have spoken of. No unity in design, no regard to nature in mode in which it is ptd, Cortez is a theatrical dandy, in a dress fresh fr the bandbox, practicing an unknown unintelligible sort of gesticulations. 2 ladies, equally theatrical and inexplicable, in foregrd, while fierce, weather beaten soldiers just on pt of tearing Capt to pieces, are engaged on their own account, w/o reference to the other gmen and ladies present, in v strange and alarming feats of posturing. Color distrib in same manner, red, yellow and white put here and there, according to no principle but that on which the Indian paints himself to make the greatest possible display.

            Huntington’s picts somewhat an improvement on this, but far fr satisfactory. Notice only the historical compositions, we have 70 Mercy fainting at Wicket Gate, 82 Ldy Jane Gray interrupted at her devotions in Tower, and 222 Piety and Folly. In first, figs out of proportion (near 8 heads high) as out of drwg otherwise, and pict tells no story worth telling. Actors have not enuf character to render an ordinary conversation tolerable, pict doesn’t proceed fr depth of feeling which is one of most indispensable requisites in a pict. Doesn’t haunt you after leaving it w/new revelations of passion or beauty, but mainly the painful impression of a most dislocated and deformed shoulder. Bad enough to make Mercy a giantess, but to put her joints out is worse. In other picts by him, same defects. In conception, in drwg, in color, evince a low estimate of art, superficial insight into nature, gross extravagance in exec. These picts form no exception to tenor of exhib at large.

Need earlier (April) description of opening dinner (couldn’t find it)

May 29, 31 

June 1847

1,2,3 reprints a Plumbe puff fr C&E. 4,5, 7,8,9 likes Ital opera, mismanaged at Palmo’s, Astor Hse won’t answer purpose, too far uptown, too small to include cheaper seats. 10 new ed. of pano of Hudson Riv pub by Disturnell, drawn and engr by Wm Wade, showing both banks; litho port of Col EL Snow, temperance activist, no artist mentioned, best specimen ever.  11 McKenney’s Indian history reviewed favorably by literary assistant Marg Fuller in Trib, puffs it again

12, 13, 14, 15 notices Brit Gove stab a School of Design, Chapman’s elements of drwg deserves encouragement here. 16, 17 p. 2 “NAD” 2nd notice? 3rd? (Dana, I think): presume those who’ve visited have dwelt with pleasure on picts of Durand, hung in favorable positions, surrounded by ptgs which they excel in alm every particular, secure of due share of attn. without aid of a name that has become a guaranty of public favor. Only 3 picts, all lscapes, all compositions, 24 Forenoon, 29 Afternoon, 72 (?) no specific designation. We haven’t enjoyed opp of previous familiarity with this artist’s works, only these and Indian’s Vespers at the Art Union being specimens we’ve seen. But so strongly marked and like ea other as to show plainly his favorite class of subjects and mode of treatment; his only mode, the result of no trifling apprenticeship, laborious and prolonged practice, while composition indicates made upon a carefully-formed pattern which may be varied but can’t be wholly departed from. Nothing surprising in rep built on such picts as these in a community like ours. Alw pleasing in subjects, correct in genl features, most elab in style, to ordinary inspection might pass for a high order of art, even without foils present exhib has furnished them with. Ladies stop before Summer lscape to exclaim “how beautiful!” while critics linger over hazy sky with full faith that it’s delicious and seeing how carefully the foregrd is worked up and with what minute pains artist dwelt on every leaf of foliage and every fibre in bark of dead tree, pronounce the pict great and equal to Poussin, Claude or any other disting master whose name they have been acquainted. No danger that Durand’s picts won’t receive quite their full amount of praise, perhaps more than danger that they may receive a gd deal beyond that.

            As in First Notice, what estimate of Art do picts manifest? Insight into Nature? Merit of mode of execution? Happy to say that they are more worthy of a genuine artist than the works in the exhib generally. Serves profession with devotion, if not high enthusiasm of genius, sense of dignity of office, does not descend to tricks to catch the vulgar eye, or paint in a style knows is meretricious bcause his neighbors may be weak enough to so degrade themselves.

            But when we look for more positive qual of a great ptr, disappointed. In regard to a deep and genl appreciation of Nature, where to commence our anal? Most striking fact in them is that they are not so much made fr Nature as fr patterns collected and prepared before hand. Seem as if a tree were brought fr one drawg, hill fr another, rock fr a third, brook fr a fourth, and put together accord to design to be ptd. Fails of the freedom and unity of Nature and is ltd to a very narrow circle of subjects. Instead of whole world, only the drwgs in his portfolio. So don’t seem picts of one who knows how boundless and creative is nature, not built of the magical and teeming intuitions of genius, but careful elab for hundredth time of a few models. Soon exhausted like all superficial things. Nature has ever something new to reveal, these tell their whole story and have nothing more to say, though you shld study them a thou yrs. Are not alive, suggest none of mysteries beckon fr objects of a living lscape. Remind us irresistibly of a young lady in a party who we escorted about Niagara Falls on a glorious day in January, when grandeur heightened by magnify fo Winter. Ground white with frozen snow, every twig of tall trees glittered, crag shone like silver, while on Amer side successive layers of frozen mist clinging to large rocks had formed an immense cone of ice that reflected the sunlight. She remarked, Isn’t it handsome! The appreciation of Nature in Durand’s picts, tho more cultivated, is similar in kind; to his eyes lscape seems simply handsome, its grander and more occult qual he does not hint at. Unless ptr can see in Nature infinitely more than superficial prettinesses, not born to be a master, best triumphs will hardly transcend an agreeable mediocrity.

            In regard to mode of exec, can’t be charged with haste and carelessness any more than with unworthy trickery. Too much in earnest to slur, besides, a kind of patient, plodding habit, apparent in the works, does not permit such a course. In agreement with disposition and practice of ptr to give careful minute finish to everything. But pains-taking produces v inadequate results, too mechanical. Have finish of fine snuffboxes, but not hi wrought effects of great ptgs. Made as if by rule and compass at secondhand, not fr orig and comprehensive perception of objects represented. So while aiming at perfect exactness, fail of freshness and variety of Nature. Leaves, for ex, are leaves, wrought without much regard to maple or birch, more or less transparent, on this side of the tree or that, not according to Nature but the prearranged plan.

            Monotony which reigns in the subjects prevails also in execution; all specimens of a single mode so apparently invariable as to be a mannerism. Result of much labor if not v profound study, scrupulously adhered to. Praise for not attempting what he cannot perform, has learned his boundaries and keeps within them, the great secret of the pleasure his picts confer. By repeated travel he knows the road and goes so far but no farther. For this reason avoids finishing the backgrd into clear relief, but occupies himself in foregrd, while a hazy sky affords happy veil for objects that might else task too severely his resources.

            With regard to coloring, remarks brief, but same mannerism tho in another form. For want of scientific principles and lucky faculty of genius, artist confined to routine of laborious empiricism. Ptr so confined will have done his chef d’oeuvre long before his natural powers have reached maturity, after that, progress in art becomes for him improbable, whether fr deficiency in orig of thought, in courage, or in power to compel fr Nature the revlation he needs. Most evident genl characteristic of mode of coloring is unsubstantial appearance in every pict. Objects have not the reality, the body of Nature, not picts of Nature but picts of pictures. See at once a slight blow of your foot would be enough to fell a tree or knock a whole mtn to pieces. Were coloring done accord to any true principles, such a supposition cld no more occur to you in the presence of the fictitious than in the presence of the real.

            Satisfaction at having been occupied with picts that repay labor of analysis. After Mercy Fainting at the Wicket Gate, or  Lady Jane Grey at her Devotions, grateful to turn to lscapes. Tho our crit seems severe, spirit of fault-finding would find ampler scope and abundant satisfaction many other depts., our aim rather to prove fr what are the best picts shown that our strictures were just, stimulate artists to higher efforts/raise standard of public taste.

June 18 p.1 cites fr Home Journal how a bird flew into chapel at West Point where over pulpit is fine alleg pict fr true to life pencil of Weir, Peace as a female fig holds olive branch, bird tried several times to alight on it. No better crit of fidelity of repres of air and foliage, same as Apelles.

19, 21 HG loves Eugene Sue, despite exhibitions of licentiousness/depravity, as it puts in letters of fire the wrongs and outrages to which the poor and lowly are subjected. The Columbian Mag is justly the most pop of the $3 mags, opens with one of most orig picts we have yet seen fr Matteson, entitled Sugaring Off. Grouping, expression and genl compos do great credit to artist; singles out Sarah Helen Whitman’s poem Lines on Hopkin’s Statue of David.

22,23 p.2 corresp fr Phila describes visit to Laurel Hill, second only to Mt Auburn, which has better art in design and execution, inclu statue of a little child, also that of a dog. At Laurel Hill notice the rustic group in Free Stone fr Scott’s Tales of my Landlord, here can see Old Mortality and his pony, large as life and twice as natural, regarding the Wizard of the North, in ref to half obliterated inscription he’s been restoring to stone on which he sits. Works of rare merit is tomb of Frederick Frering’s daughter, marble couch with roses, by Joseph Naples, who also did monument to Susan R Blapham, lilies and roses. Tomb of Isaac Hull fr Scipio Africanus, Amer flag thrown over tomb, and Am Eagle on top, bird’s neck too thick and short. Reviews additional monuments, Grecian, Gothic, Egyptian.

24 copies Eve Mirror re Plumbe. 25, 26, 28, 29 Prescott the historian a genius. 30 praises Piux IX; Geo H Calvert no poet but noble sentiments. P. 3 puffs auction of modern oil ptgs by J Murphy

July 1 1847 p. 2 City Items “NAD—4th notice” (Dana, I think) have already spoken of portraits, large proportion, more partic, will take up heads of ptr universally admitted to be the best, and who our judg is best of those who exhibit a lot. Elliott: 25, full length of Gov Bouck, our well known Sub Treasurer; 143 David austen head; 70 AM Cozzens head; 198 head Henry Inman; 266 port lady; 296 head JE Freeman; 234 head lady. All have same essential characteristics, perhaps most pleasing is 70. Injustice to overlook remarkable spirit he infuses into his picts, instinct with activity of life, character of their own, and in a certain way faithful tho bear peculiar impress of artist, even grace and freedom which seem so natural to gmen who pass thru his studio esp, may not be so apparent in their bearing elsewhere, doubtless has corresponding reality. More we’ve studied them, more inclined to believe author possesses happy power of putting sitters into ease and gracefulness they are not alw accustomed. First inclined to judge them with gd degree of severity, very excellence a ready reason for pretty strict intolerance toward their faults, but tho among the worst, bcause the most taking examples of a bad style in the Exhib, can’t condemn for voluntary sins. Err not w/delib consent of artist. While yielding to influ so generally corrupted modern art, appear to do so, not so much fr original tendencies as for want of firm standing pt and stable supports fr which to resist. Experiments rather than a fixed manner, efforts after some better mode, but w/o any distinct idea of its nature or route, or sure instinct and rellig inspiration, or Genius to save it fr wandering away.

            Port ptg highest dept of Art, phys man contains all the kingdoms of Nature, moral/intel life rises to a higher world, requires corresp insight/power in artist, repress not only natural but spiritual facts, animating soul. Man, with all his affections, experiences, hopes, past, future, transferred to canvass. Testified to lifelikeness of Elliott’s ports, but not a feature bears v close scrutiny, they are superficial, the merest outside, manifests on-sight at exterior rather than insight to real character. With all their life, force and apparent faithfulness, greatly deficient in a true individuality, too much variations of one theme, eye falls on them first thought is here is another Elliott. But Nature makes no 2 things alike, if more perfect, such identity would not occur, but ea would feel strong impression of distinct indiv indep of all peculiarities of artist. Re exec, same grt fault more palpable, no substance, no solidity, no bones or vital organs, or even muscles, not men or women but painted apparitions. Flesh not fortunate, does not underst open secret of Nature that skin is not a simple but compound covering, sev diff and distinct membranes, so does not succeed in semblance of life. Seem worked up w/gd degree of attn. to details, in this respect look unfinished and would unless went over them in a diff manner, flesh is raw and unnatural and would be painful if had more the appearance of reality. Plain speech. Ptg of flesh test of great colorist, demands more than any other part of portrait. If can repres flesh can repres anything. Test of excellence ofa port, soul and skin has variety fo hue, softness, delicate finish, transparency, qual of life, put your own hand beside it, or face of your neighbor, if it seems raw, artist still hasmuch to acquire.

            Portraits won’t bear test of careful unbiased judg, more than infected w/genl falseness in coloring of whole exhib, not brought down to strong sobriety of nature, remark among most striking specimens of chalkiness and weakness, tho not altogether fr will of their author, they are ptgs to be exhib where strife is to make a show and catch eye of injudicious and uninformed mass of spectators. Glaring white, unrelieved red predominate thruout, of tone or yellow as innocent as a Choctaw Indian of the Greek accents, what to be said of picts destitute of this requisite?

Same page A.B. writes a paragraph in praise of Am Inst fair. P. 5 notes NAD will donate day’s profits to Wash Monument Assoc

July 3, 1847, p. 2 City Items “NAD” 5th and last notice. (still Dana)

            Altho we’d never seen any of WS Mount’s picts, were not ignorant of his rep, so at first visit, sought out, ports did not require long exam either to underst faults or appreciate merits, he was not born to that vocation. But his Cabinet pict 158 we dwelt long with increasing delight, pict of common life, a barn with 4 actors, farmer’s boy playing violin, elderly laboring man sitting near him, another standing in front, and a negro listening in absorbed attn. just w/o door. Subj not of highest character, but invested with something which makes works of much greater pretense hung abt it alm ridiculous. That something is Truth. In this simple pic is nature, genuine sentiment, imag, fine harmony of part with part, coop of every element in one central effect, gives artist right to indefinite title of Man of Genius. Tells its own story, doesn’t need name in catalog, Force of Music, to be underst by any one. Amid tinsel of its flashy neighbors may easily escape attn., but really look at it, not in vain. Negro tho not perhaps more skillfully done than others, evidently the focus, others listen, but he feels it, a true critic, underst the knack of it, doesn’t lose a strain, possibly he could not define distinction betw essence and form, but no man has keener sense of it than is displayed in all his features. Intense delight gives them a positive beauty, of a kind we do not grow weary of beholding.

            In exec far fr satisfactory, except drwg, well done. Not a master of color, singular effect, everything is of same consistency, wood and iron like one substance, as do flesh and clothing of figs. Not guilty of claptrap and studied weakness we condemn, a man of taste too correct and inflexible in sphere where he is at home.

            Subj fr common life freq chosen, but not alw happily. Some of this sort effect anything but pleasing, esp at Art Union by Clonney, Mexican News, a mean sentiment gains nothing by coarse and rude persons. Power of Mount’s picture depends on force and elevation of sentiment animates it, same negro who here dignified by passion of moment would be disgusting if represented intoxicated and vomiting, tho ptd with same fidelity to nature. No better reason for ptg what is morally only repulsive than for ptg a leper, the one is as much a departure as the other, shld be equally shunned.

            2 pics by Wm Page, deserves careful discussion of theory and manner, but this cursory—not ptd to be exhib in Acad. Low in tone, strong and sober in color, require honest daylight, don’t look so well by lamplight, not well hung, but in least favorable position. 193 (?) Port of low tone and perfect finish close to some of gaudiest and flimsiest in whole exhib, 200 a Mother and Child can’t be well seen above level of eye and ought to be slightly below, is hung too high for majority of spectators. Use catalogs as tubes to exclude bad company of noble portrait.

            Strong and permanent impression here is a miracle fo coloring, agree reminds of old masters, such richness, sobriety, harmony, truth not seen before. Becomes alive, see man breathing, thru transparent skin all changing hues of life, if at first seemed too highly and elaborately wrought, soon feel that artist has caught trick of nature, gone on her plan, flesh is flesh, warm and substantial in grasp, a reality about the whole that the wind cannot blow to pieces.

            Its wonderful beauty of color not accompanied by such force and vividness as might be desired, nor happily managed and perfect thruout. Linen too low a hue to be in strict keeping, lacks tone. Does not do justice to the orig, with whom writer well acquainted. But a grand admirable pict. Mother and Child a pict of a higher order, tho hung even worse, so may not strike youso. Don’t pass hastily to know its beauties, sentiment goes to heart of every mother, power otherwise might command those, if any there are, in whom that sentiment finds no response. Bust of a woman apparently 25 years, with child’s head leaning on shoulder and cheek, arm folded around, arm on bosom, mom full of calm tenderness and strength, cherish or protect, unconscious in sweet confidence of infancy. Gray leaden November sky, fading light of sunset, gloom and decay v near happiness and beauty. Dominant feeling Repose. Unseen angels communic peace to mom, not silence of revery that droops her eyelids, but sacred stillness of joy and hope. We may catch same state, a rest of soul. Coloring superior to other, equally harmonious sober, has depth richness force not in portrait, nothing more perfect than arm and cheek of child. Usefully be studied in every respect, owe it dearest and deepest lessons. Approve able and impartial manner in which critic of Commercial Advertiser has labored to the same and with ourselves, believe with him that days of shallow crit are fast disappearing.

5 July 1847 p. 2 City Items notices NAD donation to Wash monument assoc., also Mike Walsh at Tabernacle

Aug 5 1847 Things and thoughts in Euro * , mentions Crawford, Cranch, Hicks and Terry. P.1

Aug 13 1847 p.2 City Items: A writer in the Mirror, who we know by the ear-mark, extract some Newport body’s extacies abt an “orig and only genuine” pict by Titian now in that city, and concludes by a formal intro of the author to the fine arts critics of the Trib and Commercial: Venus is represented reclining upon a couch, Sartant du Bani,. There is a sweetness of expression which alm induces one to believe he is beholding Venus in propria persona—how innocently happy! How unconsciously beaut! For commercial can’t speak, but for ourselves assure Mirror man we welcome this new acquaintance and shall alw have pleasure in learning to know and appreciate any of his partic friends.

            -also notes Mr Morris is entertaining gd people of N Carolina with lectures on celeb ptg Christ Healing the Sick.

Aug 26, 1847, p.2 City Items (Dana): Powers’s Great Statue. Have seen Gk Slave and were our admiration not justified by deep enthuse it has everywhere been recd by critics and uncritical, shld scarcely venture to record it until confirmed by repeated observation and study of this greatest work of modern sculpt. Since our first impression accords with mature opinions of best judges, feeble expr of delight, joy as at a new revelation, the relig elevation of feeling which seem to flow.

            Fig full size perfectly nude, but in that nakedness unapproachable to any mean thought, v atmosphere she breathes is to her drapery and protection. Pure, unconsc naturalness, inward chastity of soul, sweet womanly dignity, more truly clad than a fig of lower character tho ten times robed. So noble an ideal of beauty and of Woman could only thus be seen.

            Face cast down and turned aside in grave, and sad unwilling submission, but still not demeaned even in her own estimation, too profound and firm an inner character. Tho a slave retains tender heroism of a woman, patiently confronts her fate.

            Originality—a new work made directly fr Nature, no prototype ancient or modern, no routine built after academic rules, no copy, counsels of Nature, reality imparted to this combo and refinement of many perfections. Watch for heaving of the bosom. Perfection of its finish not its least remarkable feature, delicate skin, exquis variety of its undulations and local qualities. Will correct the public taste, form appreciation of excellent in Art.

            Also letter to ed fr Mdme Restell, responding to an earlier communic, innocent til proven guilty, individ indep shld not be crushed by many headed monster public opinion

Sept 15, 1847 p.2 City Items: (Dana)

            Mirror says Mount’s pict for AU is completed, but can’t be exhibited for want of space, names it the Novice.

            “Grk Slave”: silent and absorbed attn. spectators regard statue of all classes and ages confirm our opinion of it, as rapt as devotees at a relig ceremony, whatever the critical judg of individs as to merits, no mistake abt feeling it awakens.

            2-3 writers whose opinions we respect say face is w/o any partic meaning, and might be called anything else as the Grk Slave. Went to look again, but face is still full of meaning. One critic whose perceptions in this we cannot admire objects to nudity, statue seems in his view to manifest a not v delicate indiff to being in that condition, prob bcause modeled fr persons accustomed to it. Others like this writer think that if sculpt had taken off chains and called it Eve, or Venus, or Nymph fr the bath, would have done better than to call it a Grk Slave.

            Liberal to give artist range fr Eve to Venus, but don’t do him justice. From what idea was Grk Slave created? Must attempt the nude human fig if he wishes to produce a great work, only form in which the passions that are the soul of art can be embodied. Honor of nobly and boldly departing fr school of antique and themes of mythology, wants subj that possess a univ and permanent interest and must alw appeal to sympathies of beholders, even if peculiar history be forgotten. Seeks in sculpt the school of Humanity and Christianity, unknown to antique. Carried out with perfection of proportions, outlines, muscles, excels Venus de Medici in least details and dignity of sentiment.

            This sentiment—pain at her exposure is not the predominant feeling, regards that as inevitable. Thought is not of herself, recalls the struggle and family she has left behind; notice intense concentration of brows, resolution of lips, sab abstraction of the features generally, deep inward anguish of a noble hearted woman. Truth to character much greater than if overwhelmed with shame or features distorted with agony. A blunder to call it Venus etc.

            Touching emblem of Woman in times of war, wandering of the chosen people, Woman the sorrowing present not future. Add that Page’s Historical Pict of Ruth finished and a great work, worthy to be named with this statue.

Also notes Chas Lanman now connected with the Express.

Sept 28 1847 p. 2 City Items, Letter to editor from L, Society Library doesn’t charge $100/mo to exhib Greek Slave, whole fourth floor is leased to NAD for 10 year at $1000/yr, starting May 1840. May sublease to Powers, but those are NAD’s charges. 

Oct 8 1847 p.1 City Items Art Union private opening, toast of Press ro which GH Colton responded praising Platonic philos

Oct 9 1847 p. 2 City Items Quidor’s ptgs of Christ Healing the Sick, raising Lazarus and Death on Pale Horse at NAD will close on 21st.

Nov 11 1847 p. 2 positively notices AAU

Nov 24 1847 p. 2 Eve Mirror is organ of Taylorism in this City, adheres to all the fundamental notions of locofocoism, admires Clay but says he’s unelectable bcause of his position on new territory

Nov 25 1847 p.2 Disinterested-Very. Eve Mirror says Clay should drop out and let Taylor have nomination, since he’s electable, if they really want a Whig victory. Trib wonders if Eve Mirror really wants a Whig victory, when it execrates Protection, follows J of Commerce politics, hates the Whigs.

Jan 22, 1848, p. 2 City Items, mtg at studio of FF Church for life drwg, 40 artists present,e lected EH May chair, Richards and Gay secties, committee of Duggan, Matteson, Richards, Stearns and Childs sent to NAD for doop.

Feb 21 1848 p.1 Thom Cole the Artist, corresp of Trib, SH. Brilliant genius universally acknowledged. Cross and the World left unfinished, just three done on the Cross,but paused to do valley of shadow of death, his last pict. Late productions influd by Ital school of Raphael, Corregio, Remb and Carlo Dolci.

March 18, 1848 p.1 Richelieu, the Washington corresp. Letter, responding to Eve Mirror accusation that he is Catholic, denies it, sees it as example of their Nativism

April 22, 1848 Fine Arts in DC, corresp of Trib, p. 4, society has had opp to indulge taste for FA, most disting of ptg and sculp have their masterpieces here.

            Grk Slave of Powers admired by Western pioneer as refined Atlantic city inhab, for artist drew fr Nature, pop everywhere. Consistency of expr in whole body to very nails univ recog and admired.

            In port ptg, Harding and Healey both, Harding undertook to paint men as they shld be, but studied by actual observ common forms of Nature. Greatptrs of Roman, Bolognese, says Reynolds, gathered studies of heads fr Nature to intro into their pics, by studying men Harding so capable of disting diff of feature, expr and form betw one and another, not alw perceptible, marking them plainly, strongly. No superior in coloring, natural, v shade of complexion. Full length of H Clay, tall and erect, fresh countenance, eye undaunted, the Man he is, fidelity unsurpassed to petty artery, soul breathing, read character of man in his image, compendious history of his hi resolve, firm purpose, unyielding, courage to dare will to execute.

            Equal intellectual majesty in front of him, proud lofty forehead enthrones might of mind, dark deep sunken lustrous eye like candle burning in sepulcher, chiseled features, perfect alm painful likeness.

            Geo Ashmun, Mass representative nearby, only sin a slight embellishment of nature, little necessary, require not much flattery, shade of melancholy approp to intellectual.

            Likeness of a Springfield girl, a transatlantic Marie Antoinette, delightful vision, spirituelle and lovely, too beaut for reality, visitant not inhabitant

May 5 1848 p.2 approves Bryant’s eulogy on Cole, reproduces it

July 20 1848 p. 1 Eve Mirror doesn’t see rlnshp of Crown Jewels in Tower to poor Irish in Galway, as mentioned by a London Trib corresp; Trib responds that the two are epitome of modern civ, ostentatious finery hoarded in uselessness by ruler of starving

Aug 3 1848 p. 1 Springfield Mass corresp compares Peale’s Cof D (exhib by Colton), noble specimen, exciting attn. among connoisseurs and those who can appreciate sublime and beaut, striking contrast to other large ptgs going rounds, e.g. two copies of West’s ptgs Christ Healing Sick and Death on Pale Horse, while every artist and person who pays attn. knows they are but miserable copies. Rep of West shamefully abused—West did only two versions of Christ. Signed SL.

Aug 12 1848, p.1 NY in Slices: to give reader or spectator correct idea of subj, necessary to dash in light and shade with a free hand. Exact portraiture is as commonplace as—as—the National Academy, while an artistic repress relieves the mind of the material lumber which oppresses it, and presents nothing but the abstract pict to the eye.

Aug 30 1848 p. 2 New Publications, endorses TW Whitley of this city’s pamphlet on Western AU of Cinti, its pictures and administration, art and its culture, AU erred egregiously in choice of subj to be engraved, written with great perspicuity and force, JS Redfield’s, Nassau and Beekman

Sept 19, 1848, The Firemen of New York, HWB replies to Slices of New York XXIV, more about the firemen, says ideas in it are the stale ones fr the Olympic or Chatham theaters.Sheer says that for fine arts the fireman elevates himself to the back board of his machine; recommends Sheer and judges of the Fine Arts to go to the coming fair of the Am Inst and examine ptgs of the backboards, the mtg rms of the diff companies and the ptgs, engrav, library and statuary, go to Greenwood and inspect Cowdry’s monument, and then go to the Art Union rms and see how many fire companies are subscribers there

3 Oct 1848 p. 2 The Progress of the Fine Arts no. 1 by W, not only in arts of ptg and sculp, but in archit, theaters, museums, churches, lecture rooms, magnificence, gorgeous, sumptuous hotels, artistic and dramatic instinct in hi a nd lo life, indiv and corporation, church and state, plain forms can’t overcome passion for splendor, lust of dominion, love of exclusiveness, plain republicans metarmorphosed, aristocratic tendencies of times mean forms despised.

4 Oct 1848 p. 2 Prog of FA no. 2, Fine arts not ltd to sculp, ptg, poetry, a steam engine is a poem, Art is embodiment of an idea, useful or beaut, and all men are Artists, equality with a vengeance. Art is Science, Science is Art. Defends drama as an art.

Oct 6 City Items, A Place to Spend an Hour in, beauty-loving ten thous at Goupil & Vibert, dream haunted retreat, Spirit of Loveliness, Silence inspired with religion of Art, not claiming masterpieces but mod Fr and Germ schools and orig, Miller, Loudelle, Scheffer, Waldmuller v hi order of merit, better idea of mod art, most people pleased by exquis colored crayons of Brochart, gorgeous dresses on voluptuous forms, Woman

12 Oct 1848 p. 1 Prog of FA no 3 by W: true Artist is a teacher. Worked for glory not for gain.Artists not ltd to great events of history, Nature has not been exhausted, though indolent artists seem to think so by passion for composition which seems to rule rampant over them. Pilgrim’s progress, Luther, Wesley,Whitfield, Swedenborg and Channing, shld be in art

Oct 16 p. 1 Prog of FA no IV. FA measure prog of civilize, indicates refined taste, urbanity of manner, char of a gman. In houses of common people now find prose and poetry, illus editions on parlor table of tradesmen and mechanics, engrav and litho. Nations easily corrupted by lascivious and profane works of Art as by corrupt rulers, calamities of France may be ascribed to exquis delineated and colored lascivious exhib of Art. Copies of infamous works destitute of master handling alone renders them endurable to persons whose virtue is of too feeble a kind even to resist a temptation so puerile, in our print shops and their windows. 

For Prof FA V, see below.

Oct 28 1848 p.2 Prog FA by TWW no VI: gives history of art in Britain, fostered under Chas I w/Vandyke, Puritans try to destroy, etc, foundation of RA as dawn of new era, West and his students

9 Oct 1848 p.2 City Items New Pict by Delaroche, grand historical, 80 feet of canvas, Nap crossing Alps, will be at NAD, chef d’oeuvre of its author, will attract public attn. happy to know more of mod French and Germ schools.

            Nov 6 1848 p. 2 city items puffs Delaroche again, sublime and classic, beams in every line with power of orig and creative genius, no humbug about it, highest efforts of mod art;

Dec 6 1848 p. 1 puffs it again, also panorama of Mexico and Scott’s campaign, triumph of art.p. 3 Progress of the Fine Arts No XIV by TWW: thank NAD for our great scholars in art, whose rep is of so universal a character no need to mention. Annual exhib powerful influ on public mind and on artists, from its pretensions and public expectation, arises an effort conducive to excellence. Satisfaction to know we have an Oxford andCambridge in Art as well as letters, more free institutions, a widely diffused system of education, peculiarly Amer sense of sovereign powerfully operating in fields of lit and art, catholic sentiment now felt. AAU the nursing mother of art, voice heard throughout the land.Tender to most feeble, but does honor to memory of most poetical of our grt ptrs (Cole). Tyros and great beauty, power of associative movement 

Oct 24, 1848 p.1 The Progress of the Fine Arts, no. V, by TWW, calls Dunlap a facetious author. “youth, ambition and consummate ability on the part of the ‘New School’ party soon cast into utter darkness the meager institution over which the imperious Trumbull wielded a barren scepter.” Thinks Dunlap biased in his account, Trumbull had much bad taste in the selection and composition of some of his most impt works, was still a gman of v great consequence. Dunlap gives evidence of bad taste as a biographer and of a critic, ill-natured suggestions. Dunlap’s spleen due to differences in education. The rebellious party were “No “Hunkers,” no “Barnburners.” Such a man was Saml FB Morse.

p. 2 Weir’s Merchant of Amsterdam: charming bijou disting artist, at Appleton’s bookstore. Elderly man reflective countenance, rich old fashioned chair, air sufficiently mercantile, perusing corresp. Table, globe, books, robes don’t remind one of a counting room in South st, yet are in perfect keeping with customs of Transatlantic cities, furnish ptr better than a merchant’s office in our own City for indulging his fine taste in these particulars. Cabinet pict belongs to Tuckerman of this city.

 Oct 30, 1848 p. 1 City Items, Fine Arts and Sci: Remb Peale’s C of D arriving, Colton accompanies it with a lecture and scientific experiments, highest testimonials, pict itself expr our opinion at length, work purely of imag, bold and orig manner, an alleg which is truth.

            Earthly humanity becomes effeminate and impure as it grows enlightened, higher efforts of imag accompanied by either bigotry or licentiousness, but in New World a brighter destiny when no beaut thought or act be perverted

Nov 3 1848 p. 2 Fine Arts in Common Council, visiting great ptg at Nat Acad of Napoleon Crossing the Alps, will reflect on clearing mud and filth that obstruct the streets, Delaroche shld paint their pictures. Believe that Negro Minstrelsy will expand itself into something sublime and grand beyond what its orig inventors had conception of. Vive les Bones!

Nov 7 praises Goupil litho of Power of Music, defends Fry at the opera 

Nov 8 1848 p. 1 Prog of FA NO VII TWW. Mentions Anglo-Saxon race before and does again now as possible explanation for our indiff to works of highest char (hist ptg). No devout Artist can long remain a mere port ptr. Lscpe ptrs too not satisfied with tame imitation, commonplacisms in nature as in conversation are interesting, hence pics have an abandon indicates the influ under which they are composed. No subj on which so much veneration manifested as that of old ptgs, necessary to instruct and elevate, nothing in worse taste than reviling practice too commonly indulged in toward pics fr abroad. True often imposed on, but very worst had artistic qualities legitimized it. Old pics favorites with learned and devout, mine a proper subj of study, recalling early readings at school or college or bible. Old master works have associations make them preferred. Today’s costume does not permit painting events of our day.

            NY in Slices features the Newsboy

Nov 9 thinks TB Read’s new book of poetry very good [me: CAD is Charles Dana? * is Fuller]

Nov 13 notices Wm Walcutt engr by WN Dunnell (who works for Dispatch?) design for GW monument for enlarged Battery, orig and uniqueness superior, Nomadic style base typical of wilderness, then the other orders with GW in apotheosis 

Nov 15 1848 Prog of FA, no. IX, TWW. Abt 25 yrs ago, old Euro Ptgs began to appear in auction stores, none but the poorest class, value arriving here enhanced, veneration for old ptgs evid of gd taste and liberal educ. Old Paff at zenith. Little auction store in Chatham st notorious as emporium of imported works by Old masters, weekly sales. Profits induced young artists to give ptgs air of antiquity, speculators and gmen to import. But hundreds of exquisitely wrought works of Art here thru curacy of Old Paff.

            Joseph Earle for fifteen years art restorer bears witness to beaut orig works, powerful influ on taste of public and Artists. Art belongs not to national or individual egotism, our approbation is regardless of those.

 Nov 17 1848 p. 2 Our Art-Union.Grown so great and of vast influ. Effective in Euro, even more so here, lets us unite our efforts and concentrate power to achieve what no one uf us could singly. Public spirited gmen. Ea member gets full equiv for money. Beneficial influ to put intellectual enjoyments within grasp of everyone, assists us with gd design of all objects

Nov 21 1848, City Items p. 2, Intl Art Union, prospectus will be rec’d with favor, will send one or more Amer to Euro to complete educ, recipient to be named by NAD fr any state in Union. Will apply to legis for incorporation.

Nov 22 1848 p.2 Prof of FA no. XII TWW. Liberties of Fr schl of art no greater in moral pov than those of rational Churchmen and progressive Philos. P. 2 City Items, rossiter’s New Pic, studio large pic Return of the Dove to Ark, conception simple and sublime, compos classic and correct, action forcible yet unexagg. Of his genl style great diff of opinion exists, but this pic presents them strikingly, not careless nor accident, sincere conviction of right, even harshness and rawness are intended to compensate for bad posit or light in exhib. Most striking are delicacy and sweetness of females, dazzling light on marbled shoulder and neck of Shem’s wife, unrivaled, sea also powerfully rendered.

Nov 28 p. 2 City Items Ct of Death, glad to learn great moral ptg attracting large audiences in Brooklyn, fr various indic begin to believe a new era coming to Art in America, brilliant destiny to carry FA to a higher pt of spirituality. Exquis intellectuality of Greeks so marred with skeptical, superstitious and licentious spirit of the times, that art but imperfectly satisfies, cold and lifeless. If Ital supplied this deficiency, fell into ascetism the mask of a prurient imagination, and we are frozen, shocked and revolted at their works, the impurity fo a corrupt era and artist. Many a Holy Virgin etc is but an Italian bacchante falsely labeled, and those who find holy meanings in these gross renderings by Correggio, Caracci, Rubens, Titian wld not permit themselves to look on mod pics in the same spirit.

            But moderns have subbed modesty and morality for such thinly disguised improprieties, with C of D, Napoleon, Return of the Dove and Art Unions, hope to see formation of natl Am School of Art, climbing natural vigorous spirit of our country and our race, its expanding and strengthening individuality. Need opp to study old masters.

            Raphael’s Cartoons: fr ads re tapestry, genuineness doubtful. Copies give pleasure but should not be advertised as orig and sold at prices that would buy orig gd pics fr our fellow countrymen

Nov 29 1848 p. 2 Prof of FA no XIII. Fresco and scenic ptgs in churches, public bldgs, theaters, splendor of them, growing pop taste, tho evanescent instruct in stirring emotions of the soul, Truth is v effective, felt by multitudes

Nov 30 p. 2 unite with J of Commerce in hoping Rossiter will exhib Dove of the Ark. “Modern Artists…No. 1” is Ary Scheffer, his Judgment of Christ at Intl AU (advert?). And Washington Monument No. 1 letter to ed, design won’t suit everybody. Press must see that Public Mind not misled or biased by false and partial statements published by interested persons.

Dec 1 1848 p. 1 A Scene fr the Life of Osgood the Painter, merits universally acknowl, female ports all the grace and delicacy of Sully, with more char, magnif of Hon Mrs Norton, heads now in his studio at Art Union of a New Yorker celeb for fine intellig and stately beauty, have referred to his early adventures.

            Praises McKenney’s book on Indians

Dec 2 1848 p. 1 Wash Monument No. 2, letter to editor signed F. P., says one person presenting a Design publishes a pamphlet (Walcutt has a pamphlet) which is vehicle for abusive attacks on competitors, dismisses Styles hallowed by the greatest examples, and attacks Gothic by appealing to prejudices saying “it is the darling style in the nursery of British Art” and its “nature and characteristics” are so markedly at variance with the grand principles of Republicanism, as if a taste for partic styles of archit were coexistent with diff polit creeds. Position on Gothic antagonistic to combined literati of the Old World, as demo in design for monument to Scott and public opinion in this country. We don’t want a Romanized GW, detracts fr Christian Hero to associate him with fanatical philos and triumphal processions whose theme was the massacre of patriots.

p. 2 Hiram Fuller part of Hebrew Benev Soc. Moses Y Beach retiring and giving NY Sun to hands of sons Moses S and Alfred E beach, splendid supper, over 100 gmen, Major Noah there, McElrath (Greeley’s partner), James Brooks, Lewis Gaylord Clark, Richard Adams Locke v amusing speech.

Notice re Schools of NAD: antique and life classes well attended, talented students, best models and celeb sculp, any misrepresentations that lessen their impt influ are exceedingly mischievous to advance of true taste in public mind and prog of Art. Such reflections have been lately made in one or more City papers  in regard to manner of receiving pupils, but Acad just asks submit drawing evinces feeling and talent, not proficiency. 46 pupils this session, only one or two rejected. Don’t have to be married to do Life School. “English Artists: welcome foreign artists of real merit, just introd to Geo Earl of Peckham School of Design, invented instrument for reducing perspective, brought with him some splendid ptgs of his own.

Dec. 4 1848 p. 1 Modern Artists No. 11: Rembrandt Peale, at head of living Am Artists, tells anecdote of how at 17 a rich West India lady requested he paint her watch twice, back and front, gave him a surfeit of ornaments, which he ever after avoided.Greatest pict is CofD, vivid, grand, solemn magnify and relig discourse on death and life, produce moral impressions without conventional mythology or hackneyed allegory, most orig pict since Michael Angelo. Replaced Trumbull as Pres of Amer Acad of theis city, did wonderful port of GW for Vice-Pres Chamber, Senate pd $2000. Signed GGF.

            City Items-Intl A-U: plan has universal favor, Gallery will be thronged, noble idea to send artist to study, delicate task to NAD, hi character will insure its being discreetly performed. Gallery contains Dead Christ by Ary Scheffert and Seraglio Window by Court, with Paul Delaroche, Waldmuller, Laudelle, Muller, Groevland, Brochart etc.

            Dec. 11 1848 p. 2 City Items: CofD will be avail for free to be examined after exhib and lecture on magnetic telegraph and electric rrd at the Tabernacle; also notices Intl AU at Reade st and Broadway; publishes the plan in their pages this morning.

Dec 5 p. 2 City Items, Mrs LM Spencer, Am artist, native of Cinti, recently arrived, with great faults of execution natural powers of a hi and unusual order. Her breadth of light and shade, force of expression and great power of foreshortening, contrast strangely with her crude and unmeaning chiaroscuro, her spotted and unequal coloring and her sometimes glaring defects of drwg. Some of her faces are of truly celestial beauty, and there is a freedom and vigor of design in many of her sketches really startling. Fisherman’s Wife and Children on Sea-shore is comparatively free of faults, and absolutely a ptg of immense power, touch and beauty. The watching mother, looking out to sea and shading her eyes with her hand, is as pure, sweet and joyous a piece of Nature as we remember to have seen on canvas. The Egeria has glimpses of glorious outline and patches of delicious flesh-tinting, but the outline is overcharged, the attitude ungraceful and unnatural, and the light and shade unartistically distrib. She has evidently a v strong and orig genius, but deficient in fundamental elements of her art. Severe and rigid 2 yrs study in competent school would produce ptgs of great and unqual excellence. Studio at 614 Broadway, oddly perched over a coffin store.

            Also a card from Richard Grant White in C & E yesterday, saying that impression still v general that he is their Musical Critic and responsible for recent articles on disturbances at the Opera, says he ceased in April of 1848 furnishing music crit, and no articles on music have appeared without his signature in any other newspaper in the city. 

Dec 6 1848 p. 1 Artists of the Ideal and the Real, Thomas Ewbank, for Trib. inventors are poets and vice versa. Lots of endless puffs of moving pano of Mexico and Delaroche.

p. 3 Prog of FA no XIV. Series of sketches has been chronological! To NAD indebted for great scholars in Art, praises annual exhib, our Oxford and Cambridge in art, AAU the nursing mother of Art, tender to most feeble of her votaries but honors memory of most instr, poetical and prophetic of our great ptrs (Cole), power of associative movement

Dec 25 1848 p.1 says they accidentally omitted from list of drawings fr Art Union JF Kensett’s Trout Stream 404 went to HW Barnes of Brooklyn 

Feb 17 1849 p. 3 not sure Am AU shld buy Remb Peale’s C of D, would induce immense subscription, but too large for a priv coll, ought to be owned by a large city. Fry (who Trib & C&E seem to love) has started a libel suit in Bennett’s Herald re last four months.

            -Courier des Etats Unis also attacked him as plagiarizing other composers in his Leonora

Mar 8, 1849 p. 2 City Items (Dana is back? or still Ottarson?): Opening of AU rms, private for artists and editors, really valuable, honorable, among most striking are 2 by HP Gray, Judg of Paris and Wages of War, very first rank spirit and tone of old masters, flesh tints of Guido, backgrd of Titian. Rutherford’s Jack the Giant Killer, saucy defiant toss of Jack, stubborn body inimitable, and has more meaning than every one will perceive, beside the great stupid giant. Wenzler a sunset lscape puzzles then delights, chiaroscuro seems exaggerated at first; Church’s On the Mtn bold and orig design, other lscape great credit. 2 lscapes in Huntingdon’s best style, fine Georgia mtn by T Addison Richards, two by Doughty, winter by Gignoux, Edmonds, WC Sanders, Osgood, Edwin White, Hinckley, Inness, Whitley and Matteson.

April 18, 1849, p. 2 City Items, The Acad of Design: A corresp sends us rapid glance at pics in Exhib, but we reserve right of making farther and more extended crits on some of the works:

            Acad opens with unusual success, artist keeps pace with standard of public appreciation and taste. (sounds like a puff). Gives Hist pics first, Huntington, Winner, Leutze, Flagg, Stearns; for lscape Durand has 10? Kindred Spirits esp, Huntington again, Innes, Gignoux, Kensett, Talbot, Doughty, singles out Church’s Plague of Darkness and Richards. Ports have Van Buren by Huntington, Ingham, Gray, May, Spencer, Elliott, Shegogue, Mooney, Mounts, Page, GA Baker, Colyer’s crayons, Duggan, then misc Audubon, Shumway, Officer, Hite, McDougal Dubourjal mini ptrs. Sculp Mozier, Whitfield, HK Brown superb head of Pres of Acad.

May 26 1849 p. 1 praises Crawford, bust, Orpheus. Has had several positive notices re Intl AU and also Phila AU

June 18, 1849 p. 6 A Hoax—Letter fr Hiram Powers, fr Cinti Atlas, Kellogg has asked him to send it because JYHenderson the actor was talking about dressing up as an unfinished wax figure  in the Western Museum and deceiving viewers, Powers writes that Peyton S Symmes was not one of the deceived. Atlas editor adds that given Powers’ talents we don’t wonder that viewers of Henderson found fault with the proportions of the living original

July 30, 1849, p. 4 City Items, Fine Arts Metalurgy, specimens of CC Wright, head of Wm Page, lifelikeness, genius of sculp in miniature, medals of Taylor and Scott also exquis.

Aug 15, 1849 p.2 Mags for August, Bull of AU, lots on Bingham, but also notices pop artists in gallery inclu Mrs LM Spencer, Rothermel, Rossiter, Durand, brown, Cole, Glass and Leutze.

Oct 2 1849 p. 2 Am A-U, enterprise sailing under false colors, agent of a foreign house, hoists suppositious flag of an Am inst, Goupil’s business is to purchase pop French pics, generally dupes, and procure engravings, as with Dead Christ of Ary Scheffer, a dupe, Head of Savior by De La Roche and others. Name I AU may lead to think it is a public institution, but it is a private business, benefitting themselves.

Oct 5, 1849, p. 2 Letter to Ed fr Goupil re Intl AU, in response to article In Tuesday’s Trib. 1st announced plan for Intl AU in columns of Trib, with editorial endorsement. Why condemn now?

Oct 6 p. 2 City Items, Intl AU, pointed allusions in Goupil’s card yesterday don’t improve their position, claim their pictures aren’t copies, etc.

Oct 16 1849 p. 6, Home Artists and the Home Journal, long letter to editor fr Quispiam re NP Willis article on Am A-U bitter abuse and fulsome puffery of Goupil. Willis opens that he has given it favorable notice, despite many urgen appeals for severe criticisms. When he came to aid of Goupil, AAU withdrew its advertisement, so Willis sets out to abuse. Points to Willis’ praise of Goupil introducing pics that ‘appeal to a more advanced stage of taste’ and says those who underst character of the mercantile estab or their eulogist will estimate real char of foreign prints, those less informed, will notice one of their prints, highly colored naked female inmost meretricious French style, Erigone. Ed of Trib says unfair to connect Willis with a pic he may have never seen.

Oct 18, 1849, p. 1, Letter fr NP Willis to Ed of Trib, re Quispiam’s allusion to my personal char, you being known to be my personal friend means some might give it credence. Denies being a profligate in tastes or habits. Editor agrees.

Oct 19, 1849, p. 2, Mr Willis and the Goupil Prints, letter to ed fr Quispiam, denies his private char was his topic, but exposes himself when acknowl that such nudes are to be found in every print shop in the US; that’s fine, but private shops are not claiming to be Art Unions seeking culture and public taste.

Oct 30 1849 p. 1 “AAU” letter to editor fr Quispiam re NP Willis in his paper last week, who lends 3 more columns to attack on AAU in revenge for its having withdrawn its advertisement. Now places NAD in front rank instead of his French friends, Messrs Goupil, Vibert & Co, who will undoubtedly feel gratified. Whether the NAD will feel flattered or aided by his peculiar advocacy of its interests may well be doubted. Willis says obj of Acad is promotion of art, real test, only effectual way, is by encouragement of Artists. Those who give most employment and pay them most, give them the most substantial encouragement, AU gives $100,000 annually. Ought to commend AAU to Acad. If it’s true as Willis asserts that Acad has withdrawn fr AU assistance which it once extended, its obj can only be to withdraw fr AmArtists money they now receive. Willis may deem this true way to encourage art, but when he pretends to be supported in this opinion by the artists themselves, presumes stupidity of his readers.

            Willis fabricates long string of charges which can’t be refuted bcause intangible in shape, insinuations. Tries to convey impression that management of AU is a means of ‘political influence.’ Rawest milliner’s girl among his 6 or 8 hundred readers would laugh in his face if he said this outright. He is not fool enuf to believe it, tho unprincipled enuf to try to make others do so. Talks about costly Committee room, paneled with most expensive woods, when he knows the room is made of pine, with a bookcase of walnut, finished in plainest and cheapest style possible. Asserts a large no of v expensive and magnify picts are borrowed to deceive visitors that they will be among its prizes. False and he knows it. Catalog states that 14 of 360 picts on walls are borrowed, and clear on exhib; make Free Gallery more attractive. Artists who paint picts worthy of exhib know advantage of having them seen.

            Willis charges AU Comm with favoritism, asserts all best Artists of City are opposed to AU, but scarcely a respectable artist in city whose picts the Art Union has not purchased, including members of the Acad. Is this favoritism?

            Insists that in consequence of the AU HP Gray has been obliged to give up historical ptg fr insuff patronage and now pts ports only. AU has givenGray more money for his hist ptgs than all his other patrons, bought them at his own price when he couldn’t sell them elsewhere at any price, including $2000 for ptgs now on the walls. Adds that Huntington has fallen off sadly in his picts since he ptd for AU, untrue and unjust to gifted artist, some of his best on AU walls, and celebrity his works acquired stimulated him to greater excellence, as is true for every artist ptd for AU. Employment, payment and publicity constitute the stimulus for true artist.

            Willis says distrib of picts among people who do not know their value has entirely stopped commissions. Know it untrue, that in country where orders for pics never given, a zeal for Art created and orders for picts fr artists in this city never dreamed of otherwise.

            Deemed these answers to his petty calumnies necessary, for past 5 or 6 years has been extolling the AU for merits he now denies it, solely because of w/drawal of a $1/wk ad. Willis renews to readers of Home J that he is not a profligate, and his tastes, fr refinement and without the aid of principle, are above level ascribed him by public sentiment. Print styled Erigone (?) and pub by Intl Art Union, is not lascivious, and denounces me for having so proclaimed it. I assert that it is indecent, and invite Willis to test I have already proposed, to prevail upon Wiley & Putnam, Appletons, Bartlett & Welford, Francis & Co, Williams & Stevens or Kernot to exhib the pict in question fr windows so public can decide, and can also decide truth of his assertion that Greek Slave by Powers is more indecent than the French print in question.

            As to the delicate sneers Willis honors President of AU and his associates, they furnish their own comment on writer’s character, and vindicate his repudiation of principle. Self complacent disparagement of merchants as judges of Art equally significant. Only one further correction. AU Comm not responsible for what I write.

p. 2 if readers are as weary as we of controversy betw rival Art Unions, apologize, but writer not only insists on its insertion as act of justice but pays for it, we having declined to give our columns for further prosecution of the feud. Passages personal, but embody nothing new, bitterness uncalled for, public has an interest in respective merits and claims of Art Unions, but little in personal tastes or impulses of any officer or assailant of either

Jan 11, 1850 p. 2 City Items, Intl AU Distrib, Chair was Wm C Bryant 

April 13, 1850, p. 1 City Items: NAD: new gallery opened, coll superior as a whole to past 3 or 4 yrs, but too careful seeker may detect evidences of time and talents misapplied. Contribs of younger artists not numerous but creditable. Notes death of Richard Bengough, long time scene ptr for Olympic.

April 20, 1850, p. 1 Advertisement for Huntington’s Ptgs: We promised several weeks since after a brief notice to refer more particularly to this exhib. It was our intention to be savagely critical. Several instances of defective drwg in the drapery offerd us we exultingly thought, a rare opp for the display of our crit powers. And then Huntington is too much praised. His friends have been bored for years with the adulation of Huntington. But ‘tis too late. Town has made up its mind. Only thank the grave and reverend seigneurs who prompted Huntington to make this collection of his vagrant children, and reserve our fire for another occasion. Gentlemen of the Academy! Are you ready?

Apr 23 1850 p. 6, Grk Slave lawsuit in Phila decided, Acad of FA charged $1000 for months display, argument over who gets the proceeds

1 May 1850 p. 5 “NAD” (first article)

Have already briefly noticed the festival (dinner) preceded opening, when we said better than any among the more recent; perhaps, had we seen many of them, might have pronounced it the best. Somewhat minute and v careful candid analysis, decided utility. Those w/any real intellig interest in Art, can’t gain end (utility) by remark most frequently applied by our cotemporaries to this and other exhibitions. Art can’t thrive under dispensation of indiscrim praise, whether fr ignorance, bad taste or personal partiality. Crit must breathe manly sincerity, earnest sense of worth of Art forbids low standard. Esp in community like ours, Art in infancy, even cultivated not had discipline of freq enjoyment of grt works and familiarity with indisputable excellence. nAD shld be great educator, seek its welfare must exercise uncompromising severity to everything prominent that is not good. A few pretenders palm themselves off as men of knowl and genius may do more injury to Art and public taste than works and silent influ of 50 competent artists not recognized at real value.

            No secret that NAD for a few years past been in rapid decline, suspension of schools, threaten existence, one cause the great popularity of AAU w/free exhib and liberal dissemination

p. 6 of pictures of v indiff qual. Profound misunderstanding has arisen betw the two, but need be nothing l ike competition or rivalry, the Acad shld be actuated by more active and generous spirit. But it had become a close corporation, controlled by a v small no of persons, and so congenial to their private wishes that no opposition to their management. A generation of younger artists, full of energy, aspiration, talent, industry and knowl, worthy of a share in controlling, denied by narrow jealousy of old incumbents, institution lagged desperately behind.

            Roused to regain its lost position, render exhib attractive, profitable, but no radical diff in policy determined, to raise it to dignity ofa real Acad to instruct a people in knowl and love of Beauty. A few new members admitted, tide of fashion up town, procure new rooms in that region, 3 gmen gave money for this. Means and full liberality to exercise judgment and taste in erecting a bldg. Disting by outward beauty, indicate origin and purpose? Might look for a granite front, doorway arched and supported by columns with carved capitals niches with sculptured emblems of Art and Liberty, bas reliefs of sister arts under long windows, below massive cornice sculptured frieze of hist and prog of institution, every projection rich and chaste with carving and varied ornaments, stop passers to gaze. Nothing but a front of plain red bricks! If had a just idea of the Academy, no lack of funds for worthy edifice.

            Venturing beneath single huge glass lantern that lights door, practiced eye might expect to behold  Oysters or Coffee-House, thru narrow mysterious passage way, 3 studios before exhib rms, for painters, disappointing attics, spoiled by ignorance or indiff. Exhib rms v well, but lighting is bad and inefficient. Why no judgment/taste to prevent such blunders? Malign influence already alluded to still supreme, all done v badly that no known rules/principles explain it. In large rm, struck by blood red carpet and walls, red, fierce and glaring, sunlight straggling thru randomly, then long narrow room lit fr above so shadows go down the walls, affording excellent places to hang bad pictures. Gem Rm looks a little crowded; 4th gallery mainly HKBrowne’s sculpture, most exhib bf, peculiar redness in wall colors. Arrangement of pics for artistic and picturesque effect, consummate discretion to delight public at large and those competent to pass decisive judgment? Badly done thru want of judgment or unison. Impartial analys of elders and pillars of Acad, severer more probing and searching crit of younger artists.  First shall be last…

p. 6 also has extract from Knick Editor’s Table, he always likes it, daguerrian artist forming a miniature gallery of eminent men, asks for sitting, but rely for sufficient showcase publicity on the awful caricature “burst” of Ol Knick that phrenologist Fowler puts in window next to Peter Robinson the murderer, Pope Pius Ninth, Monroe Edwards, Sen Seward, Gibbs the pirate and our friend Col Webb.

p. 1 Brooklyn city council voted $250 for portrait of Mayor Edw Copeland, he vetoed it, but was overridden. New Jersey Art Union visited, approves, notes purchases fr Durand, Gray and Whitley, all fr New Jersey. Fine pict fr Cropsey soon to be added. Friend JJ Mabee an officer. Among list of labor movements are the Coach Painters, house Painters, Window Shade Painters

2 May 1850 p. 2 “A Glance at the National Academy” by HG (Horace Greeley)

Looking in for first time this season, apartments and acces v agreeable; 3 merchants have advanced large sum to contstruct this edifice, munificent to city and art, admirable foundation. Speak of a few picts that pleased me, leave further crit to those more competent. I looked first for Mount’s 9WS) efforts of course, for requires no critic’s eye to appreciate their broad and genial humor. Closing Catalog, 1st ptg that seemed to be Mount’s was The Pic-Nic no 30, full of life, fun and mischief, pleasant, attractive vivacious compos, but cat ascribes it to Jerome Thompson. Eye then rests on Courtship in New Amsterdam 223, full of quaint deep humor, but the work ofFW Edmonds. At last Mount and no mistake—News fr the Gold Diggings, 201, w/ruddy yellow of Calif’s darling product shining thru features and gleaming fr eyes of whole party. Even the colored Amer in rear looks as yellowish as black can well appear. Untold wealth in imaginations of these absorbed listeners, as their visages intensely testify. There are other picts here that might be mistaken for Mount’s, but this cld not be mistaken for aught but his.

            Market Scene by Candlelight 229 by P Von Schendel seems a gd thing. Yes, it is gd. Page’s port of CC Wright 128 is a strong head, no one who’d ever seen W could mistake it. Gov Young no 47 by HP Gray is not brilliant but faithful, and Dr JH Johnson 57 by T Hicks struck me as unusually well done, tho don’t know how faithfully.

            Give hasty notes in first person, don’t wish to interfere w/crit judgments of Associates to whose depts. The Fine Arts pertain rather than to mine, and who may see things v differently. Exhib as a whole pleases me, pure and intellectual pleasure.

p. 6 Greeley defends Griswold’s obit of Poe in Trib as hastily written, not to blame for Willis reproducing it

14 May 1850 p. 6 “City Items” gives NAD election results, Durand, Cummings, Shegogue, Stearns, Edmonds, Kensett, Evert, Hicks, Duggan, Launitz, Rossiter. Lang, Ranney, Boutelle, Cranch Gifford as associates, SM Spencer, Wisner, Hermonia Du?l, French as honorary members. Planned to elect new Academicians, but injunction obtained by Ingham, Shegogue and Mayr, who testified that the amendment to the Constitution was illegal at previous mtg.

  1. 4 has long obit for Fanny Osgood

15 May 1850 p. 1 “NAD” 2nd article. Will show remarkable want of judgment of Hanging Committee. Unfair to accuse malice or ill feeling toward younger, their own works suffer fr proximity to ones colored in violent contrast, so ignorant of well defined laws of the business. Entering large rm, eye immed arrested by full length port of Pius IX by Joseph Ames, at proper distance fr it, its angle leaves upper half filled with glare of light, almost impossible to see, esp in evening. Purpose of pitching  pict forward is to bring plane parallel with sight at proper distance, light being reflected fr an angle below the vision, so portrait ought to be pitched forward at top fr 4-8 inches so great merit isn’t entirely lost. Common law known to artists in proportion as they are successful, how bring pict into harmony with itself, this law shld also govern hanging. Examine works of best artists on committee, can see ea part arranged with reference to some other, so pictures constitute a whole, an agreeable effect. But if they did a work juxtaposing 2 objects, one v cold, the other v warm in color, effect v displeasing, beholder pronounce incomplete, only excusable on ignorance or mental aberration. Yet walls have continual such incongruities. Principle guiding them was correspondence of the frames in form, size and richness, without regard to subjects, style, tone or color. E.g. 42 FEChurch, Lscape at Twilight, subdued almost to dullness when seen alone, but delicate, tender, highly elab in exec, these qualities were it seen alone or with others of its kind would compensate for heavy alm leaden color, but juxtaposed with 46 by Durand, Summer Morning, an entire surface of whitish and light green color, and 43 by Doughty, cold and pale Winter Scene, its heavy leaden quality is by law of contrast increased and destroys much beaut rare sentiment subtly conveyed in tenderness and delicacy of its elaboration. Effect on mind of spectator reduced, artist’s rep suffers. The effective portrait 57 by T Hicks (?), work calculated fr massive light and shade, boldness of exec, for line of eye. Placing it low, diminished power. 70 HP Gray, one of his best portraits, over the door its peculiarities so nearly lost cld be another artist.97 FE Church same character as 42, its impressions on mind shld be derived fr truthfulness of its subdued tone and elab detail. It is affected by 98 Julius Kummer and 99, Regis Gignoux, latter a sunset of most brilliant possible combo of primary colors, red and yellow, and by this blaze of orange sinks its companion into tame if not dull insignif.

            Want of taste and perhaps gd feeling shown in placing side by side 128 and 130, W Page and Elliott. 138 Durand’s Thanatopsis, weak and delicate in exec, has its little power enuf diminished by red walls and carpet, w/o addition of red shawls in pics on  either side.

            Persons arranging shld know pict ptd in low key or tone requires powerful light on it (fr v absence of light in the ptg), so its genl effect may be seen, and detail and delicate half tints which always exist in finely wrought pict of deep tone may pass for their real value. 348 by Ames ought to be in a strong light.

            360, 368, ports by C Elliott and T Hicks, both quiet and subdued, but eye can’t rest on account of marine view betw ptd chiefly w/crude white and blue.

            More instances of such incongruity exist, rooms abound, only mention most flagrant, but rejoice that instance of proper and just hanging in 3rd gallery octagon room, northeast side, picts fr 197-206, artistic, done by WS Mount, ptr of central pict, with Wm Page, whose knowl of harmony of colors and fine eye for tone and keeping we are most indebted. Beaut managed. 201 by MS Mount deservedly the focus, 9 around it, ea by peculiar characteristics and position subservient, but as indiv works lose none of own beauties or excellencies. Mass of tone in Mount is cold leaden gray, 3 points of color, two of green on right and left hand, and patch of bright red at middle. Work of much detail, but no pretension to colors or effect of light and shadow, necessity of surrounding works give it importance and effect like the principal fig in a single pict. Lscape study on ea side by Durand and Kensett both of same neutral quality but predominating tone and tint of green means green spots in his ptg do not strike eye as isolated but rendered harmonious and pleasing. Under Durand and Kensett two other pics remarkable for nothing but quiet tones and tints, assist eye to rest on center. Bright patch of red in Mount not repeated in picture so must be repeated in group, and is in Shellfish by SA Mount, red of same quality but greater quantity, forget WS red spot. WS thus renders agreeable 3 spots of color unpleasant to eye fr being isolated and unsustained. Mount’s pict so cold and leaden as to be monotonous and repulsive, redness of walls and its own red increase that coldness and monotony by contrast, but by inversion are overcome, Winter Sketch by Gignoux as cold as white, blue and black can make it, such strong opposition makes Mount simply cool and agreeable. He is assisted, without diminishing what may be excellent in his aids. On either side of Snow Scene are cunningly 2 sm picts full of reddish brown and yellowish by H Muller, fr warmth, increase coldness of Snow Scene, while brown harmonizes with lscapes below, and echo red spot sufficiently to conduct its color up to walls. Sufficiently uniform in size, varying in subject, peculiar merits, permitting one pict to maintain focus. Muller perhaps slightly sacrificed, but as well places as possible. If placed 229 Von Schendel’s Market Scene by Candle Light by Mount’s the 2 small warm by Muller at either side, and Gignoux’s Dismal Swamp over all, a red hot sunset, Mount’s work would suffer and artistic eye shocked by incongruity. Such violence occurs everywhere. Illustrations here furnish sufficient proof of correctness of our positions.

p. 2 gives Cornelius Mathews a v mixed review; morals good

May 17 1850 p. 4 notes Eve Mirror yesterday has bio of Mrs FS Osgood, second part today. p.1 notes TB Read leaving for Euro. A collection in biscuit of all the works of Thorwaldsen will shortly arrive here for exhib. P. 3 “Labor and Art in Paterson, NJ” corresp of the Trib, visited Newark, seen ArtUnion gallery, talked to officers. Has abt 70 picts, several loaned by amateurs, JJ Mapes et al. Signed CR.

June 18, 1850 p. 1 “Collision” Forrest and Willis met in Washington Square and had an altercation, were both arrested for breaking the peace, in rln to the divorce.  “NAD” 3rd article. Purpose in crit works of most prominent artists to apply test of severest truthfulness to principles in their dept of Art, begin w/broad simple definition of essential components of a pict, regardless of character of subj: beauty and appropriateness of form, picturesqueness of treatment; ea obj intro’d bear closest resemblance to Nature compatible with the subj, latter deciding whether imitation shld be minute or general. In still life, resemblance exact, or illus defective. In picts of highest order this exactness not necessary, aim is not to illude the beholder, but instruct, some great fact to illus or thought or deep feeling to express, better effected by ideal qualities. In School of Athens, faces hands etc do not resemble flesh, draperies not exact imitations of any particular quality or texture, so all component parts are treated ideally, that is, with genl resemblance,not partic imitations. Thus forming a whole to exemplify a great fact in history, they appeal to intellect notto mere perception or senses. Two extremes with respect to imitation of natural objects, between which all works may be ranged in proper places accord to own characteristics.

            In Exhib, ports and lscapes more numerous than other classes, port not a mean branch, but find its products rather uninteresting, wish to dismiss them as speedily as possible, begin with older and more thoroughly estab professors in that dept.

            126 and 130 ports hung side by side, compare merits/ability, first by W Page, bold and characteristic, p. 2 hard to believe produced by artist never been to Euro, not difficult to believe a work of 16th c. subj—black hair, eyes, beard, contour of face, swarthy hue of skin, natural erectness of position, characteristics of southern Europeans, while closeness of drwg everywhere narrowing itself to express individuality of nature, mellowed by a yellowish tone to a calmness dignified and impressive, irresistibly recalls severe and intellectual works of Giorgione and Titian. No shiny lights resorted to  to produce rotundity, tone united and soft yet leaving forms firm and solid. Fault of head is that it resembles an old pict, misfortune that the orig is not more extensively known. Regret Page has only one work.

            Pendant 130 by Elliott, port of Rev Dr Bellows, handled in artist’s usual style, free, spirited, but too red and purple, if not a public character, wouldn’t be looked at twice.

            136 and 140 female ports by Ingham, exceeding smoothness of his works renders them peculiar and alw suffices to delight a certain fastidiousness of taste, which has origin in natural vulgarity or ambitious ignorance. Elaboration in processes of ptg only legit and warrantable when indispens to imit of some quality or texture, if smooth glass, polished ivory, calm water or any natural obj resembling these is to be imitated, a process resulting in smoothness would more nearly express the quality than one resulting in granulated or rough surface, as great smoothness of finish produces solidity and hardness. 6 or 7 works by Ingham, all smooth, chalky, pink and hard as bell-metal, no evidence of love for Nature in artist, sincere faith, willingness to confess her superiority, yielding obediently to broad yet simple effects of beauty her laws forever reproduce, instead of earnest student of her grandeur in little as in great things, all she so generously offers is falsely represented, artist labored only to repro himself, not her. Utter want of artistic taste, all show author lacks idea of fine form, true local color, natural light and shadow, gradation of light and dark, so without effect in those particulars. Yet likeness generally recognizable, and smoothness charms ladies, as they might be charmed by painter of porcelain.

            79 (?) Port of ldy by Jared B Flagg, in imit of style of Ingham.Nature a better guide to excellence, if not to the boudoir.

            340 port of gman by Gray, one of most characteristic in exhib. Hat and gloves exceedingly well ptd, but flesh essentially bad. Process employed is one that can’t by any possibility repres the naturally beaut qual of flesh; in following it, variety of tints is lost along with purity and simplicity of tone. After a pict is advanced in light, shadow and gradation so that the forms are suffic vigorous and bold, to go over whole repeatedly with yellowish, reddish and brownish semi-transparent pigments must inevitably produce monotony and destroy clearness and vivacity of touch, the life of ptg. His early picts were much better in all the last named qual, for simple reason he then essayed to paint what he saw, not deluded by use of varnishes and oils into processes of glazing and imitation of dirt which time has coll on works of old masters. 294 Young Poetess is one of Gray’s earlier productions, happy in many qual which are repro’d with naturalness.

            18 Romano is pict of child, best of its kind in coll. Feel want of surface in ptg, destroyed by repeated glazing, a simplicity and earnestness in expr and character  truly charming.

            37 and 355 2 best heads by Elliott, 37 fr picturesqueness of subj perhaps most interesting. In all his works one estimable qual, vivacity, fr freedom of his penciling, leaves a clear decided touch. Hair in 355 beaut penciled, silky and glossy alm as reality. Grt difficulty alw in coloring of flesh, lights are rose color, the half tones pink running into purple, shadows crimson lake, so that hue or tone is alw heavy and florid. Doubtless some heads of this character in nature, but ord flesh in all its half tones and shadows filled with most delicate pearl and olive tints, inclining to gray. Cant be otherwise, bcause orig power of prismatic hues so modified and weakened that only tell as color when surrounded by opposite tones. These, harmoniously ptd, would be pearl, olive or pure gray. Man who paints nothing but ports must become a mannerist, and if gives character must do without other essential qualities.

            Cafferty and S Boyle imitate Elliott’s style v successfully.

            One of our most conscientious and nature-loving artists is SA Baker, thruout his works an effort to render nature faithfully as she appears to him, sometimes betrays want of knowl of form in unnecessary fidelity to ugliness, as in neck in port of ldy, 113. Gratifying to feel in looking at his works that he loves nature more than art, strives earnestly to interpret with simplicity and truth the beauties she reveals tohim.

            Full length port of Piux IX by J Ames, hi rep in N Engl as colorist. W Allston, power of delicate color and tone acknowl, Bostonians assigned Ames his postion as a colorist. Picts here don’t sustain that position, but have compensating qual for absence of color. The likeness must be strong, simplicity of character and natural benev are chief expr of face and posture, accessories in quiet keeping, producing upon spectator harmony and solemnity of actual scene in Cath cathedral. 319 port hung alm out of sight, trace great beauty in its ptg, great warmth and purity of color, clearness and delicacy of touch, one of best colored and most real heads. 348 port of gman, not suffic acquainted with orig to speak of resemblance, but powerfully characteristic. In expr of face misanthropic sadness, high intellectual culture and power, with satiety, as if exp of life had all lived themselves out, will and firmness settling fast into indiff, a natural dignity and self control subdue and render whole deeply impressive. A look fr eyes that once caught will not easily be forgotten, like Raph’s port Cesar Borgia. Manip free and powerful, but impossible to tell whether ptd ro repres half light or low tone. 176 Myrrha, color rich deep, expr simple profound feeling. Great merit lies in manner of execution, broad, unaffected, artistic, showing he works fr feeling and imag not mechanically and for mere production of given quantity of smooth surface.

            3 heads by Duggan full of char and vigor of drwg. Profound knowl of anat and dynamics of expr give him inestimable power and great advantage over contemporaries, shld like to see more compositions of entire human fig.

            57, 155, 368 ports by T Hicks, force and character striking and memorable. 57 port Dr FU Johnson for NY Hosp, will be placed higher than here, in finest style, among first works of its order, exec masterly without being affected, arrangement in light and dark  is daring yet harmonious while expr of face and whole bearing of fig is calmness, dignity and thought. Hue and tone of Nature abt the head and accessories that alw give irresistible charm, partic when w/o excessive glazing. Look closely, honestly ptd, as if artist matched fr his pallet the hue of ea tint in nature, placing them exactly, left them not to be touched agn. 368 port an old man more carefully ptd, smaller, come naturally nearer to see it, but same vigor and freshness of touch. 155 port ldy, see manner adapted to subj, a broad simple treatment of character with great purity of color. Half tints don’t suffic lose themselves in gradation fr light, and are not entirely clean, whether artist left work unfinished or not able to carry it further and produce unity, don’t know, but inclined to latter.

            92 port by GW Flagg, treated w/some feeling and delicacy, but color disagreeably cold and monotonous.

            Many specimens by May, Wenzler, SA Mount and others highly creditable, numbers of others utterly unworthy of any position in any exhib. Next article on Lscape, but word of reply first to corresp of Eve Post on our crit on hanging and arrangement, not by way of controversy, for our only business is to set forth certain convictions of ours, for those who can receive what truth is in them, nor shall we tell our critic whether we prefer Fuseli to Raphael or Perrugino as he says we do, without knowing more abt it than he perhaps knows of the essential diff in those artists. Merely desire to illus our former remark that the effect of Durand’s Thanatopsis is weakened by proximity of Ingham’s red shawls.

            When in nature crimson flower seen in midst of verdure, whose freshness, depth and intensity can scarcely be imitated by purest and most powerful blue and yellow pigments, the green does not become more brilliant fr its assoc w/red, but its purity is diminished, and what in absence of red would be brilliant now becomes thru absorption of red light fr flower inclined toward brown, while red, a primary color, retains its orig force and really seems brighter by the contrast. Facts. Requires delicate organiz and careful investing to perceive the various influ, Crimson and green alw go beaut together, but if scarlet flower placed next to sage, that plant’s leaves become duller and paler by juxtaposition, as the sage green is not pure, has strong alloy of white and black, which as dead pigments get duller when opposed by primary colors. Ingham’s shawls not pure scarlet, but powerful reds, and green hues in Lscape of Durand all v far fr pure, most powerful are greens in shadows and they are entirely quiet, while mass of pict is pale dull blue in sky, carried by mixture of green composed of white and black with poor yellow and poor blue pigments thru the distance, middle and up into foregrd, so same rln to red shawls as whitish green sage holds to red flower in nature.

June 20, 1850 p.1 another card from Willis responding to friends of Forrest in previous Trib, affidavit fr eyewitness, plus a letter fr Citizen of NY agreeing with editor, chose smallest and weakest of all his possible injurers, striving for notoriety, and Willis, regardless of estimate of some persons, has been a gman.

p. 1 NAD—article 4. Attn arrested by some beaut or forcible lscape, but seek in vain for works such as once exhib by Thom Cole. No one in whom intellect imag so rises in superiority to merely mechanical or at best sentimental qual, there was thought alw refined, strengthened and broadened by power of imag, observer felt and underst the fullness of that quality, not only in the tenderness and delicacy of the distances, sweeping lines of grandeur that defined the mtns rise and fell in boldness, or vaguely melted into clouds and sky, not only in rich foliage of trees and veg luxuriant, masses of deep brwn shadows, lights, brilliant hues of yellow and green, but quite as much in the choice of subjs and artistic means of repres. Not faultless works, but author combined to so great a degree endowments of intellect and imag w/broad and generous comprehension of nature, a rare and inestimable genius. Among fellow laborers prominent is Durand, principal pict is 138 Thanatopsis, characterized by all his usual peculiarities except not so much of literal nature as in most of his. Still tho none of the obj it contains are partic like Nature, the resemblances suffic close for subj, its aim is ideal, grand, sublime, highly moral, contradistinct to natural, simple, familiar, pleasing. Were subj of latter character shld insist on more exact imitation of natural objects, but its merits must be determined by its own standard.

            As lscape compos has many beaut pleasing qual, quietude and gentleness thruout, arising fr delicacy of composition and alm timid manner of execution, awaken in mind trains of thought sooth and sadden, lost in sentimentality. To consider it merely a lscape with no partic title, the compos wld be well enuf, but there is an absence of knowl as to power of pigments commonly in use that render it disagreeably feeble seen by side of any work of force or compared with nature. However, there are minds that appreciate and delight in such a sort of things and for them it contains all that is needful.

            Unfortunate to connect this pict with Bryant’s poem, his strongest and most thoughtful compos, fraught with images suggest a solemn grandeur p. 2, but hills rockribbed and ancient on Durand’s canvas are only new and unsubstantial cliffs, not décor for great omb of man, nor vales, only flat of meadows made green by brooks, no rivers move in majesty, while grove of dwarf trees fail in expr idea of venerable woods, don’t feel distant sheet of pale quiet light to be ocean’s melancholy waste.

            46 summer Morning more successful, calm and quite more approp to subj, hazy distance, light struggling down thru trees, faint ripple on pebbly beach, all make you feel the Sabbath. But also a want of vigor here, lights shld be more palpably lights, darks or some of them darker, as for instance in his Studies fr Nature, 226 and 236. In her presence he’s less timid, her beauty variety strength inspire him, rocks, moss tree trunks and water grow pleasingly attractive, here is his forte.

            Kensett’s direct repre. Of Nature are stronger, more boldness and force. Without doubt the first in his line of lscape, the actual rendering of certain combos of forms and colors in natural scenery, e.g. his delicious 344 View in Catskill Mtns, delicacy of feeling and fidelity to orig in this that places it for these qual above all other works of its kind. Foregrd thru light portion the variety of nature, cool to warm, dry dead leaves to cool gray stones and rock, green springs and vines, long severe study, most intimate observation. Water limpid cool as dashes over rocks, scattering spray, manage aerial persp dimly see its first intro into pict. Side in shadow perhaps wants a little relief by intense darks or broken half lights. But pict once seen and apprec long remembered. Has hit on thing he can do best, diligence, will be lucrative and honorable. 233 and 242 his finest studies, freshness truth and beauty make them gems.

            Characteristics of Church’s works peculiar, alm alw strangeness of effect closely approaching sublime solemnity and grandeur, yet a Yankee like smallness and contractedness of feeling and a minuteness of finish that destroy the fullness of the idea in endeavoring to express it. 42, Gra Mtn, Vt, sunset, mtn a gray, flat, formless mass save line agst sky, clouds penciled with great exactness are broken and varied, catching silver light along lower edges, foregrd forms sufficiently common for actual scene, bridge, trees, houses, fence, road, horse kicks up a great dust illum by last rays of sun. Sky, effect of light and shadow, appreciation of natural sublimity, but elaborate exactness and dull dead colors alm paralyze the imag of spectator. 97 the same, clouds composed w/great knowl of atmospheric effect, but light on edges so belabored no brilliancy left. Both suffer fr position on wall.

            But redeems all others, can’t praise too much, 349, Twilight short Arbiter, concept thruout highly imag. Light and shade, forms everywhere tend toward the grand, solemnity in shadows, heightened by lurid red and yellow lights, takes powerful on imag, and eye wearied and dazzled by their brightness relieved by roof of solitary house whose windows yet glow. Eye at last rests on quiet little stream gleams dimly in shade, glory of pic is sky, cloud forms varied, fantastic yet natural, color true to time and scene, exec so generous, bold and artistic, feel while gazing that those shapes and hues must change, glory of that day departing forever. Reason this effect on mind of spectator is free decided touch with which clouds are ptd, apparently no over-ptg, moving elasticity of brush left to act upon sense and mind. Had they been niggled, as in his other two, vividness of color lost and forms seem as motionless and solid as marble. Treatment highly artistic thruout. Bringing togeth mass of dark rocks and brightest portion of sky, he intensified and concentrated these extremes, seize the attn. and lose it by a natural and true gradation to every part of pict. Church and Kensett are in all their leading and essential charactersitics truly Amer.

            Cropsey’s picts chiefly ptd abroad, foreign scnes. 27 B?—the Pontine Marshes, near Rome—is largest. To appreciate wild luxuriance of veg so richly repre, one must have visited. Fault in his works too mechanically produced, the touch of a mannerist. No one objects to touch in ptg (technical sense), if it expr qual or texture and form of obj, and as ea obj in nature has diff qual, texture or form, touch for ea shld be diff. Touch that wld exactly expr texture of hair on dog or cow can’t expr texture of wool on sheep, nor repres clouds by same touch as rocks. Cropsey’s clouds, distance, trees, rock, foregrd almo everything seem done with same movement of hand, same kind of brush, same liquidity of paint. 217 Doune Castle, on Waters of Teith, Scotland, sm, hung so low its beauties only seen by few who take pains, a gem, full of freshness of Engl scenery, broad in arrangement of light and shadow, clear in color, refreshing as actual lscape. 3 other works by him are beaut in feeling and arrangement, but deficient in nature.

            CP Cranch recently fr Euro exhib View of Florence (no 1) faithful transcript beaut scene, color is mellow and pleasing tone, but sky is much too c old. 134 Death of Abel full of poetic elevated feeling, but allegorical works require very perfect exec and treatment to make them pop. Cranch a poet by nature, picts alw contain breadth of thought and sentiment give them an intrinsic value, even when exec falls short of idea they embody.

            66 View on Hudson, Boutelle, has some v true qual, peculiar sultry quiet of sky and clouds admirable, tone of whole pleasing, and if cow near foregrd were dark brown, or a dark obj introd by other means, given great breadth and force to mid distance. He improves in alm every pict, and if studies Nature as he does picts of Dusseldorf, will rise to first rank.

            52 Coast Storm Passing Off, D Huntington, fresh, feely ptd, spirited pict, doesn’t look like a storm, wouldn’tknow if passing off or coming on. No such formation of rocks on our coast, but if not quite natural, somewhat ideal, which answers here just as well. Great merit in fearless and masterly execution, fine specimen of offhand ptg without partic reference to nature. Must be attractive, because full of movement. Lscape obviously his forte.

            2 small pics by Hicks, 189 and 191, Views on Grand Canal, daguerreotype exactness in exec that renders them perfectly charming to lovers of Venice. Look closely we find palaces, towers, domes, strange pictque boats with gay fantastically arrayed persons, animate the scene. Water is excellent, hue just that in Grand Canal, transparency as real as nature.

            99 Dismal Swamp, NC by Gignoux is daring, quite successful brilliant sunset, boldest pioneers in use of pure primary colors. Hues and gradations so carefully carried thruout, a diligent student of nature. His 202,a  Winter Sketch, quite as true, as cold as the other is warm.

            177 and 179 sm lscapes by B Champney of Boston, delicately conceived and executed, lit by sunshine of early summer day. 294 a lscape by Inness, gd feeling for color and tone, latter very fine, but artist must have more reference to natural forms and textures, or few will stop to admire. Richards’s lscapes all want mellowness of tone and color, are too green and harsh.122 Moonlight Compos by GL Brown, sets for Lorenzo and Jessica in Merchant of Venice. Want of nature in this work fr center to circumference in every direction. Doughty has not improved in yrs, color dead and leaden, forms v commonplace. Yet something v pleasing in them to a great many.

            Foreigners too, 112 Evening in the Alps, Wm Heine, characteristic of hour and place, quiet sadness in color, light and shade, borders on melancholy. 19 Forest in Germany, Paul Weber, fair specimen of artist who utterly disregards nature, yet some fresh ptg among leaves in right corner. 104 Amiens Cathedral by H Gritten, sky and tower in free, broad, bold style after Engl school, but unlike his other picts, and maybe dated much earlier. Have left unnoticed some with promising qual, next yr concentrate all his power on one pict and he will be heard. Country has wide range ofnatural scenery, grand to rural, only work obediently diligently to become eminent, follow nature, generous heart and had, no contracted appreciation of her grandeur and beauty.

            Correction in portraits crit: typog put S Boyle, but we meant J Bogle, not FTL Boyle who didn’t submit art.

June 22 1850 p. 1 NAD 5th article, figure compositions

            JT Peele’s first, subj of large pict 10, Child’s Passage to Paradise, hi pretension, treated after classic manner. Fine talent, great perseverance, much study fr prints after good old picts, compos gracefully skilfully made out, genl tone agreeably quiet. Draperies much better than flesh, which is too full of crude color, extremities noses fingers toes and articulations too red, or too crude a red. Great honesty thruout, gd appreciation of just and approp form, no artist cld have treated subj in large w/more grace and delicacy of feeling. Not sure his proper walk in art.

            His Sewing Girl made him popularly known, ought to have followed up that class of subjs, 38, Drink of Milk, better chosen subj bcause artist had nature to illus every part and more nature he puts in, more successful. Intro of same crude red colors in flesh/extremities tho, fig with cow in mid dist is ptd with colors too positive. Treatment of whole wants gradation, so has no atmosphere or a v poor one.

            Among highly classic and moral pics is 3329, Cup of Cold Water, or Child’s Lesson Charity by D Huntington, much more pretentious than Peale’s, easel of long practiced Artist of several visits to Euro, and attempts to exemplify one of highest cardinal virtues. Simply to give a person water who don’t look partic dry seem a feeble lesson for so great a virtue. Subj admits of ideal treatment and fr absence of natural everywhere, this was intended. But ideal mode in its present use merely implies genl instead of partic imitations of textures and qual and beautifying of forms, but insists on proportions, no deformity. Little or nothing in execution to admire. Ptg careless and w/o principle, coloring wretched thruout, technically washed over with dirty glazings to give appearance of tone. Colors kept down with a decent degree of modesty, red bodice on girl fired up to such a degree believe artist bent on carrying off palm fr carpet and walls. Drwg shockingly bad. Look at head and shoulders of old man, nose and ear situated with respect to ea other, neck doesn’t exist at all. Huntington has a great deal of talent for this country, some of his early works good and promising, esp when old masters fresh in his memory, but this pict has little or nothing genuine in it, absurd to praise bcause by an artist who enjoyed public notice and favor in former years. We remember with pleasure Mercy’s Dream and many beaut lscapes, ask to be delivered from Child’s Lesson, deficient in dignity of Nature and science of Art.

            Possibly might reply that impt picts were ptd without Nature, but public are not obliged to praise the work, look at early Italians, plenty of bad drwg, worse coloring, no persp, stiff ungraceful compos and ignorance or v imperfect acquaint w/whole mechanism of Art. Yet they are treasured with all their faults by two classes of persons: the relig and educated. Imbued with sentiment so deep and earnest, artists tho deficient in mechanical qual of Art, were not mercenary, but truthful to attributes they discovered in their subjects.

            201 News fr Gold Diggings, WS Mount, little pict, pause with some degree of pleasure. Earnest love for Nature so far as artist understands her, displayed thruout, charm lies in delineation of common characters. V nat scene might occur anywhere in the country, accessories tell story more than grouping or expression, happiest ptg in it is face and hat of negro, air of a successful copy fr Nature. Doubtless artist who possesses little faculty for color had fewer diff to overcome, flesh being brown. Artistic treatment of backgrd of ignorance or inexcusable eccentricity. Wall has open door and indications of sky and scenery done with so nearly same tone and colors entirely confounded with dull monotonous gray wall, in nature sky would be luminous if not bright. Good deal of natural happy expr in ptg of faces, but whole is radically deficient in color and chiaroscuro, latter uniformly dull and w/o gradation, while flesh is either red and hard or chalky. As to telling the story, not equal to his earlier Bargaining for a Horse, which had a uniform excellence in alm every desirable qual. Of late his works fallen off both in exec and epigrammatic power, do well to return to simplicyt of nature of beginning of career.

            229 Market Scene by Candlelight, P Von Schendel, ptd perhaps in Belgium, has all the academic conventionalities of the schools there in vogue. Don’t need catalog, it is a market scene and nothing else, in Euro city, where public square is market and any time women congregate. Covers table with veg and traffic objects, burning candle, most careful efforts to these principal agents in telling his story, peculiar textures forms, colors imitated to degree makes individuality of ea distinct and unmistakable. Candlelight: fidelity and care in imitation only equaled by scientific knowl in its exec, truly profound artist conscious of his insight into philos of Nature, hollow, round, intenser heat whiter, touches of blue and white intensify the yellow but not darkening it, radiation managed with great skill. Diff betw qual of light on objects and source of illum not accounted for by textures ofobj, so slightly false, yellows and reds, appear with max warmth fr cold gray tone pervading sky bldgs.. heads well drawn w/o character or beauty, but agreeable bcause of degree of symmetry. Color of flesh bad, not made distinct enuf fr qual of carrots, cabbages and apples, draperies and accessories fr nature with care to form and gradation, attractive power from latter.

            Pict has met universal commendation, scarcely a pretended connoisseur who doesn’t think it best in exhib, and a fair illus of law of crit, a pict in manner of still life, successful in utmost possible imit of qual forms and textures of nat objects, things easiest to imitate. Living flesh with hue imparted by animating heat, hardest to reproduce and he makes an entire failure. With all his excellent ptg, not an idea in it above range of carrots, nor idea above the imitation. No satisfaction to refer fr this picture book to Mount’s, deficient where Von Schendel excels, has appreciation of human char and feeling which proves it natural genius, not laborious product of mechanical skill.

            212 Dolce far Niente, T Hicks, hung so hi effect of persp much destroyed and principal fig seemed same lazy, ragged vagabond Ital boy every artist paints, but by largeness of his eyes and their deep melancholy that h’s not. Fine effect of daylight and forms of clouds sweeping and freely ptd. His Fountain at Palestrina, 239 resembles Von Schendel in having no intellectual idea. Pictures of genre too freq of this character. Artist uses every variety of material to show degree of skill, not to expr thought or feeling, instruct fellows in idea or sentiment general or personal. Simply an example of savoir faire. However, interest of its own, pict truly Ital, figs drwn with force and char, costumes pictque and well ptd, lscap an accessory but has variety, atmosph gradation and flooded with sunlight. 162 Une Fete Champetre by same, title doesn’t explain treatment, groups of figs and trees togeth to exemplify some principle powerfully contrasting light and dark, color and great depth of tone. Some critics observe in manner of French schl in style of Diaz, eminent colorist, but if 194 is by him as in catalog, don’t see resemblance. Peculiarity of Hicks is chiaroscuro descends fr brilliant or bright yellowish white down thru gradations of color to intensest brown, giving great force and agreeable tone. Color too pigmentary and not sufficiently prismatic.

            152 Pilgrims discovering approach of second ship, TP Rossiter, spirited compos, much vigor of sentiment. Color dry and dull, figs most truthful drwg fr Nature. 240 Huguenots going to worship, fine qual of daylight thruout but badly hung. 312 Filial Duty has sentiment both tender and elevated, backgrd and accessories well ptd. All small works, don’t sustain Rossiter in posit of larger works.

            102 Queen Catherine by Edwin White, full of quiet merit in color more than drwg and char; White deep love for quiet, gentler tones of color, dilig and conscientious student of all her higher beauties, gone to Euro. 251 263 also indicate v truthful feeling for color and tone.

            208 Newsboy by FR Spencer, doubtless a beginner with brush, remarkable for originality of subj. placards on wall lettered with fidelity of daguerreotype, boy seems an accessory vaguely defined and wanting in character. Lettering his forte. 218 and 357 by JG Clonney, fine appre of character and natural drwg, but no conception of light and shadow or color, he alw tells story but better to draw in crayons than paint, eg on stone, his works wld be valuable acquis to our National Engravings. 111 On the Wing by Wm Ranney, fine intention, drwg not faultless nor forms well chosen nor color all might be desired, but proper concentration of char and purpose in man, boy and dog that tells at once whole story. Game naturally and beaut ptd.

            211 Two Culprits, by WF Edmonds, remember better things by him. Idea of his picts is never spontaneous, as if after some thinking, decides to paint a subj, but not as if full idea came with force upon his imag. 223 less good. 234 The Jilt by Hubner, a Dusseldorf ptg, not a fair ex of that clever artist, story as well told as cld be with conventional drwg and character employed, but coloring throut is mannerised, disagreeable to eye and untrue to Nature.

            197 little pict of clever intention, by Alfred Jones, the engraver. 9 fig picts by Weir, fr size and exec, suppose for publisher to engr. 4 picts by H Muller indiff, conventional productions of some of the Euro schools. 137 Fire Ship by JB Stearns has fine pts of intention, sky simple, water calmer, but figs want more nature in drwg, better delineation of character in faces. 123 Love in the Country by Stearns, cow small for proportion of figs.

            Lorenzo and Jessica 51 by GW Flagg, fault of subj perhaps but seldom v natural. Allston said to have ptd one v beaut, about 400 Engl artists have played some pictorial trick on this unfortunate couple, so have been done brown. Does 51 have more nature in it than 129? More ideal, more sentiment, and Jessica’s face is Jewish and pretty. 28 Arabian Astrologer and the Gothic Princess by L Lang, Astrologer is badly drawn and princess pretty in idea. 397 Tamborine Girl is in char Italian, childlike and agreeable. 12 Hagar and Ishmael by Signor Cogette, work of Roman school, conventional in compos, hard, dry unnatural in exec, fig of angel looks like bad sculp, and pigeno’s wings on shoulders only orig thing in whole work.

            292 Fairies at Play by C Mayr is barefaced crib fr a pict in Dusseldorf coll and vacant of every claim to nature, truth, invention or decency, how it got position on walls a mystery. Perhaps committee thought resemblance to clever Germ pict sufficient merit. Perhaps another reason.

            80 Young Pedlar by James Brown some feeling for character, and J Thompson 30 The Pic Nic deserves notice. Artist wants more observ of human character and truth to nature in drwg of figs. Things by Carter, henrich, Marsiglia and others, no time.

p. 8 another letter corroborating Willis’s account of the attack

Tribune: NAD review, 1850 xerox, Huntington’s Child’s Lesson on Charity, more pretentious than Peale’s, greatest of virtues, ideal treatment, absence of natural everywhere, little or nothing in execution of pic to admire, careless and without principle, coloring wretched thruout, dirty glazings, decent degree of modesty for most colors, but not red bodice of girl, drawing shockingly bad, head and shoulders of old man disjointed, remember with pleasure his Mercy’s Dream and many beaut lscapes, deficient.

            Von Schendel’s  Market considered a masterpiece of collection, met with universal commendation, imitates individuality of all his vegetables, knowl re candlelight, heads agreeable for symmetry tho color of flesh is bad, draperies accessories fr nature much of attractive power of the pic. No idea in it above cabbages and carrots.

            Spencer originality of subj, placards lettered with fidelity of daguerreotype, boy an accessory wanting in character, lettering his forte.

            Clonney fine appreciation of character and natural drwg, no light and shadow, alw tells the story, he should do prints. Ranney On the Wing, fine intention, forms not well chosen nor color all desired, but proper concentration of char and purpose in man boy and dog that tells story, game naturally ptd.

Two Culprits by Edmonds, we remember better things, idea of his pics never spontaneous, Hubner’s Jilt not a fair example, conventional, mannerised and disagreeable coloring. Alfred Jones engr pic of clever intention. Weir’s nine fig pics prob for a publisher. H Muller indiff, conventional. Stearns Fire Ship some fine pts of intention, figs want more nature and character. Flagg. subj done brown. Lang Astrologer badly drawn, princess pretty in idea, Tamborine girl agreeable. Hagar by Cogette in Roman School, hard dry unnatural.

July 4, 1850 p. 1 NAD 6th article, sculpture

            4th gallery just sculpture, so outlines archit drwgs, crayons and w/c sent back with no space, and in room 13 sculp by HK Browne of 17. Start with the exceptions. 1 Bust of Wash Allston by Brackett, either same exhib in AAU several yrs ago or a duplicate, modeled fr cast after death, consid fair likeness. 7 Star Gem’d Aurora by J Mosier, seen some clever things fr chisel of this sculpt, and if this were a likeness of some young person might be regarded as having gd individ characteristics. But calling it Aurora is as absurd as artist’s complete failure to make an ideally beaut and classic work. No greater mistake in these days of infidelity, 300 yrs fr Greeks, with whole state of society and circumstances utterly unlike, to attempt to embody or expr the grandeur, sublimity, ideal, classic and godlike beauty suggested by mythical relig of great period of Grecian hist. Ok to copy works of that age, if confesses it, but don’t waste time inventing new Venuses et al, for no modern sculptor has succeeded, and efforts are inefficient imit or poor plagiarisms. Here that Canova dwindled and became insipid or affected; broad northern nature of Thorwaldsen insufficient, did other subj to greater advantage. Michael Angelo’s wisdom and unerring instincts of gigantic intellect led him to this, and just did Christianity or allegory, giving form and embodiment to ideas orig, grand, grotesque and superhuman, forebodings of beings yet to come in the remote future fr the present puny races. Best talent in sculpt today most successful as most closely follows Nature, refining and beautifying of course, but preserving faithfully characteristics indicate the temperament, so leave work natural not ideal, eg David D’Anger of Paris, Dupre of Florence, and busts of Powers. When Powers attempts the ideal, weak and erring, his Greek Slave no matter how beaut execution, if take away chain would do as well for a nymph. Orpheus of Crawford merely a finished copy of one of the sons of Niobe. Thank Heaven! Crawford can’t with propriety intro the classic into the Virginia Monument. But on they go with the Greek ideal and nothing else, if a David, Apollo the pattern, if a Fish- p. 2 er boy, the young Apollo, and so forth.

            Bust of Mosier’s betrays utter want of knowl as to essentials which constitute the ideal char of the Greek works, years of severe study on these works is necessary to their comprehension, uninterrupted toil for Michael Angelo and Da Vinci, even with genius, before attained power and excellence. Excuse utter want of these in person who begins labor of art in middle life, having used its bud and flower in pursuits of a wholly alien character. Bust closely copied fr model, then doubtless have gd pts of imitation, but departing fr nature in endeavor to idealize w/o guidance of laws that govern ideal forms, has neither simplicity of nature nor excellence of fine art.

            11 Piatti well modeled head. 15 Bust Gen Scott by JB Ives, expr great degree characteristics of General.

            V wise precaution in cat giving written explanations of series of bas-reliefs by Brown repres the “double allegory of human existence, as well as that of the seasons.” Orig in this idea of alleg of seasons? Has been done before and with much the same symbols, figs expr this conception have seen in divers places, antique bas-reliefs, Greek and Etruscan vases, outline drwgs or etching fr them, illus of Flaxman. Such plagiarisms are charitably overlooked, because all mediocre modern sculpt is made up this way, and in this dept of FA more than any other except Archit, unquestionable genius is indispensable to originality. Execution or mere mechanical excellence? Seasons follow, so there is continuity if not thought in order, but exec has woeful want of equal excellence, admission of indiff to fame or inability. In most instances draperies well arranged and exec, some extremities show careful finish. But shld be extraordinary, as artist in Rome was surrounded by finest specimens of modern Art and glorious relics of ancient. 9 Autumn, left hand holding grapes joined to forearm with no indication of carpus or writs, forming a straight and disagreeable line fr the first joint of thumb to angle of arm. Child ungraceful, not childlike in least, disproportioned and ugly forms, man also rests lamely on staff, head wants dignity and elevation of character. 6 Winter old man’s face is best in series, some natural markings of old age, but ear too low, and mystery in rln of head, neck and shoulders. Head of boy disagreeably unhandsome, woman gross in feature and disgustingly vulgar in character. Hands are better, but seem to belong to person younger than head indicates. 10 Spring most successful bcause simplest, position and swaying of fig fraught with beauty grace movement. Sculptor indebted to Julian’s litho after Lebman and Flaxman for idea and simplicity of treatment, those who know may determine. Wheat grains are in proportion, as large as a smart sized bean. 17 Summer, young man a sort of distorted Antinous, v large left hand, head vulgar, forms of face expressionless, but not worse than head and face of young female. Her hand on harp has any feeling but delicacy or grace. In subj of this character a sculptor has but 2 methods of treatment: either forms and expr of char must be highly ideal and divine, or simply natural and human, bcause in sculp any confusion of those two is incompat with excellence. In ptg a pict may be radically bad in choice of forms and char of expressions, and still charm spect by chiaroscuro and color. To those who discover poetic thought in these bas reliefs, they are valuable to that extent.

            16 Ruth, upper portions of draperies managed with great skill and beauty, lower portion, partic all sides, stiff and unmeaning, face pretty and seems to expr hesitation. Suggest rename A Young Ceres, wheat will then delude many into idea it’s a fine likeness, for it bears no resemblance to passionate, impetuous, womanly Ruth (Bible says harvest of barley not wheat). 8 Statue of Hope, usu form of anchor, large butterfly as immortal soul, wrist of right hand seems broken, from manner thrust into hip, forms of face pretty, expr naïve, more dreamy than thoughtful. 13 is a garden statue introd into an exhib of the Fine Arts. 2 Bust of Thom Cole, impossible to associate the vulgarity of features and expr in this with the noble productions of that artist, can’t underst how C of E, Past and Present, and Voyage of Life cld ever have emanated fr a person of whom this cld be a likeness.

            5 Bust of Wm C Bryant, a most unfortunate production. Were there any possibility of such an intention it would be regarded as a caricature or calumny. Can’t pass for a portrait of man who wrote Water Fowl, Evening Wind, Green River and other poems that breathe deepest strains of tenderness and meditation—the thing is painful and repulsive. Represents a hard cold, soured politician, suffering fr ill health or phys pain. Ought to be destroyed and forgotten. Artist who would repro in marble features of Bryant shld portray Poet or withhold, let him be represented surrounded by scenes he loves and nobly celebrated, in Summer woods, amid wild flowers, catching low murmur of silver stream, on shore of ocean, moans forever, passes unreturningly away, or on shaded lawn romping with innocent children his eye and smile showing soul knows voice of gladness. Bust is exactly the oppos of all it should be.

            Looks not quite just to devote one room of five exclusively to such works, hope more discrim shown in future.

            Unconsc of least injustice or useless severity. More might have been said, perhaps in praise, of more modest and less pretending, but justify by not having withheld deserved censure or praise to productions of high pretensions conspicuously placed, irrespective of authors’ public reputation. Folly to expect grand and perfect Art at present epoch, art keeps pace with progress of social and polit institu, lit and relig, see history of Greek and Catholic Art moving from simplest and rudest to sublimest and most profound intellectual devt. Rejoice rather than regret, no use for this high Art. Europe can furnish modern works to gratify superior tastes of those who feel no pride in Progress of Am Art, but aid in maintaining the dead letter abroad while living spirit perishes at home. To those who preserve freshness and simplicity of feeling diff fr so called educated taste, something refreshing in passing fr Dusseldorf to NAD and AAU. In former great elaboration and results of laws which science of Art of Ptg teaches, both in subjs and means of exec, a dull dry hard monotonous effect, invariable result of academic conventionalities, wearies genuine lover of Nature. With feeling of school boy breaking fr restraining presence of pedagogue to enjoy open air or woods, quit their influence. Lessing, Achenbach and our own Leutze in a measure free fr this charge bcause genius rises above academic rules, but even in them some links fr strong chain of conventional Art cripple their freedom.

            Partic in AU, while find in alm every instance a want of judgment in choice of subjects, an uncertain feeble manner of exec, vague and sometimes vain endeavor to realize higher characteristics of thought or fancy, feel artist is earnest truth seeking student, untrammeled by laws of schools, deeply in love with nature, daring to risk his fame. Growth of art in fig and lscape exceedingly rapid and with consid success, many of the lesser works on walls of AAU and NAD will be treasured as gems.

            AU and NAD thru injudicious persons’ management, unfortunately actuated, have had interests divided, ill feeling engendered. Change of officers of ea has restab amicable rlns, but shld unite closer their interests. No good to have rivalry, objects separate, to distrib art vs assist student. Exhib only point of collision, NAD needs admission price, AU needs to not—should close when NAD is open its two months. Petty competition betw two results in contemptible meannesses, brotherhood would lead to impartial criticism, mutual aid, greater general progress, unity of feeling and efforts.

            Success of AU means orders given to artists by indivd have diminished in number, AU only market, but gmen such as AM Cozzens, GW Austen, CM Leupp, O Haggerty and others still give orders to ablest artists, others should too. Next generation will found indep and superior Natl School universally recognized as are now the efficient and successful institu that form the solid basis of our polit edifice. Recall names of allston, Cole, Page, Leutze, Mount, Inman, Elliott, rossiter, Durand, Huntington and Gray, all enviable reputations, now followed hard on by newer names, Hicks, Kensett, Church, Cropsey, Cranch, Boutelle, Woodville, Peele, Duggan, Darley, Ehninger and others, decided characteristics there is sure prospect of permanent success. Sons and grandsons of this generation are influ in moral intel devt by character of productions of today.

p.3 Politics and Art in Paris, corresp GWC of Trib, genius of Young France? Govt busy removing paving stones and socialists, reign of shopkeepers is past, monarchy is about to be restored in Louis Napoleon. France losing lead in arts, palm is passing to Albion. The brilliant lists of French ptg still illumine the shop windows, Diaz’s little things are alw as beaut, but alw tuning his fiddle, not making music, just sketches, no pictures fr modern men. Couture’s Decadence of the Romans, finest pict for thought and poetic sentiment ever ptd in France, is a colored cartoon. Vernet another battle, clear and forcieble and truthful like the rest. Louvre closed, best picts put in French gallery covering with grace and beauty the stiff profane daubs that constitute French art of a century since.  Wm Page has arrived on way to Italy, a fruit somewhat long in ripening. Healy still here on his large pict of Senate Chamber, invaluable gallery of portraits. Geo L Brown, best known of Am landscapists abroad, resuming residence in Florence, has been traveling in northern Europe. Americans in Italy will find in Brown’s studio at Florence mementos of spots, ptd directly fr nature, but Brown already identified with Florence. Younger Am artists all about, seeking secret of various national excellences in art, diligent students, recoil fr Amer bcause Euro more pictque, yet as long as they stay in Euro, by so long is individual artist’s life in Amer retarded. If an artist can’t resist Amer tendencies, let him come to Euro, but give up idea of being a great artist.

Aug 2 1850 p. 4 The Newspaper Press—French Press. In Feb 1845 there were 428 periodicals issued in Paris, 23 in Fine Arts, number has increased since then. Journal des Debats mostly has supported the govt since 1830, opposes the Republic, supports “order” tho not alw press censorship, regards people as a mob with contempt, respects Catholic church. By CAD. [Hector Berlioz their musical critic] 

Aug 8 1850 p.1 by C. Wesleyan Univ Commencement, EP Whippleof Boston’s addresson Amer Mind, only a great people could ? produce a Pericles, Chatham, grew naturally of mind of their nations and were its exemplifiers not its creators or modifiers. Am mind composite of Virginia and Pilgrim Yankee, latter more potent, restless, mercantile or money getting. Ital devotion to Fine Arts and conseq impoverishment of country and degradation of people. Manifest Destiny man denounced. Webster, Calhoun and Clay as ex. Of our mind.

Sept 5 1850 p. 8 Jenny Lind at private viewing, faves from NAD, Church Huntington Gignoux Dismal Swamp, Cropsey’s Pontine Marshes, Durand’s Thantopsis, Ranney’s Standard Bearer, plus Leutze Knight, Palmer bas relief, Mozier bust, Filatrice statuette, bronzes by Kneeland, print fr Leslie, Cole’s Dream Arcadia, Durand’s Dover, Leutze’s Image Breaker, Edmond’s New Schol, Woodville Card Players

Oct 5, 1850 p. 8 “Minstrel’s Curse” Muller’s admirable statuary still exhib at NAD rooms, Uhlands’ well known ballad, romantic rather than classic school. Seized on strking part of poem where gray old bard hurls his curse on the king, for murder of the boy minstrel who sinks dying, and conception expr with simplicity and truth that stamp him as artist of unquestioned genius. Great merit of group is old man, stretches to full height, flings hand above head, fingers almost trembling, lips parted in act, expr of features the extremity of scorn, abhorrence and grief. Anatomy fine, tho slighted in the chiseling. Boy, a nude youth, langor of death, droops head, lets fall rose, contrast betw energy of one and lifeless relaxation of other v striking, heightening both, impression v satisfactory and agreeable. Simple, chaste, beaut production, appreciator of genuine art shld visit.

p. 2 still likes Knick. Notices Ehninger’s engravings for a Putnam version of Hood’s Bridge of Sighs

Nov 9 1850 p. 7 notices approvingly a General View of the FA by a lady pub by Putnam’s, her taste as an amateur and practical skill leads to intellig judgment, extensive hist of schools of art

November 11, 1850 p. 6 “Europe by an American” no. xxx, signed WHF. Notes that Healy is hard at work on figs of great rivals Webster and Calhoun, latter a full length port taking his leave of the Senate, for Charleston. Accessories unimpt. Webster gives large section ofSenate, include galleries, and abt 150 figs or ports all after life. For Boston.

November 16 1850 p.5-6 has long excerpts from Kingsley’s Alton Locke, likes him as friend of the poor, includes passage where he visits Nat Gall, rich heavy warmth, brilliant varied coloring gilded frames embroidered walls, hushed earnestness of copying artists, lounging visitors, mysterious awe. One fig concentrated his attn., his cousin had turned aside to a picture of Venus which caught his eye to raise a shudder and a blush—tho now have learnt that to the pure all things are pure—but he went to Guido’s St Sebastian, true naturalness, highest expression of spiritual, but defects—its exaggeration, theatricality, attracted him. Falls in love with a girl he meets in front of it.

November 26, 1850, p.4 “Private Character of Artists” An “Old subscriber” blames us for noticing favorably the public performances of a certain artist whose priv char he underst to be far fr blameless. The critic who speaks of the artistic productions of a singer or painter has (not) any concern with his or her private rep or behavior. Judges work before him, not morality or immorality of its author. A pict, or statue, or symph may be beaut, while the daily life of the man or woman who made it may cause sorrow and disgust. But foolish and wrong to pronounce such a statue or symphony bad for that reason. Enough that the artist does well his work as an artist; abt his doings as a man time to speak when they become notoriously outrageous, and then shan’t employ them to disparage his merits in the sphere of art, the one being entirely indep of the other.

There’s also a notice of the funeral of Dr. JA Houston connected to the NY Press, with remarks made by C Edwards Lester, and Mr Wallace, long known as the Washington corresp of The Herald, and WE Robinson.

November 27 1850 p.4 The AAU by CAD: have looked freq and carefully thru the gallery, qual same as preceding years, satisfaction that free gallery is thronged, great public benefit. Violent hostility recently, Mangers accused of gross unfairness and misuse of funds, don’t inquire if true or false, public indiff or incred, for Institu thrives. Suspect personal motives have great deal in these assaults, diff purchases would have spared AU ill will. None of the more gifted and popular artists whose picts have decided merit and ready sale, are at war.

            Picts in catalog now 300-400, fair repres of state of art, illus defects more than merits, have not stringently excluded poor pics, for plenty on walls not worth their frames. But some do credit to any living school, Cole’s Dream of Arcadia chief of these, one of the best of his we’ve seen, the v best in the Gallery, far superior in point of poetic appreciation of Nature, orig of invention and felicity of execution, to sentimentalities of Voyage of Life, so much talked of on acct of moral. Prod of pure beauty, luxuriant Grecian nature, radiant, genuine unforced creation, never a better prize.

            Glau’s picts attract attn. and receive praise, Standard in Danger and Standard Bearer, pendants, superior, feeling is agreeable, cost careful labor, much in study of Engl engravings too little in Nature. Gignoux gd lscapes, Dismal Swamp praised at NAD in spring, conscientious and receptive study of color, manly boldness of treatment, not afraid of severe schl of Nature, Moonlight and Snow Scene attractive and satisfactory. Hicks’ Peasants of Cervano remarkable for flood of daylight pervades, artistic conscience in every part, 2 little Venetian Scenes also alw charm us, minute fidelity of Dags with rare atmospheric qual. Freedom and fidelity Hicks uses nature and a certain unexhausted power, never feel he has done the best he has to do. Kensett’s lscapes strike su, never see a pict by him without congrat him on doing just what he can do best, leafy depth of woods, dewy morn air, freshness of early Summer belong ot his pencil, 17, 53, 63 worth having.

            Church is next best to Cole, 26 Twilight, gaze with delight, don’t confound with 41 by him of same title, remarked at length on it in Acad, but rare felicities which chance to genius, not repeated, grow fr inner soul, not planning intelligence. Sentiment so grand and true to render every part harmonious, renders impossible the mannerism strongly in some of Church’s works, results fr conscious inability to master natural elements of subj.

            Hinckley 15 lscape w cattle, 104 Disputed Game, pleasing to superficial observers, but badly colored and flimsy. Hinckley’s easel deficient in most useful pigments. Ranney’s pict all weak in colork tell story with spirit and success, later works bear mark of industrious study, all faves with public. 121 Halt on Prairie esp admired, not without reason. 2 picts by Clonney, an imit of Mount. One by Leutze attracts attn., 77 illus old Germ Legend, his works alw replete with power of conception and handling, alw faulty in color and drwg. But fresh and genial faculty such as Dusseldorf mannerism can’t affect is so manifested they compel admiration. This one does not illus his highest mental qual, but gives pleasure to competent and incomp judges. Stearns’ Path Across Lots 81 worthy of praise. Cranch several picts full of rarest poetic feeling of nature, but too cold, skies have a Wintry chilliness. Cropsey’s Pontine Marshes like less than most of his, tho luxuriant verdure well managed. Peele’s Child’s Passage to Paradise carefully studied, subj ought to be popular, but rawness of coloring doesn’t please multitude or few. Much poorer picts are more looked at. Huntington’s picts here number some half doz or more, generally poor things, climax is Coast Scene 220, bad in every artistic pov. Durand several pics, all sentimental, studiously arranged, weak in design and color, generally pleasing to public. Thanatopsis justly prominent among them. Copies of Kneeland’s Buts of Wash in Bronze, a man of genius and bust shows it, originality worth a whole heap of modern Psyches, Niobes and other classicality pleases our sculps to perpetrate.

            Works of several public faves we are obliged to pass over for space. Buy a subscription.

p.5 GWC reviews Jenny Lind, she’s an original genius, diff style than Italian music people are accustomed to and expect, so don’t know how to evaluate her. But he loves her. Was dec’d by Mdme Toussaud’s wax sculptures.

Nov 30 1850 p. 7, Art-Union and its Assailants, letter to editor re article by CAD of 27th, by JK Fisher, who says writes on behalf of himself and one other artist opposed to AU. Asks the relevance of their motives? Had we been as gd advertising customers to Trib as the Art Union, not have said a word agst us, servant of advertisers will puff and defend almost any decent impostors. As to New Assoc of Artists, withdrew when it adopted prize system.Some assailants don’t enjoy vulgar pop of oyster fed crit, Acad and AU influ and other means, you’ve never seen my works, AU bought sketches fr nature in pref to better things, you can’t judge, or your taste is defective, malcontents have more talent than supporters. I have been 7 years in schools of Europe, intimate with first artists, and where have you been? Ed Trib says won’t make reply.

Dec 6 1850 p.5 city Items: Artists of NY met Weds in NAD rooms, not officially connected with Acad. Numerous and unanimous. Duggan spoke with force and spirit on memorials to Congress and State Leg for adorning public bldgs. With characteristic works of Am art, committee appointed, course of public pop lectures on Art, petition for appropriation fr US Deposit fund to aid Free Art Schools of NAD. Approve of such agitation in interest of Art, not for partic artists.

p. 7 City Items: Lessing’s Martyrdom of Huss: noble pict exhib on Tues to eminent artists and literary men, but one feeling of extremest delight, commanding worth, shares palm with Kaulbach who has more daring and poetic imagination, but ranks among first of Modern Artists

            pict finely balanced, group on right is foes of Martyr, Duke, Cardinal, Friar and fanatical crowd. On left is mass of Bohemian peasants, inclu priests. Executioners in whom human sympathy quite exting, composure of scene-shifters at the wing.

            Compos most thoroughly digested and artistic.Full of tragical suggestions, but eye constantly drawn to Huss, its center, refreshed and consoled. Same artistic success as in Raphael’s Transfiguration, serene sweetness of Christ seduces eye fr foregrd of horror and disease. Success more sought than obtained.

            Great success is it produces in spectator’s mind the just impression of the scene, group of Bohemian sympathizers whose wondering, profound sorrow we find mirrored our own. Character of a classical work, broad and composed and tender in unity of its impression, neither eye nor mind distracted. Story told simply yet not barely. Emotions have proper place. Greater success than Delaroche and similar Fr artists, content with admirable representation and punctiliously perfect adjuncts, yet have no more than the words of the story, German subtler imag and more catholic intellect make pict tell what story implies, elevate it fr mere illus of History or Poetry into dignity of distinct work of Art.

Dec 19 1850 Stephenson the sculpt in Charlestown Boston statue of Dying Indian Chief, life size, kind of dying gaul figure, loves it.

December 21, 1850

p. 4 Gives AAU’s report for 1850, expenditures et al, but also describes some of the grand prizes and who drew them, including Thom Cole’s Dream of Arcadia, Church’s Twilight, short arbiter, Trib says these were by far the best ptgs in the distrib. Others worthy of note were JW Glass’ Standard in Danger and Standard Bearer, picture of the royalists versus roundheads (royalist dies); T Hicks Peasants of Cevarru; JF Kenset’s The Waterfall, JB Stearns’ Marriage of Washington (artist assisted by GWPCustis); EG Leutze’s Knight of Sayn and the Gnomes (defeats her tyrannical father); AB Durand, Thanatopsis, Thos H Hinckley’s Disputed Game (fox versus a hawk); TH Matteson, First Prayer in Congress in Phila, an Episcopalian clergyman; Thom Hicks Dolce Far Niente, shepherd lying in campagna; JT Peele, A Child’s Passage to Paradise, alleg fr Bishop Heber’s poem; JF Cropsey, Solitude, Pontine Marhses, Italy; R Gignoux, View of Dismal Swamp NC, Thom Hicks, View on Grand Canal Venice.

            Also gives speech of New Pres AM Cozzens (replacing Wetmore), continues p. 5: In Europe, artists live on patronage of the rich, here that can’t be bcause of our polit institutions.The only class of artists injured by AAU are those disting by conspicuous and hopeless mediocrity. AAU has created active competition. No decidedly good picts offered have been refused. Looked for merit of design or execution or promise of improvement, preferred Amer subj and compos of national and historical interests.Then gives complete list of pictures and winners.

December 26 1850 p. 5 Ptgs in Broadway, in old NAD galleries over Society Library, crowded with elite of our City, admiring large beaut coll of Ptgs brought to country by Eddy, admission free, sale on weekend, picts really good and worthy attn. of connoisseurs and admirers of beaut in art.

Jan 3 1851 p.4 Foreign Items notes bday of Winckelmann, eminent writer on ancient art, was celeb in Bonn

Jan 6 1851 p. 5 AU Counterblast, JH Fisher letter to Ed, responding to Bulletin’s crit of attackers, shows they are not gmen but vulgar tradesmen, J of Commerce advert that prints are worth $20, how can commodities have a market value so much above actual production cost?

Jan 17 1851 p. 6 The Fine Arts, Duss Schl, Lessing’s Martyrdom of Huss. Delay in promise of crit exam, popular exhib. Position of Duss Schl. 3 distinct schools, Germ Fr and Eng, ea marked by social, polit relig and metaphys char of nation. Eng after floundering, Reynolds Gainsb Moreland and West, has finally devd a somewhat orig school in Constable, Landseer and Turner, as well as other directions with skill if not orig. Rustic, rural, whether genre or lscapes. Compet to dec new Hse of Parliament has brought out talent, but since West, most disting ptrs of epic compos Haydon, Mulready, Leslie, Eastlake Etty and Maclise, but doz more now.

            Fr schl characteristic traits result fr her social and polit changes, before 1793 pandered to lewdness of corrupt courts, only when Virtue and Brotherhood sub for God and Faith did great school appear, David for heroic and classic, genuine republican, love of ideal, dream of liberty, then Gros, Leopold Robert, Gericault, Vernet, De la Roche, Ingres, papety, Couture, Diaz, Troyon, Decamps, second to Germ maybe.

            Germ distinct peculiar for metaphys char, no middle term or medium range of char and treatment, either imitation of downright vulgar externality, or soars into heaven of ideal til becomes divine. Latter are Overbeck, Cornelius and kaulbach, relig Renaiss style, Kaulbach has burst trammels of conventional thought and fr internal fire and force moulded forms which breath divinity of God and humanity of man. Orig genius. Followers. Incredible erudition, anecdote not enough, don’t aim to move you to laughter or tears, intellect, unfortunate beholder inquires perhaps fruitlessly what it all means.

            Other extreme aims at most exact imitation in forms, local tints, textures and qualities necessary to perfection of composition of genre, a French word for subj whose interest is local or simply human, not connected with any great hist event or principle, and any treatment which attempts literal reproduction.

            Duss a genre school, Munich ideal historic art. Lessing head of Duss. From instinctive judgment and common consent certain subjs shall be treated classically, not so nicely demarcated those capable of genre treatment only. Is Lessing felicitous in choice of subj, or justified for treating it in tame and commonplace manner? Has been recd with disappointment by many persons, artists and connoisseurs whose judgment formed by long familiarity with Art, and sincere enthusiasm for Nature.

            But throng who visit regard it as greatest pic ever saw, large, a young lady of hi fashion and disting name reply that she visits Duss coll twice a week, often four times, most beaut, so elab and done so carefully, and brother in Euro says wld be v gd even there. Exceedingly well drawn and colored, partic a fruit piece, and leaves of some plants v fine, and a Holy Family, and glass over them gives appearance of so highly finished, find them exquis, puzzled how Mr Duss ever found time to do them all so well.

            Left arm of young nobleman leans with clasped hands on bank in foregrd some 6 inches longer than right one; attitude of duke unmeaning, horse mean in character and lifeless, right hand of capuchin monk ugly in form, badly expr, feet not well exec, executioners too small, too smokey. But sm gd things in pic overbalance. Burgomaster and Bohemian Hussites splendid studies fr nature, head and garb of monk finely rendered, man with cap is cruel and alm ground. Finely organized imitative faculty. But has he treated subj fr highest pt of intellectual conception compatible with historic interest of event?

            Features of life of martyr naturally rise on imag, type of all noble and vigorous in manhood, exalted into divine proportions, variety of responses, think little of external things, just human passion, don’t think of quaint costume but red eyes; not ermines of state but fanaticism. To be worthy of subj, ptg should bring out these spiritual and ideal characteristics. Lessing instead given prominence to commonplace in character, mere external qualities.

            Grouping methodically calculated, but no earnest purpose, Duke on horseback conspicuous, head turned over left shoulder, as if wished to exhibit action of muscles of neck,  not involved with fate of martyr. Cardinal and monk such literal studies fr common nature as to seem caricatures of their classes. Chief executioner most successful, expr of determined masculine char, coarse ferocity finely conceived and entirely appropriate. Menacing fig on his left too trivial, so menially conceived as to offend gd taste. As Prot depicts the Church with enuf vulgarity and obesity to arouse contempt and disgust.

            Right hand group has still less spirit, and more deficient in appropriateness of character and expression. Figs seem posing for draperies, faces lack emotion or approp temperament, women have no beauty, emotion only thing could compensate for its absence, found. Occasional intimations of deep feeling, but just when hope to be brought in sympathy with martyr, something purely material dissipates feeling. In foregrd group of Hussites, fig of partially kneeling woman has degree of intentness, counts rosary, but eye arrested by hi-colored and prominent costume and sentiment becomes lost. Sentiment or emotion in features, gesture or  position fails to communicate thru such intervention; Huss’s char and expr of face an emasculated priest, wants manliness and relig fervor, pallor of ill health, fanaticism of imbecility.

            Mechanically as compos, strikingly defective, law decides whether compos is gd or bad, incident and principal char decided upon, every accessary must heighten interest of chief actor. Duke, horse, cardinal, capuchin, kneeling woman, nobleman, burgomaster, shepherds, much more vivid in memory than Huss, for they are all excellent but inappropriate imitations of external nature, while hero in middle plane is incapable of such treatment and hasn’t such ideal force to outweigh the externality of the others.

            Boker’s coll represents a genre school, this is a genre pict of remarkable excellence, made so by his treatment, success depends on technique and dexterity not morale of subj in human passion and character, not first in this line. Paul de la Roche his superior in Napoleon Crossing Alps, Vernet in form and texture, etc.

            Disadvantages of this method is more literally every obj imitated, more appeal to imag destroyed. Sufficient interest excited for heart if not imag, by fine and approp delineation of human expression, and in a subj where no partic symp is appealed to, satin, velvet, cloth, furs and still life may produce pleasing sensations. However subj of deep interest where artist fails to depict dominant passions, and instead as disguise or misguided design satisfies eye with literalness, not great.

Jan 27 1851 p. 5  lists NY winners of prizes at Cinti Art Union, artists include Remb Peale port of GW, Whittredge, TB Read, JE Oertel, JG Brown, JL Morton, Gratiano

Jan 29, 1851 p. 5 Foreign Items: Paris Exhib of Picts as successful as anticipated, cites corresp of the Daily News re Muller’s pict of Roll Call of Last victims of Reign of Terror, exceeds 35 ft in size, last pict representing Macbeth most talented, but this superior to anything previous, compos gd, drwg pure, color powerful, Horace Vernet admires it vastly. Diff to remain unmoved by sights detailed in vast and luminous canvas and will doubtless obtain great prize given by Govt to merit. Pollet, the statuary, has exhib a fig Une heure de la Nuit may dispute this grand prize. Robt Fleury pict of Jane Shore disting for beauty of color, Titianesque manner, advantages of drwg and expr. Some enormous stretches of space, ptd over by Alaux, Philipotteaux, Yvon, Deban and Alex Hesse are more or less bad, but bad, perhaps excepting a Voluntary Enrolment in 1792 by Vinchon, which is rather gd. Remarkable that Hesse shld never have ptd anything gd since his Plague of Venice and Death of Titian. Genre class is remarkable, 4 admirable gems by Meissonier, Un peintre montrant des deessins esp attracts attn. Decamps is still Decamps. Wonderful touches of color by Eug Delacroix who like Turner seems yearly to have less idea of drawing. Un lever, a naked young lady arranging her chestnut hair, is among his best. A nice little Tony Johannot, v elegant, will please ladies vastly, and splendid lscapes by Corot. Great fault of exhib is abuse of naked form, too much, esp hurts eye when redeeming qual of truth and color wanting. Lehmann’s picts bad, but a gd port. Gerome has a Greek interior, many charming details. As a whole pleasing.

Feb 12 1851, p. 6 Mr Godwin’s Lecture on Art. 3rd lecture of the Artist’s Course in Hall of NAD by Parke Godwin, apologized for his lack of artistic skill, never been to Europe, but inexperienced student might tread securely in general Philosophy. Illustrate term Aesthetics, introduced by Baumgarten, Germ philos in school of Wolff, art solely considered for impression made on senses. Too narrow, shld encompass origin in creative energies and actual productions. Two methods of study prevalent, the historical, art’s peculiarities and rlns, in reference to authors, times, and social interests. 2, the Psychological method, the reverse, not special works of art, but faculties of soul in which they originate and feelings to which they are addressed. True method combines them, tracing art fr soul to realized effect to influ on interests of society; subjectivity of the artist and objectivity of his action, history is bone and muscles of art in indivd forms, psych method is phantoms of soul, need both for beaut living body. Praises Hegel for doing this, but fails to universalize Art, compares it to stereotyped forms of Archit, sculp, ptg, music and poetry, any mode of human activity by which we give outward form to an idea for its own sake. But not a mechanical product, can’t be taught by rule or labor. Art is born not made, can’t do a Transfiguration or Madonna like a carpet or a chip. Many are mechanics and nothing more, have talent, quick perception, facility, fine imitative powers, exquis copies, win lasting rep, but admired for adroitness or decorations, not masterpieces, no blood in their veins, no speculation in their eyes, no electricity or soul. Can be explained like a puzzle or juggler’s trick, and learned as a boy learns to write or a young lady to play piano. Art is unteachable, uses handicraft, knowledge, talent, as an imperial monarch uses his satraps, obedient ministers. Art is not inspiration, but an energy, in most ineradicable property, sees into the heart of things and shapes them into what form it pleases, melting heart, in new and more splendid combinations. Subject of Art is always an Idea, the theater of its representation is the natural world, so doesn’t deal with universal reason, but thoughts capable of trans to outward form. What is the end of Art?  It is the glorification and translation (not imitation) of Nature, lifting it out of dull, opaque and lifeless sphere into celestial liberty and truth. Art doesn’t minister to cultivation or morality primarily, but gives free expression to the sovereign soul. Future promises that every act and method and process of life shall become artistic, promised land.

            Hall was hung with productions of eminent artists, overflowing profoundly attentive audience

p. 7 long praise of James Handasyd Perkins (WH Channing bio)

Feb 14, 1851 p. 7 The Trib and Duss Gall. Pictor writes letter to ed that saw at Duss Gall copies of late elab crit of Lessing’s Huss and Duss school fixed on pasteboards, with copies of a former article fr editorial columns, two articles perfectly contradict ea other, and proprietor writes these are by same writer so public can judge what his crit  is worth. I read more recent and longer article and think its view just and perfectly estab, opinion shared by every artist.

            When Lessing’s pict first exhib, gman temporarily employed in City dept visited and recorded with enthusiasm wholly favorable impression, two months or so before our own article was written, forgot to say that previous remarks seemed erroneous.

Feb 20 1851 p. 6 foreign Items: gives high prices of a Paris auction, including Sheep pasturing by Bonheur 2000 fr, Suliotes by Ary Scheffer 1500 fr, Delaroche, Vernet, Meissonier, Decamps. Also notes an Ital pic dealer in London bought an old pic for a song, turned out to be a Michaelangelo, notes portraits of actors Macready and Kemble, bestselling port of Emperor of Austria. The National in Paris which is hostile to Whigs, hates Charles Muller’s Last Appeal of Victims of the Terror at Exhib in Paris, 30 ft long, horrible

            Prussian govt urged by Cologne Gazette to give Art Acad at Dusseldorf more money for a prof of sculp; picture dealer in Prague sold 800,000 copies of Emperor of Austria’s portrait, Dusseldorf Art Union planning to pub an engr of Raphael’s Madonna della sedia fr Schafffer, the Frankfort engraver. Art critic of the Paris National falls without mercy on Chas Muller’s Last Appeal of the Victims of the Terror so much praised, says it is nothing but a horrible blot, a vile shadow cast upon the immortal work of the Revolution, nothing but an envenomed work of party spirit by which Muller may get plenty of portraits to do fr people of certain classes, but not a successful piece of art. Poor, monotonous, coquettish, theatrical and portraits like Dubufe the elder. Delescluze in the Debats praises the pict, tho too genre like, finds no fault with its political character.

Feb 27 1851 p. 6 The Fine Arts: Lessing’s Martyrdom of Huss. Our recent critique not without effect, Eve Post long labored disquisition defending pict and handling us without gloves. By Dr Korner, a Germ gman and friend of Lessing. Article offered to Trib, would have published it not for its intrinsic value but to let an opponent be heard.  Will correct erroneous suggestions of incompetence or personal partiality. Dislike that editor of Eve Post said Trib would have modern ptg constructed on principles of French tragedies of time of Louis XIV.

            Korner: depreciates Lessing by comparing it to modern ptg in Germany divided into genre and ideal art, and says that Germ art either deals with imitation of downright vulgar externality or ? to heaven of the ideal. Knows nothing of German schools, thousands of ptgs of modern art which contradict these divisions, an obsolete doctrine. Compares Korner’s approach to a man with short legs who uses art to disguise it, Korner is friend who exalts the style by which he disguises it and condemns those who expose the deformity. In Martyrdom of Huss, the artistic soul, inspiration and unity of genius is wanting, Lessing disguises it with sundry artifices.

Compares Korner’s argument that categories of ideal and genre art are obsolete to primary colors—many shades between blue red and yellow, but that does not mean primary shades don’t exist. Korner says Trib left out Belgian school bcause would have complicated his division into genre or ideal; Trib can’t refute it really; wants to position Kaulbach as chief in ideal art and Lessing as chief perceptive, appropriate, sensuous and locally true, school at Dusseldorf, mechanical skill among top 3, but not head of modern painters or even genre painters. Kaulbach is. Lessing’s exact imitation of nature usurps place of main purpose of work, nor does it have unity of conception

March 19, 1851 p. 5, Tipos Californianos, 4 colored lithos fr Havana, illus Calif miners, catches peculiarities of dress and countenance with xactness thought impossible except for a Yankee like Darley, perception of the grotesque, one a Protector of the Fine Arts listening to organ grinder.

April 7 1851 p. 5 City Items (by 1853, written by John SK Banketti?), Festival of NAD, 250 gmen present, inclu artists, press, amateurs and literary notables, large saloon for supper. Pictures inspected, universal opinion it surpasses, Pres Durand offered toast, speech fr Rev Mr Bellows applauded, tendency of Amer society to sensualism, moneymaking and material enjoyment, neglect of gospel, art must struggle agst this tendency, artists missionaries of better things. Shld render art fashionable, inhab of palaces on 5th Ave to order pictures for parlor rather than mirrors. Rev Dr Bethune said art was encouraged here, picts bought freely at remunerative prices for living artists, elevating influ of art. Abraham M Cozzens, Pres Art Union assured zealous cooperation; Pres of Acad of FA Jon Sturges said art taught lessons of relig and morality; Erastus Brooks at toast to Press assured support of journals to cultivate and ennoble; lit toast got responses fr Griswold, Parke Godwin and Lewis Gaylord Clark. Godwin’s admirable for wit, felicities. Prosper M Wetmore and Durand last gave best speech, beaut aroma of it lost in transferring it fr scene. Walcott responded to Artists Assoc toast, and toasts to countrymen in Europe (Power, Greenough, Crawford, page and Leutze). 

April 10, 1851, p. 5, The Fine Arts: The Private View of the Academy, GWC,  finest of its exhibs which we remember, on Monday’s priv view, charmed with freshness and promise, noted many to give a gd account, not technically to the artist, but justly to genl appreciation. Universal impression that Landscapists in full force. His Excellency, Pres Durand, several works never been surpassed by him, all strikingly char. Cropsey, Kensett and Cranch new hi pt, and Church one of his remarkable deep, rich and brilliant skys.

            Compeers maintain their char, in other great dept of figs rms are rich and happily few ports of gman and ldy. Some in any exhib wld require closest attn., esp Hicks and Freeman’s sketch of angel at the Tomb.

            Of foreign artists cattle by Cooper and sea by Stanfield, Koekosk Dutch or Belgian, Overbeck in his line the greatest of living artists, 2 charcoals, Martin crayons, Sattler sketch.

            Has separate note that Wm Page is in Florence and private letter says justifying his fame, did a pic of Psyche fr bust of Powers displays his mastery of mystery of color. Peculiar treatment, Psyche in clouds and only head and bust revealed, but tone and sentiment tender, brilliant beaut, successful. Venice next, gd influ on his sympathetic genius.

April 16, 1851, GWC, “The Fine Arts: The NAD--I” p. 6

Exhib so rich in lscapes, naturally begin with them. Durand, the Pres, has 9. No 73 ?, a “Lscape” in 2nd gallery is most characteristic and most satisfactory, tho not the one he labored most on, but has in sentiment that sweet tranquility and in treatment that maturity and grace of manner, not w/o feebleness, that alw mark this artist. D finds his parallel in poetry, in descriptive, pastoral school, ranks w/Thomson and Bloomfield, poets who have deep just feeling of the commonest aspects of nature, faculty of expression whose character indicates the kind of satisfaction it expresses. An objective school, as Germans wld say, a school content with the portrait of nature, does not care to penetrate its spirit. Comes to be no individ character in its works, pleasing transcripts of natural scenes, as such, has not seized Nature and wielded it as a symbol to express his own meaning, but what we all consciously see and feel in nature he puts into graceful form. Picts do not smite us with suspicion of something yet unapprehended by us, folded in the massive foliage, or gliding along the haunted horizon of the moor, but are sunny and soft. Like to hang them upon the walls in rms where we live, breathe the same consolation and refreshment over the tedium of the day that the orig scenes in the lscape suggest to the man escaped fr cities (poem hard to read—retreat, landscape of winter thru the heat?). Nature no less inspires than consoles, tempts every man in degree of his genius to woo her profoundest secret, Turner uses Nature as a means. In his famous picture of the Locomotive at full speed, only the indication of something deeper, to make us feel and see what he did; so in that remarkable pict of casting of Wellington’s statue, eye is simply dazzled by whirlpool only of fire, profound and astonished satisfaction ensues, into that furnace artist has thrust the Orient, and India, and Spain, long line of brilliant victories of his career. An artist, reveals real signif of statue, see all that occasioned its erection.

            Illus character of demand made by the mind on the artist, to show us the signif of what we see in Nature, reveal to me all the character of which I was unconscious, redeem his creation fr charge of mere imitation or superficial resemblance. In the last rigid analysis, all art is imitation, bcause all types exist originally in nature, but highest art is vision of those types and ability to make all men see them, truth illus in Poetry. All men feel beauty of June sunset, but vaguely, poet will show what they saw and felt, as in Tennyson’s In Memoriam, 84th poem. Same by Turner and Claude, latter express peculiar spirit of Italian life every poetic person perceives.

            You may say if artist truly paints what he sees in Nature the same result must be necessarily produced on the mind, in portrait ptg if outline of face is justly drawn and various tints accurately adjusted, spectator must feel and see the likeness, tho by means of most mechanical imitation. But looking is not seeing, stroll thru woods with an artist, discover that his eyes saw not, must underst person’s character to paint proper portrait.

            Explain what we meant by saying Excellency ptd appearance rather than spirit of Nature, are used by it rather than use it, pleased with repose of a wood, contemplative cattle that graze along its edges or lie drowsily winking in the shade. Musily dream in soothed aimless reverie, homely dirge of day, love simple rocks and trees ofr own sake. Simple studies almost as dear and beaut to them as pictures, pictures often only elaborated studies. Soothed rather than stimulated by nature. If Autumn rural scenes, the rainbow reaches of foliage, husking, golden corn, buxom girls, wain, flail, brawny boys, but not spirit nor hear flail, but these are what we do want to hear and see. Artist with vocation has ear and eye behind hand, all finer than ours, forms we see can only serve as memoranda to memory, and art must be larger and lovelier than that.

            Austerest demand of art only a few men have satisfied, schools of artists are the long and lessening shadows of them, Artists experiment as if cld attain triumph by science; titian’s color is analyzed and disputed, as if Titian’s knowl of pigments would enable a man to paint a gd pict. Tendency toward merest materialism. We consider Idealists in Art superior to Realists, those gifted with vision as well as faculty versus those who agreeably recall familiar landscape, the English school, Durand a faithful disciple, fair exponent. But Turner will do for lscape what Wordsworth has done for Poetry. Cole is an Idealist, sees with his imagination to achieve a universal success.

            Durand a Realist, clinging unquestioning satisfied love of Nature’s forms, detail, genl quiet effects, alw Summer, alw silence, breathe peace, loiterers along glades, dreamy haze, close student of Amer nature but usu the English air of cultivated repose, as in 79 and 403 and 183, The Two Oaks. 31 is entirely American. Style of sentiment engenders 2 faults in handling, weakness and excess of detail, tenderness of perception stays the artist’s hand fr sacrificing one point to another, being partial in his power, so driven into carefulness of finish that results in want of broad vigor that loveliest lscape in nature alw has. Care of detail of faithful student. Can no man properly paint an oak til he has mastered Botany, as subtle critics say? Tho we advocate diligent study of Nature. But praise for Durand is his water is water, and trees are trees, 183 Two Oaks show how faithfully his hand waits on his eye. 31 Kaaterskill Clove same, broken rock and debris of trees on left the most effective group. Trees seem rather hard and raw, want of delicate aerial persp, hills behind too hard, whole pict tho showing careful study, less pleasing than 103 (or 403), the Morning Ride. Fair fault of Kaat Clove that on walls too much a mere study, belongs in studio not exhib, has some material of a fine pict, but hardly sustains larger claim. In a fine pict spectator doesn’t wish to admire parts and details and char of a study shld not appear in finished work, tho all observation and knowl shld be wrought. 299 and 304 Studies fr Nature are gd studies, but too much mannered, no simple study can greatly please the general spectator, unless such extreme beauty in subj and ability in treatment that he instantly perceives the poetic feeling that selected the poetic bit fr all the wilderness. Kensett’s No 186 and 202 are signal successes in this kind, simple groups of mossy rocks, but rise to dignity of beaut picts. Durand in prime fo his power, maturity of his manner, for some seasons his works of uniform qual and degree of excellence.

Same review and whole page is repeated on April 17, p. 6.

23 April 1851 p. 4 NAD: exhib prob finest yet been given, best pics of Durand, Huntington, Hicks, Rossiter, Church, Cropsey, Elliott, Kellogg, Vanderlyn, Flagg, Cranch, Young, Ramsey, Duggan and other disting artists

April 26, 1851, p. 5 by GWC The Fine Arts: The NAD, No. 2. Enter large hall, familiar with NY Gall FA, struck at once by large lscape on right, 37 Southern Italy by Cropsey. For a moment, so strong is its sympathy in feeling and treatment with Cole’s pics, at a loss to determine by what right it was there, could not more adeq expr our satisfaction with it, than by saying it makes good the place of Cole’s Ital pict which in NY Gall hangs in same spot. Not an imitation of the artist but genuine and legit work of another mind, v clear to any familiar with devt of Cropsey’s power. Resemblance sufficientlye xpl by reflection that great genl impression of Italy is same on minds of a similar artistic character and ability, so its expre will be not unlike.

            Cropsey calls his lscape So It, congrat him didn’t undertake subj until assured of success by residence in Italy and absorption of its spirit, and by his emancip thru longer experience and conseq self confide fr earlier manner, not at all adapted to representation of profound repose, which must be visible spirit of every ital. lscape on the canvas, as it is in Nature. Earlier pictures by him, tho teeming with promise, indic by v char of extravagance, yet too ambitious and restless. No focus, noquiet, but profusion of brilliant bits and points distracted eye and wearied mind, eye bounded abt fr one obj to another, kind of dismayed delight in causes of its fatigue, Acteon fled awed before his hounds.

            In present pict and genly in all he exhib this yr feel that Actaeon has now awed his hounds, and hunt is harmonious and happy. 37 contrasts w/scene fr Pontine marshes by him in last Art Union exhib, no means free fr the earlier faults, but full to flushing the genuine feeling. Also better and more successful than circular Tivoli Temple, engr for April number of Art Bulletin, and destined for next AU display. Great success fo 37 most profoundly apprehended by those upon whose memory So Italy has even so daguerreotyped itself. Luminous languor of South, brooding over ruins rich in remembrance, or lyrical poets summon dreaming shepherd: blow bugle, dying, dying, dying. Triump of pict that its conception is so entirely steeped in Ital spirit, and exec so able and brilliant that spectator sees and feels Italy. In this measure of success in a work of the kind, not surpassed by anything on walls. Further merit one unhappily too rare among Amer, elab and beaut composition, but w/o any obvious faults of lscape compos. Not an imitation of Claude’s architectural marines, nor Salvator’s grotesque grandeurs, nor academic impossibility of school of Poussin agst which modern Parisians rebel rush into oppos extreme ptg simple natural scenes without character, aiming to express sentiment by color alone.

            37 has well considered material admirably adjusted, all most striking and peculiar in Ital lscape seized, and character of its peculiarity also represented. Stream leads eye past ruins in fore and middle grd to more perfect bridge beyond and rich repose of distant sky and dream drawn promontory, almost part of soft sky-scenery, nothing forced or sophomoric or extravagant. No more lovely lscape than eye may actually scan in Italy. No Artist or Poet ever felt it was too extravagantly extolled, it offers just this variety of charm, an aggregate of beaut “bits” an essentially artistic lscape that suggests the idea of being “composed.” Artist has not given us a combo of characteristic studies but fused them into a new whole and made a picture.

            Slight savor of his earlier tendency in intense vividness of green in foregrd tree, not quite locally true, Southern foliage not flashy like our spring woods, but deep and lustrous and composed in character. Vine is most brilliant Ital growth. Could have spared the procession with the cross passing the bridge, unnecessary and annoys eye by claiming undue attn., injures genl breadth of effect by feeling of too great detail. Suggest too that artist who could so paint must have studied, white clouds in upper front of the pict not in harmony with repose of scene. Result of capricious gusts, tho fleecy and insubstantial suggest dash of wind that does not blow elsewhere.

            37 best of Cropsey, 6 in same rm, storm in Katskill clove, v vigorous but opaque in color, splintered trunk in foregrd perhaps an exagg. In posit indicated, tree not utterly withered dashed into abyss, need violent tornado for so goodly a tree, but hardly broken in manner here. Water esp effective, so sudden storm’s descent that streams not yet swollen, and brook falls white and foaming with an innocence v fascinating and suggestive. Hardly a pict to attract prolonged attn., tho proof of artist’s admirable advances.

            More permanently pleasing 369 Autumnal lake in Rockland Cty, as thoroughly Amer in char of subj and treatment as 37 is Ital. Bold black cliff rising suddenly and sheer agst coolquiet of distant sky, stretching into somber massiveness of storm cloud over it, v forcible and fine. Variety of effect, no monotony or poverty of detail. Shadow on shrinking lake, bank of young foliage whose very gayety is grave under such bodeful beginnings, send a chill quite thru the spectator’s heart, not relieved by scornful heroism of cliff. Extreme poetic beauty, gust wildly careering over failing Autumn produces Wintry feeling and by affecting great mass of pict most delicately indicates imminent triumph, deep in distance tender blue toward horizon shines soft fading skirts of summer.

            124 Eagle Cliff NH pleases less, great observ, accurate knowl, same vigorous effect as 369, extremely successful group of clouds, genl char of NH, but want of atmosphere. Backgrd large and gd, foregrd impertinent, don’t want a kitchen garden, pumpkin no right to have so much regard while pines of White Mtns solemnly in rear. Sunflower theme of v beaut traditions, but disputes our attn.—Dusseldorf detail remnant of old manner, fatal to breadth and dignity.

            So Italy ranks with best in exhib, shows doesn’t lack breadth if he chooses. Can an artist so conscientious and poetic fail to see it is alw essential to highest pictorial success?

            If some Cynthian Goddess of Summer, Kensett would be her Endymion, his pics love lyrics to hours with her, all ptd dewy June mornings after refreshing sleep, fresh sweetness before July heats wither, healthful vigor of unprejudiced youth, eternal, perennial freshness of char.Joyousness, serenity of satisfy in Nature suggestive of Greek art, like forms traced on Grecian urn. While pics have one genl character, delicate dexterity of treatment means never cloying or monotonous, exquis feeling of form, corresp airiness and transp of color, Summer Idyls, as those fr wood thrush. Colored synonyms of poems.

            Several works, all with decided trace of his best, most impt and prob best is 113 Indian Renezvoux, simple compos of wood and water, hazy persp of mtn vistas he is fond, and so successful

            Virgin privacy the glance of the spectator surprises, Indians pulling away fr fascinated gaze, true poetic instinct, no life but dip skim birds and few Indians who we imagine live still and stealthy enough not to obtrude on permeating silence. Delicate in feeling and handling, no weakness, timidity, sure eye and hand no trifling or doubt, direct simplicity of arrangement, precision without hardness of form, intelligent quality, full foliaged tree of foregrd modeled with more than usual success, ripe roundness deepens suggestion of profound Summer peace, throughout work same happy harmony. Whole moves us to end not obscure but v well underst and completely attained, all  so often seen and felt yet not so well underst, gives form not genl impression but individ char of summer days.

            85 Holiday in the Woods not so entirely pleasing, rather cut up in genl effect, but in octagonal rm several sm ptgs, gracious graceful glimpses of choice moods scenes, masterly vigor 317, exquis aerial persp 312, truth and breadth 331 337, indicate justice of kensett’s perception. Not insignif tho small, not barrenness of mere studies, but stray thoughts and memories of lover of Nature, fixed into form as passed.

            Quarrel wld be tendency to flatness in foliage, metallic hue of silvery gray in its tint. 320 observable, 351 Mtn Torrent, happiest hits, 345 Reminiscence of N Engl, less in his usual style, but full of NE character. Healthy cheerfulness of all his pictures is natural result of their essentially Amer character, pref of extreme sequestration in scenery and love of romantic mtn ravines sep them fr sympathy of those who haven’t watched waterfalls to reveal White Lady of Avenal. Happy artist who knows her, can reproduce airy loveliness of her haunts.

p. 4 JK Fisher letter to Editor, contradicting assertion of Art Bulletin that he offered them some copies of Venetian pictures. Published an article in Photographic Art Journal.

2 May 1851 p. 3 notices changes in Bulletin of AAU approvingly; Tuckerman essay in it on Wilkie, Darley orig illus.

May 10, 1851 p. 5 The Fine Arts:NAD-no 111.

Church’s pics show summer have rich results, all marines but 383 Lake Scene on Mt Desert not altogeth pleas fr metallic monotony of hue, but justly disting for cloud scenery/ long bars of vapor impart tranquil to whole, which spec hardly otherwise felt, yet is essential. 371 Beacon off Mt Desert a gorgeous sky-scape, starts with low tone and legitimately produced fine effect of setting(?) sunlight streaming thru cloud. Sentiment of pic (and the sentiment of pics is sole ground on which exoteric crit may speak with authority) finely sustained thruout, gloom of gathering night breathes cool, broad and genuine feeling, poetic strokes, subdued brilliance, great repose, sea and shore eternal mystery and sadness, deservedly one of the most popular. Debate rages over sunset or sunrise.

            116 An Old boat also a singular success, v sm, fog, moist white opacity, fine sketch of partic effect.

            Most impt and ambitious of Church is 1, Deluge, comes boldly in contrast with great names without success, acknowl hi aim at compos already commended in Cropsy’s so Italy, and trust in simplicity of material char of Church’s style and self assured power.

            But concept of Deluge doesn’t offer anything essentially new and is inadeq. A trad of treatment in this and similar subj sure to produce a commonplace effect. Ok to paint trad themes in trad manner, but need to infuse individ char as Raphael did with Perugino, nothing in this work that would not occur to any tyro, storm, Ark, human interest of mom and child and tiger, obvious, don’t separate him fr all others.

            Signif of Ark shld be made v manifest, it destroys the unmitigated horror fo story viewed artistically, the imag floats on it beyond despair to calm of hope. But this pic is contemp of unmitig horror, sun abt to be quenched, Ark an inconsid dot on the chaos. Tiger still snarling, brute nature not subdued in earthly horror to realization of lying down of lion and lamb.

            Woman stands for human race but not beaut gracef nor commanding, shld intensify grandeur of effect by dignity of victim. Mind demands universal symbolic effect more than the overwhelming of any unfortunate by nature, mind rejects idea that race cld perish like a rat in a corner. Giants must be subj of art.

            Other fatal defect as artwork is unmitig horror, no pic a success which repels eye fr contempl, eye reels disturbed and dismayed, no green bough, palm  or peace of heave3n, or in Wreck of Medusa, sail on horizon (as Ruskin says no lscape entirely sat that does not let eye get out to horizon) no pic a success if extinguishes hope altogether.

            Church a student of skies and waters not surpassed.

            Cranch’s contribs better than ever, genuine Americanism, not an Ital eye or hand on lscape whose spirit is diff, cool lofty dignity 38 Pine Grove natural cathedrals, 373 Autumnal Sunset winding wood sure no castled summit or Gothic spires, with little variety of compos and no aim at bolder grouping of grander lscape, alw infuses feeling, shows tendency like most Am Lscapists to more sequestered and romantic aspects, eye and memory challenge faithfulness of likeness since forms used for their own sake. Catskill mania of such gd service, none turned Ulyssean mien to those austere beaut sirens on the Hudson, close fidelity to nature the necessary standard of judg, training evident.

            Cranch’s 389 Sunset in Wilderness his best large work, attracts attn, clouds do really float and fade ins ky, luminousness, middle distance its best points, rockier rocks, dead trunk effective. On the whole the pic is hardly interesting enuf, not equal to 170 Vesuvius at Moonrose great poetic beauty, color of moonlight v successful, sentiment v beaut and just, phantom sails, Summer repose of Naples, v pleasing to memory. 393 lovely, yet some hardness and want of atmosph which will disappear.

            Huntingdon’s lscapes hardly increase his rep, 25 Cavern in Mtns, 399 Edge of a Wood, artist of dexterous hand and v vigorous touch, certain kind of power, not timid in concept or treatment, but careless and lack qual, genl effect blotchy. In cavern masses meant for rocks, are not, wld make equally gd trees, sky thin and frittered, tortures eye. Wood is streaked, unnatural, a studio-pic, no spec wld believe studied fr Nature. Don’t mean that every cit is to measure the naturalness of the pics of an artist who studies Nature accurately and well by his own imperfect and blind observ of a few natural phenom, but these pics aim at nothing profound or peculiar. A man may smother his flippancy before gorgeous hieroglyphics of Turner, knows a truth underlying his own is visible there to consecrated eyes, but ordinary wood and rock scenes cannot claim incomprehensibility.

            2 lscapes unequal to Huntingdon’s power and fame, full of elements of both, solemn gloom of hi char, trees well discrim, genl vigor and force. Seem impatient, rash and restless.

            Talbot too hardly advances. Mtn in 4 and 64 remember several years since, lake has familiar aspect, deer is known. Yet mtn in 64 Essex Cty Scenery well done, dignity, but water not water, middle and fore grd dispute detail, evidence in both of confirmed mannerism, organized unnaturalness. Peculiarities of these and 289, outdoor study on Passaic, indic rln betw Nature and his reproduction, no promise in gd or successful parts unless whole indic however feebly freedom fr prejudice.

            Boutelle 43 Trout stream extremely beaut, harmony, full of nature, foregrd not gd, but honest, no shirking or attempt to smooth the whole into a pleasing pic, middle and back grd broad, same spirit pervades whole. 24 Rural scene fr Nature has same genuineness, simple confidence in nature. Points of inequality not hopeless.

            Wotherspoon’s 551 Ital Scenery unknown portion of it, more a reminiscence of Claude than an orig compos, forms are of realm of fancy, no points of success or promise.

            Hubbard’s 393 Sundown Compos great beauty, sky too orange but tender and solemn, Poet’s heart, 387 View of Beach Mt Desert imperfect same beaut feeling. 

May 13 1851 p.3 City Items Comm Advert of Friday says a copy of Raphael at AU is “more than one lady subscriber would feel embarrassed to draw as a prize” and on Sat explains there is a super refinement of delicacy in vogue among us” as reason to not exhibit the pic, ought to get rid of superrefinement instead, object to nervousness of prurient prudery 

19 May 1851 Items of Foreign Lit and Art: Flaxman’s gallery of sculp open to priv view, not as great a sculpt as designer, couldn’t emancipate himself fr flat work. Excerpts a letter fr London on recent expo of Kogelige Akademie at Copenhagen (?) of 204 subjects not one historical pict, nothing of higher order than imitations of Dutch cabinet picts, frigid lscapes and stiff spiritless portraits. Landscapes are frightful, Turner at wildest never dashed gamboge and yellow ochre over his trees more recklessly than Academicians, skies of unadulterated ultramarine, persp Gothic, taste and selection of subjs decidedly bad. Danish ptgs are colored statuary when they treat animated subjs, and lscapes as hard, crude and clear as the dag sketches in our shop windows.

27 May 1851 p.6 European Art—Gossip: 83d Exhib of RA opened with dinner at which Dickens, Macauley, Macready, Prince Albert Duke of Wellington toasted. Exhib not of highest character, Etty dead, noTurners, Mulready anold study, Landseer 6 picts Titania and Bottom clearly a marked triumph out of his usual style,c ritics unite in paen of praise of poetic conception and exquis execution. Maclise’s Interior of Caxton’s Printing Room attracts much attn., valuable only for its Dutch detail, no broad thought or free hand essential to great artist. Stanfield leads lscape with battle of Roveredo, mtn scenery, Lee and Cooper monotonously gd meadows and  cattle, Ward an imprisonment of Louix XVI full of feeling, accurate, will be purchased by Queen. Portraits all poor but some delic miniatures. Pre Raphaelite Brethren, PRB, disfigure walls with diseased caricatures of nature, preposterous performances of tjejune gmen last year at RA, Dickens made admirable sport in Household Worlds, prurient pimples on pure art, lavish all their labor on defects, and stab all enjoyment and sense of beauty with acrid angles. Surprised suffer walls to be disgraced; serious sin that some like Millais are men of undoubted abilities. Ruskin in Times deprecates severity of crit on these works.

            Most poetic in exhib is Landseer’s, Cope’s Sisters well mentioned, Dyce receives extreme censure and mod applause. Last year Turner burned up everything else on the wall, tho many found them atrocious, unnatural and impossible, but gorgeous apparition got all eyes.

            In Paris medals to Salon of 1851 delivered, Decamps, Diaz (a sketch by whom is in NY Art Union), Jollevet, Leon Henry, Maxime David, Giraud, Deshones, Lefevre.

May 29 1851 p. 6 GWC  The Fine Arts: NAD IV: Lscapes by Koekkoek 357 369? Attract much attn. and admiration, belong to Duss schl in spirit and treatment, tho artist a Fleming. V dangerous works to hang on walls where young artists are to study. Detail exquis, parts beaut, adroit and skillful, splendid specimens not of art but of artificiality. Not broad in conception or treatment, have little Nature, so please a superficial sense not a genuine sentiment. Fatal fault is their tendency—their exquis elaboration is the v front of their offending, a style that leads legitimately to an annihilation of art. Results of that tendency carried into fatal success, shld be most carefully suspected and restrained, tendency to imitation. Grand difficulty is its perfect success achieves nothing but what was better done before attempt; art is not a copy of Nature, absurd to reproduce by pigments actual motion of water etc. And if it were possible, equally foolish, why repeat Nature. Their works a frantic rivalry with nature, no man of genuine artistic instincts, result at most triumphant is melancholy. V poor virtue in portrait ptr to paint his satin and velvet so that hand is involuntarily raised to touch it. That is artifice, not Art, deception not representation, and decd spectator is only amused and if an artist, disgusted with the jugglery. In 142, a tin-pan ptd with great effect, most veracious and triumphant, even a very sagacious child might try its sound with his knuckles. But what has this to do with Art? Why not ingeniously fit a real pan into the canvas, as old artists intro’d crowns of genuine gold, and machinery by which real sticks shall strike the real pan and make a real noise? A Michael angelo sketch of a head, rough, rude, royal, puts triumphant tinpans to most sudden and panic stricken flight.

            Unintelligent imitation, precisely these pics and satin and velvet of several others, leads to unworthy results, insidious snare of German influd artists, exquis elaborations, reticulation of leaf, broad beauty of forest escapes. Fleck of foam, sea does not surge and roar and whisper. Eye quick to seize form and discrim color, hand nimble light vigorous, analytical appreciation of quality and natural rln, success sure, if sternly subjected to genuine feeling of aims and materials of Art. Not true that this subjugation of detailed imitation to genl effect favors superficial study of Nature. Notorious in Art that rapidity and breadth result of long labor, must carefully note char and peculiarity to impart genl idea of a face in few strokes. Compares it to treating a headache!

            Duss and Belgian schools, instead of musical and poetic motion, have steps of dancing master. 357 and 361, tireless detail, leaves, grass, moss old wall, sufficiency of still life never sufficient. Tree in left of 357 is beaut piece of work, commend as do last judg of Michel Angelo carved in ivory by Germ monks on door in Colonna Palace, same kind of praise tho less for less labor. Every tree in pic is same kind, darker or lighter, dire detail devours rest of work, where is center of action or interest, in rear left where boats? Shrine? Horsemen? Old house and group coming down road? Might be anywhere, but nowhere, and sense of locality lost by want of due artistic attn. to characteristic objects. Where in Europe? Rhenish, Italian and Flemish, studied fr art, and this union may have happened in fact, but in pict shld be subjected in prominence and interest to one most peculiar to country, or variety avoided. Left of canvas cut out and circularly framed wld be a v pretty pict and right a v pretty one of a diff kind; want of artistic perception of Nature, which alw prominently presents focus of interest. Mind doesn’t bring away clear impression, just confused remembrance of castles etc.

            351 nearby has simplicity, not poverty or barrenness, directness, large and defined impression, treatment so skillful that thorough knowl implied and sufficiently perceived, profoundest sentiment of nature. But eye not tickled nor memory confused, don’t say how well grass is drawn, or horse, but what coolness, beauty, repose, poem pleases not fr its jingling and dainty words but sweet and sonorous sentiment. Idea is what mind demands, children pleased to count wrinkles or read titles on document in portraits of Demosthenes, Chatham or Washington, but pure Greek fire, consuming opposition, senatorial stateliness opposing patrician pride and heroic grandeur of principle are what men search for.

            Pendant 361 almost greater detail, yet lavish labor of rocks, leaves, grasses, v little feeling of nature, and if spectator can see so clearly details of mid ground, cows are much too small or farther beneath than shown. Lscapes smack of studio. Air of composition on small scale. Finical and frivolous, fascinate the superficiality which doesn’t pretend to be cultivated but knows what pleases it and for whose satisfaction Fathers of Art did not work.

            These pics not American, but space in remarks, in hope of avoiding oblig of devoting room to consequences of such pics on Americans. But hardly to be avoided.First test applied by artistically uncultivated mind is imitation of detail, not truth of detail, which is a world widely diff thing. Saw lately a pict of a washerwoman. An atrociously gd pict in its way. Such teeth, such wrinkles, such wringing clothes, and soap, and tub, and pails, and miserable minutiae. It is another triumphant tin-pan. But when we leave the kitchen and soiled linen, we also leave this pict quite invisibly in the rear.

            Refreshing to turn fr whipped syllabub to nourishing, even if coarse and crude. Williamson’s 42, Autumn, of this character, lacks quality, as does his 29, Going to School, but show gd vigor and pure, tho crude color. Heine’s 20 and Ward’s 57 v bad. Size of 20 doesn’t entitle it to so prominent a position, unless our sins are venial in proportion to their extent. M’ller's 13, Table Rock is much better worthy its polace, but not v interesting.

            Weir’s 364 Sea Shore fine in feeling. Stately phantom like ship is effective in manner intended, but water is traditional wolly subst called water in picts, and is most caustically criticized by the wet water of 371. Peele’s 390 Mtn Stream Catskill Cove hardly an attractive “specimen brick” of natural charms of that region, most travelers would turn out of their way to avoid seeing such a lscape, crude, cold, uninteresting. But Peele does gd things in another way. Gifford’s 397 Scene fr Catskill, foregrd singularly uninteresting, but glimmering, luminous haziness on mountainous distance v beaut. 150 Echo Lake White Mtns by same, fine freshness of feeling, vigorous attemopt, admirable sense of hight and discrim in foliage. His 131 Lscape compos too cold and colorless perhaps but fine feeling here too, Indian gives great solitariness and char to pict. Great deal of promise. Champney 60 and 415 shows pleasant sentiment of space and quiet rural life, hay field in latter a little impertinent fr its selfish claims on exclusive attn., but breadth and health in both. Richard’s 137 122 and 93 conclusive proofs of most patient and accurate study, hardly crit thema s finished, but recog promise and feeling. 290, 291, 292 and 294 belong to class of works shld not be allowed on these walls.

            263 successful watercolor sketch by Falconer. Unexceptionable cleanliness of earth sky houses trees fences in 144, 168, 231 remove them fr range of our experience and criticism.

            Casilear’s 167 and 175, Compositions, delicate but too dainty, extending to touch, almost feeble, cautious and pale, but exquis Summer feeling breathes all thru them. Same true of 332 and 338, foregrd in former too clean and park like for situation, while distant snow mtns have geuine sheen of lustrous Summer afternoon in Switzerland. Great dexterity in management of trees in middlegrd of 338. English Stanfield’s 315 Marine piece has air of master, but not a master’s chef doeuvre. Tranquil shore and water like one of Crabbe’s poems. But latteen sail and costume indicate Mediterranean, atmosphere far fr Italian.

            Gignoux’s 69 Sunset in Winter a great success,c old clear crisp as meant to be. Rossiter’s 99 Italian Landscape genuinely Ital in sentiment, but too broken and confused. Whitley’s 180 View on Conn Riv not transparent enuf. Hicks, 174, Ftn in front of French Acad dreaming of poet’s lines, happy planet eastward go, sentiment not less exquis and subtle.

            Genl review of lscapes one of most cheering prospects of Am Art, material and feeling for great works of this kind, want of study and practice every year corrects. Do not hold with theory that nothing is forcible and orig except what is locally American, but esp glad to have Am lscape illus by those who can do it worthily and well, happy that most of best lscapes of the year are national. Artist and author must beware of nationality that consists of ptg Niagara and the Indians and singing Yankee Doodle. Men before citizens, Greek for Art and Poetry belongs to Am quite as much as Tecumseh or Sam Patch.

Same page has bit on Kaufmann’s Cartoons, 42 East Broadway his rooms, who studied with Kaulbach in Munich, left after recent troubles, series of cartoons on historical devt of idea of God. Large and generous thought, influ of master, highest char of Germ art. Ends with Goddess of Reason. Not alleg, but intellectual. Can see diff to Duss school.

June 2, 1851, p.7 Common Council mtg Arts and Sciences Comm reports in favor of paying John Vanderlyn $100 for expenses of him going/returning fr DC to paint port of Gen Taylor, 3 aldermen voted agst it. P. 4 artist Rossini has skilfully restored frescoes on walls and ceiling of St Vincent de Paul in Canal st

June 16, 1851, p. 6 The Fine Arts: NAD—V, GWC.

Rossiter’s Moral, Phys and Intell types of Beauty 16 we feel the danger of Alleg. Nature is never allegorical. The artist is not to be the slave of Nature, but Nature is the great Prototype. Not the wildest vagary of the most fantastic ptr but had hint in his observation of form and color from Nature, whether he used little or much, strangely combined or partially reproduced. Raphael’s sublimes were the portraits of his Fornarina, if not her actual features, the beauty they suggested. Certain persons at certain moments satisfy imag as intell or moral types, but impossible to sep those moments fr the characters and lives of the persons and leave them still signif. In this pic figs are types, hence imag demands symmetry of sentiment and expr, must show or imply something of the others, and make the impression of a single beaut char. Ea fig must please, bcause it is a type of Beauty, no pleasure to imag in a beaut woman without sense, or a sensible woman without beauty, or a gd woman without either. Greek divinities were allegorical, but in Venuses of diff types, still unity. Raph’s Faith Hope Charity expr their several thoughts but not too exclusively, pict to the mind not to the eye. Does the woman who is the most beaut intell type chill us with the saturnine severity of this brunette, the azure hue of whose hose we sadly suspect? Is blooming health and phys perfection so solely sensuous as that of the embon point plainly developing? And the mere sweetness of the spiritual type melts before memory of many a Madonna. The single figures are incomplete, and whole insufficient, beaut sentiment in light fr Spiritual Beauty, and detail shows Rossiter’s usual brilliance. In 49 and 125 ports of brother artists, characteristic expr of ea mellowed, but gd likeness preserved. Expectancy 151 can’t much admire, as an ideal pic much too real. With all the realm of Imag, unfair to cull only simples that grow in our own gardens. Il Penseroso 191 too merely a pretty woman. Judith 203 on the contrary bold, melodramatic air, striking and imposing, accuracy of feeling, hangs well in Memory by side of other Judiths.

            Gray exhib colossal Head “King Death” 34, Egyptian rigidity of impassibility, but not suff suggestive, xtian or pagan? King of terrors? Easeful? Only blank unanswering which well symbolizes genl vague awe of Death, but relig et al have seen a more transparent form. Basilisk fascination, but don’t like it. Pistol announcing Death Henry IV 56 by Lazarus, thought it fr Don Quixote, melo dramatic and fantastic air of Pistol suit his style, lscape south of Windsor castle, Falstaff wooing Pomona, best fig is Bardolph, spize of quizzical roguery, a pleasant pic tho a little incongruous and exagg. Royal Skaters 237 Carlin v characteristic pompous fun, genial, fidelity, Dutch burghers surprised by gay royal procession, happily hit, fine gman sent sprawling by contact with a boor, beaut costume, v amusing, without a spot of caricature.

            Rothermel’s Murray’s Defense of Toleration attractive, hardly v striking, suggests so many others of same genl style of compos and treatment, impression is unjustly feeble. As illus adeq and admirable, doesn’t treat whole scope of subj. But lower artistic treatment of a subj that suggests a higher is a fault of perception, 406 Tecumseh and Harrison by Stearns illustrates this, red and white races at moment when red bursts into poetic natural enthusiasm shld be more than groups here of costume.

            Defense of Murray has great merit of gd quality, discrim material of diff objects, fine variety of expr strongly marked, severe calm of M well contrasted with fanatical fury of Presbyt, greatest charm in relig repose of distance contrasted with storm of bigotry in foregrd, mom and child touching group but hardly explain action of pic. A difficult work well done, but in style that requires most signal success to ensure a great triumph.

            Peele’s Puck in the Dairy 27 genuine Elf land, not fairies, goblins or child’s. Fascinatingly fresh and original feeling, imperf exec, one of the great successes of the Exhib. Knavish spirit not mischievous child, yet release fr moral oblig expressed by elfishness, with cordiality. One of the happiest artistic hits at the pretty populace of the realm “beyond the limits of Conscience.” Mtn Raid 391 alm colorless, yet tells story, in this dept of the homely Ideal that this artist prominence undisp by any other. His Babes in the Wood in AU gall in same style. Fancy does not flag, inEuro won’t heed siren of foreign galleries, southern Italy may teach valuable secret of color, but needs no other inspiration.

            Paul before Felux and Druisella 395 Jared Flagg too much like a tableau vivant, smooth, glaring color, model like postures, excessive cleanness make wonder why ptd, story or sentiment appears nowhere, a less ambitious subj would have answered as well.

            Study for an Angel 359 the most agreeable work ever seen fr Freeman, human symp does not disturb our delight, ardent sweep of movement most successful, broad and florid, face has beauty.

            205 What can a Young Lassie do, don’t find charming sparkling spirit of Burns’s song but a repulsive pic, Edmonds misconceived meaning of poet, melancholy contrast of puling imbecility with hoyden impudence not the fine fancy. Woman not arch, man only disgusting, the too faithful representation of a freq fact with neither poetry nor beauty, brawny young wife ready to be amorous of any plowman despising wreck of a husb. If poet meant this, not worth painting, if meant something more delicate and gay, painter unjust.

            Who’ll turn Grindstone 118 Mount char bits of Yankee life, genuine and truthful in sentiment, treatment streaked and pale, like better Just in Tune 30, tho regret the narrowness of the circle, which is yet characteristic and individual, in which this artist revolves.

            Dogberry and Verges 164 by John Cranch full of humorous feeling, proprieties preserved in truly Ital lscape, just and delicate feeling of force of char of solemn stupidity, color heavy and monotonous.

June 18, 1851 p. 6 The Great Exhibition,No. 1, by Quantum, mentions Powers’ greek slave adorable, popular with critics too; Chinese ptgs and embroideries, repre lscapes and domestic scenes, monstrous grotesqueness of ensemble, fr utter ignorance of persp and proportion, counterbalanced by wonderful delicacy and finish of detail, defects and exaggerations give curious glimpses into domestic life. Amer dags surpass Euro.

June 21, 1851, p. 6 GWC, The Fine Arts: Exhib of the Nat Acad VI: The multitude of Portraits alw the reproach, but obj not agst quantity but quality. One in which the suggestion of indiv nature and character is adequately expre is of exhaustless interest. But needs peculiar artist power, not most masterly manip nor striking likeness suffice. Port is not a dept of Daguerreo or wax work, not the fixed permanence of a transient mood, nor pleasantest expression, nor bottle nose, it is the general impression made by the subj on the mind of the artist. So artist must have fine instinct of char, nor can any spect judge a portrait as art without same delicacy of perception. Universal feeling of friends illus this principle, rarely is a husb satisfied with pict of his wife, or child with parent, they don’t know what is the essential char of person they love, or artist has failed to perceive it. Port satisfies universally is one of Daguerrean exactness to crumpled shirt-bosom and single hairs, but simple satisfaction of imitation like mirror or plastic precision of wax, not a work of art, not for genuine artistic crit.

            Elder Painters made their portraits poems, Poets were poetic, Kings were regal, Queens lovely. If Alexander had a wry neck or Philosopher a cast in his eye, did not accurately imitate these defects, but painted the Ruler and the Thinker, the charm of these characters was not accidental but essential, and their universal interest lay in that charm. Homer is represented blind, but the Imagination does not gain by it; a better port would open his eyes. If Hamlet were painted fat and asthmatic, Imag would properly recoil disgusted. Person must show as he appears to mind, not looks to the eye; no Terpsichore asleep or reposing, nor do we insist upon Washington’s bagwig and knee buckles. Don’t care to see Franklin in a Roman toga, proprieties of treatment suggest themselves to same instinct that fits Port Ptr for his task. To hang the Druidical drapery of Norma on a lovely lady of NY who would under no circumstances go into a wood alone at midnite to sing heathen hymns to the Moon, is quite as absurd as to rage agst a statue of W bcause there are no brass buttons or lace cravat. Titian, Vandyke, fair and heroic figures of Nobles who made Nobility a poetic fact, regal as Kings shld be. Don’t paint Nero this way, for mind figures him as a monster. Greatest picts represent scenes more ore less sacred, and their figs are alw portraits, precisely of kind we claim is proper.

            Large Hall, eye attracted to middle right wall, gives key of color to that side, An Aztec Princess, 33, Hicks, half length, brawny Mex woman in profile, if simply a study of color wld reward diligent attn. of student and contemp of poet. But fine dramatic power and characteristic sentiment sympathizing with style of treatment, elevate it to dignity of highest artistic claims. Studied fr a Mex woman, repress characteristic meaning rather than appearance of subj. Native Mexicans, founding race, Montezuma, opposed Cortez, (model was not an Italian woman bronzed for the occasion), poetic and universal character of Mexico, wild, savage, grand, primitive granite yet founding the form and massive grace of primeval trees still moulding the motion. Epical, stands for peculiar race, and by keen perception and able treatment for spiritual signif of race, as Fornarina attrib to Raphael represents the Roman woman walking amid the Coliseum’s ruins. Imp’t to epical quality that it is not a study, the sympathy of the treatment with the idea, simple pose, a little unusual, firmly planted, movement receding fr spectator rather than advancing, a symbol that deepens the poetic delicacy. Lines all large and grand, face aboriginal savagery of expr, recent emancipation fr extreme barbarism, yet latent intellectual force and sweet feeling, executed in broadest manner. Sumptuous splendor of color, clearness, vivacious vigor, brilliant boldness of touch, adeq and admirable in themselves but spiritually symp with subtlest sentiment.

            This is point on which Artists and Connoisseurs would join issue on this and Hicks other pics. Force, fidelity of drwg, gd sentiment, clear color conceded, but a false apprehension of proper degree of finish in laying in of color essential to a finished pict? Misconception, bearing in mind aim of artist. Harmony of colors in Diaz strikes eye as sweet accord of musical instruments the ear, thus achieving the effect; many Diaz sketches simply palette knife, aims at an effect by bold use of pigments and didn’t fail. Legerdemain unworthy of an artist? No, mastery of means, not every one who plays piano well can strike rich ravishing chords, extreme cultivation. Diaz little sketch smeared with masses of color, silent voluptuous warmth of East breathes fr picture, seductive as South winds over banks of violets, Oriental charm results fr pigments, no drwg, exquis finish, elab, could do it. A man brought fr  precise and defined outline of various schools gets lost in brilliance and longs for his lines, but in form Art aims at appearance and effect and lets rest go.

            Hicks devoted and successful disciple of faith in color which animates French artists and inspired Venetians, in any individ case has origin in a Nature more or less voluptuous in sentiment and impassioned in feeling, in men who are not Artists betrayed in literary preferences. In A Study 316 Hicks illustrates principle, singular success in rendering light. Portrait 405 Hicks has shown by a head moulded with a precise knowl and quality and effect rarely equaled quite as much power in the profuse but balanced brilliance of color in Portrait 128. Last is exquis in romance of sentiment as 405 is in intellectual fidelity, and Port 334 has aimed at likeness, shows same vigor knowl and mastery of color.

            Port 296 in cabinet size by Hicks of late Marg Fuller will illus views of his artistic ability to those who knew her, not his best work, yet a signal success. Romantic melancholy the profoundest tone of her life and character, giving them complexion, is also the atmosphere of the picture. Venetian background, mirage of life, glimmered alw along horizon of her hope, luxury of her life? Few who knew her will see brilliance of her intellectual life, royalty of her masculine will, subdued and suffused by subtle feminine grace.

            Hope fr Hicks easel pict of size for opp for whole play of his power. In him highest promise in this dept, of any Amer picts we know, unite artistic perception and power, does not longingly follow forms of elder art, but Imag and thought discover in experience of today the kindred character that made it triumphant, nor aims at old picts technical effect.

            Sun never grows old, nor tone of Nature change. Time has produced effects in old pictures that can only be distantly imitated by modern. But nature inspiration to those who look as old artists look, Turner, Couture, Diaz, freshness of color no less remarkable than splendor, no scumbling, rubbing, dirtying, dewy as morning lscape, gorgeous, voluptuous, sumptuous.

            Of 3 large ports in first rm, Genl Taylor 23 by Vanderlyn pleases, grave Republican pict, tho without striking effects also without ambitious attempt too apparent in pendant, Port of Genl Winfield Scott 12 by Kellogg, attitude too heroic for any one less than a hero, movement has a dancing character inconsonant with scene and occasion. Prefer Genl standing firmly on his feet. Forcible in color. In portsof Lady and Child 44 by lang great care in elab of details, but neither a large feeling or treatment. Claims of subject satisfied by a lesser canvas. Best port in rm is Port Lady 28 by Elliott, easy elegance of all his portraits, fluent touch of masterly capacity, in port however seems to aim at graceful likeness rather than genl artistic effect, want of delight in color, sentiment of color, disting great Port ptrs. His port Lady 3  has same characteristics. Could hardly quarrel with Elliott’s port of a friend, sure to find in it genl aspect you pleasantly remember, secures and deserves popularity. Little to be said of others, GW Flagg’s 2 is waxen, name of artist rather than work that induces us to mention it. Hurlstone’s Lady Macbeth 30 is Italian rather than Scotch, studied fr an actress rather than Shakespere and characteristic truth. Stearns’ Millenium 32 admirable for head of Lion, faithfully rendered leonine regality which belongs, treatment is common place and apparent.

            Next rm Page’s Port of Judge Daly 71 v unsatisf, colors imply mass of black, with dash of brick dust all over face. Sure result of unsuccessful experiment on palette, honor too highly great genius and skillful hand of artist to accept brick as a specimen. Faithfulness of likeness in a large sense, is evident to us, impression of vigor and manliness of handling not to be escaped. Poor work of artist of unquest power. Port of Mrs E Oakes Smith 70 by Jared Flagg, don’t know her, but crave fairer intro, this attempt at beatification of a fine modern woman into a Sappho must do injustice, apotheosis of Poetesses of Lady’s books, heroine of gilt-edged romances of annuals, By Jove! Fine woman, intellectual of cockney admiration, orig Laura Matilda, pernicious style of port sure to satisfy a superficial and sentimental taste and injure humane and dignified Art. No personality in remarks on works and ports of those utterly unknown to us, in walls of public galleries, artist in posit of author published a book, subject to judgment of austerest standard. Several composition ports by Shegogue, seem good in no particular, same position in Art that stories in Ladies Repositories and Mantua Making Magazines occupy in Lit, satisfy those for whom they were ptd, but mentioned in criticism of Art only as a warning.

            St Cecilia 74 Flatte in modern Germ relig style, conventional treatment grace of Peruginesque picts, pleasant only as reminiscence and illus. Elliott’s 81 eye lingers with pleasure.

            Scene in a Western Log Schoolhouse 98 Mathews full of fun of country school experience, reminds of Ichabod Crane. Ranney’s Retreat 123 has gd movement, spirit of whole concentration of action v admirable. Wish more spacious view of Prairie, by its vastness and magnify monotony of line intensified interest by revealing no rocks, trees, devices of escape. But throbs with characteristic life. Gritten Interior of Church of St Maclan, Rouen, 76 and exterior Cathedral of Rouen 48 2 highly finished and effective architectural pieces, 76 esp rich masses of stained glass, robes, pomp and paint of Roman ritual. Scene in Rouen 78 by Ruggles, sm pict, extremely successful in repress of characteristic passage of Fr life, lumbering dilig, massive tower brooding, heavy overhang, poetic in pict as in memory. Chess Players 172 Eckhout, bit stolen fr many an old curiosity corner of memory of travel. Pratt’s Port of Gman (Stoddard, the poet) 344 is successful in vivacious rendering of expression.

            Duggan not successful in port Lady 368, rigidity of outline, characterless coloring, great stiffness in pose, want of practice. His 247 Escape of Pilgrims fr Giant Despair, scene finely forcibly conceived, exec with singular kill, anatomical knowl subdued and not salient, but in Holy Fam 24 no unity, forms are lay figs or models posing, except 2 children of extreme childlike dignity and beauty. Strain of tender sentiment in Virgin, but Joseph not in harmony. Title an afterthought, not grouped or dispersed in any artistic imagination, don’t feel deep and delicate devotional sentiment which can alone in this day repro the feeling intended. 251 drwg Overbecks, rapt reverence in right backgrd, pathetic grace in sleeping John, touching tenederness which manliness makes only tenderer, in mien and movement of Christ, all breathe, watch with me. This little charcoal drwg sketch well nigh balances whole Exhib, here is imperial impress of Genius. Pendant 256 do not admire, fig of Christ seems studied fr Apollo, want of sentiment the essential value of such sketches. Compare 251 with 70: diff betw Art and absence of Art, appeal to perception of that for truth of what we’ve said.

            Kellogg’s Greek Girl 377 a studio pict, grace of attitude and characteristic beauty of fig face v successful, entirely Greek. But want of reality. Not largely treated, what region shows such a sky except crumbling old picts? Group of ports in last rm, near door of large hall, among which Huntington’s 356 hardly so good as many fr him, but not without his masterly touch. Ports hang oppos judged by 145, we forbear remark.

            Aim at service of Art not satisfy of friendship in these notices. Happy fortune to enjoy acquaintance of many artists among those we have censured and praised, spoken frankly, artists inspired by love of excellence rather than personal success.

June 23 1851 p.2 Europe by the Niagara, notices various English noblemen opening their collections to the public, and landscapist Pyne doing oil sketches in the Lake District for colored lithos

July 3, 1851, p. 7 Musical and Personal: notes Jenny Lind, EF Ellet, Agassiz, and fr Cinti Artists’ Journal, Beard, Baker the sculptor, Bingham, McConkey, Whittridge at Duss, pics commissioned by a gman of Cinti

July 18, 1851, p. 6 The Great Exhibition NO VI, by corresp of Trib, Quantum, Fine Arts Dept of Russia surprisingly good for objects of taste and luxury, beauty of design, richness of material, skill, malachite veneers, gigantic vases, silk brocade chairs, jewels

July 25, 1851 p. 7 Lit and Artistic Items: notes Comte’s lectures on Genl Histo of Humanity are thinly attended. Cornelius the artist asked by Belgian Academy to send his grand cartoons, fears to lose work of ten years, intended for frescoes in cathedral

July 28 1851 p.4 HG’s Glances at Europe, no XXiV, Rome, amazed by excellence of art, but thinks Modern as good as ancient, Capitoline Venus a paragon, but no ancients compare with Canova’s gallery of heads.

p. 6 Lit and Artistic Items fr Europe: Ralph Fletcher of Gloucester sold his collection, Landseer’s Lion and Stag of 1820 $810, also a lscape by Buyp $1700, prices for a Ruysdael and Claude. Exhib of Vienna Acad had Delaroche’s Napoleon at Fontainebleau, unbounded admiration, receipts of $5000.

Aug 27 1851 Lockwood’s Last Judgment p. 5 Durand and Huntington gratified by admirable and orig design and handling, got idea in 1845 in Munich, 35 ft long, huge, 200 figures, inclu GW and Despotism 

Sept 5 1851 p. 5 Forrest has sued Thurlow Weed for $10,000 damages. Praises HJ Raymond’s new conservative but indep daily

Sept 23 1851 p. 4 Opening of the Art Union festival, gmen, Conrad, Secy of War, Rev Dr Dewey, Rev Mr Osgood, Leutze and others, best coll ever, inclu many fr NAD and ones not seen, as a Holy Family by Page, wonderful power of coloring and depth of sentiment; Cozzens in his toast praises GW crossing Delaware as one of greatest productions of the age. Toast also to HJ Raymond, PM Wetmore toasted nationality of art, no sectional home but common property. Morgan, Pres of Senate was there, and Judge Campbell, Osgood praised educational power of art, he’d seen caricatures on the walls of respectable country gmen, people ignorant of beauty and symmetry until they are educated so that such abortions cld not be tolerated, Rev Dr Griswold and Godwin also there

Sept 27 1851 p. 6 Summer Notes of a Howadji, XI Newport, used to be sleepy Rip van Winkle place, new race has no taste, no propriety, not fit for art any more than to be twenty and have a palette does, pedestal is there but statue (society) is slight, imperfect, imbecile imitation. Any adroit laborer may quarry, but how many wrought Apollo or Venus? We have elaborate houses, and young America has a gorgeous blaze of charms upon its very remarkable waistcoats, but how many pictures, statues, bldgs. Gardens or parks? No rich man endows museum of casts, like Meng’s M in Dresden. Instead build house, dress too well, dance too well, too elegant, modesty becomes prudery, smart but not witty, flashy but not gay—Young America is too young. Its feet are beautifully small, and the head is proportioned to them.

Oct 23 1851 p. 6 Great Exhibition NO. XX, Ital Sculp, Conclusion, signed not Quantum but Anna Blackwell.

Oct. 30, 1851, p. 6 “The Fine Arts—Pictures in Town”

Never had a greater number of pictures of merit open to the public; first NY Gallery of Fine Arts, coll seen at rooms of Academy of Design, 683 Broadway, not enough known and appreciated tho has a number of admirable pictures. Intent is a permanent gallery, grow to be an illus of taste and magnificence of great demo, finest coll of Cole anywhere, C of E plus 2 Italian and3-4 American, all replete with that richness of imag, that deep sentiment of nature, and beaut broad effects of light. Also lots by Durand, portraits plus Peter Stuyvesant, well known, and Mount’s Bargaining and Truant Gamblers, humor in his best manner. Plus works by Trumbull, Flagg, Doughty, and specimens of old Ital and Dutch, and recent additions by first artists. Wealthy ought to donate to make it more attractive to visitors fr abroad, needs a bldg., lower admission, bigger gallery including coll of sculpts in plaster full size of finest ancient and modern works, a school of taste and satisfaction for thousands. Men ought to postpone personal splendors to endow City.

            Art Union impresses us with its service, 2 large halls constantly filled with crowds of perfectly orderly people, has been for years, tho pictures are not uniformly of the first merit, alw enough works  of true power to serve as standards of comparison and educate eye/artistic judgment. Ennobling, minds expand and refine. Indep of q whether institution is well managed or distrib of picts be objectionable. This season genl excellence, Durand, Rossiter, Cropsey, Kensett, Hicks, Church and Boutelle most admired at NAD in the spring are here with others fr the same. No 13 An Autumnal Lake, CP Cranch, a charming little pict, peculiar poetic beauty, sorry not to see large lscape at Acad which was one of the best there. 49 Storm, Boutelle, fine wild movement, and large work fr Acad here hangs in conspicuous place. 72 The Emigrants by CF Blauvelt represents a Germ fami on wharf, mom clasps child with genuine but not exaggerated felling, father smokes pipe with philosophy, not pretentious but faithful. 95 Rabbit Hunting by Hinckley is best by him, dogs full of character and alive with hunt, ptd with elab detail, every hair and bristle. 114 Spring by V Colyer a halflength of a child in crayon by artist who deserves wider rep. 131 Road Scene by Hicks, valley in prospect, flooded with light and remarkable for power of coloring. Page has a Holy Fam, first seen since in Euro, resembles old masters’ sobriety, richness of color, depth of tone. We wish to favor it, but doubt correctness of designedly producing the effect of time and dust; the true opposite of rawness or flashiness of coloring is not tone of centuries old works, not a real compliment to say that a pict of last year is like an old master. Nor like it in other respects. Face of mother tho handsome is not that of the Madonna, nor motherly, and head of Joseph is poor and mean. Child’s face is fine but not the infant the old Italians ptd when Faith was a living reality. Holy Families cannot be produced nowadays, esp by Prot-Americans.

            Leutze’s Amazon and her Children justly attracts attn. abounds in vital force, tho faulty in drwg children, familiar with human form. Miniature men not boys. Mom gd in character and drwg but flesh cold and leathery, flesh is most subtle and diff and not Leutze’s forte, in this respect inferior to Page whose child is truly a child tho also incorrectly drawn. Healy’s Great Union pict of Danl Webster replying to Hayne at Acad Rms, subj not adapted to artistic treatment, artist not successfully gotten over difficulties. Repres of public bodies are gd as coll of ports, or when some highly dramatic incident breaks up their formality, but delivery of a speech is tedious, no action to enlist interest. Subj is one an artist might paint for ten thousand dollars, but never as a work of art. Nor is execution successful, Webster represented too feebly and lifelessly, and Calhoun’s action is too intense. The unhappy person who is so singularly arranged in the corner in front of Col Benton, worry he may never recover fr that painful posture. Portraits not partic gd, those in the gallery include Couture, the eminent French artist, on who Healy has modeled his style without extraord success. Best part is desks and papers of Senators, managed with artistic skill. Judge Burnett too in center with arms resting and hands just touching is really engaged in the scene without looking posed, light tolerably well managed, coloring seems raw and unfinished. Napoleon Gallery in same bldg. is coll of old picts by Baron Arnstein at great expense of time and money. Pict of Nap after final defeat ptd by a Viennese artist is inferior to same by Paul Delaroche, from which it was copied.

            Dusseldorf pop, picts removed to make room for Lessing’s Huss have been restored. Will compare it to Leutze’s Washington Crossing the Delaware

December 17, 1851, p. 6 Kossuth in N-Y, donations to the Funds fr Freeman Hunt, mtg of the Artists friendly to cause of freedom in Hungary for Monday, v sm mtg, not more than 35 persons.

December 25, 1851, couldn’t find card they mentioned from prominent artists defending the AU

Feb 13, 1852, p. 5 City Items, Am A-U, “a member: asks when the annual distrib will take place, have heard it will be when subscription list is large enough to cover purchased pictures, maybe end of March. Trib says error is to buy pics on credit. Artists many without merit in their art have made a business of assailing management, disappointed at not buying bad pics, but have injured the institution. We here say that Directors are not guilty of any abuses, know many of them personally, incapable of combining to defraud or do injustice.

Feb 26 1852 p. 5  publishes Bryant’s eulogy on Cooper, defending libel suits as necessary to discipline the press

March 5 1852 p. 7 Items of Foreign Lit and Art: Annual Exhib of pics in Paris promises well tho neither Ingres nor Ary Scheffer will contrib, latter known here by pics of Mignon, jury of eminent painters, 3 kinds of medals. Kaulbach completed cartoon for frescoes in Berlin Museum of which we gave extended account in the spring, this one is Homer, is also illus Shakespeare in German. Blake’s designs grand and grotesque, his books auctioned in London for 4 and 8 pounds. Manchester has bought Pickersgill’s large pic of Samson and Delilah, much noticed at RA last spring, pendant is Syrens by late brilliant colorist Etty. Ingres engravings just pub, the connection between David and painters of today. Landseer’s son has inherited his talent. Campbell, an English Sculpt, just done statue of Ld Geo Bentinck, treatment of mod costume successful.

Mar 22, 1852 p. 5 A-U Opinion of Judge Daly. AU has just been said to be unconstitutional; Judge Daly one of the Directors of the AU just resigned, reviews court issues, publish at request of AU.

March 23 1852 p. 6 Foreign Items of Art and Lit: anecdote of Turner telling a woman who complained she could not see such things in nature as in his sketches, “don’t you wish you could”. 

April 7 1852 p. 6 Washington, by JSP: lovers of fine arts not usu those who are Anglo Saxon par excellence, exhib of Healy’s pic of Webster, Stanley’s Indian Gall, Leutze’s GW greatly admired, Webster will view it. Healy’s pic a great disappointment. Stanley’s possesses v great merit, almost univ delight. Both are doing portraits, but prices v high. Miss Wagner also taking likenesses, remarkable merit, miniatures rival dag in faithfulness, excel in expression

April 17, 1852, p. 6 (same page as Karl Marx on Germany) The Fine Arts: NAD. [This is Curtis too] In Florence went with friend to see sunset fr San Miniato, introd to a painter who was disgusted to realize we are not an artist. 2 pov: scientific and artistic proper, ultimate effect fr essential character of the performance, and means by which effect is achieved. For latter, scientific knowl indispensable. In a pict or statue, as a mechanical work, implied in critic familiarity with resources and limitations of means, rln of colors, of chiaroscuro, and myriad details. To former, no knowl of means suffice, it is the permanent and essential interest, the grace of the temple, the pathos of the picture, the meaning of the work, and every man of feeling and perception shares it, the universal popular interest. Art works for mankind, not for artists or connoisseurs. Art is essentially democratic, like flowers it addresses the humblest sense and outreaches most aspiring imagination. A picture, like a person, is what the observer sees in it. To the Jew it is alw a stumbling block, but peace and joy to the believer. The pet of connoisseurs that does not arrest the popular eye or heart is not immortal, because not of a universal interest. Genius does not languish, Raphael paints for the world not the Pope’s court, peasant sees in Madonna the woman he knows. Compares Ole Bull to Vieux-temps, diletantte vs one who witched the land.

            The general critic therefore speaks of the essential success of the work, its more or less adequate expression of the meaning intended. The more science the better.But artists may not be best critics, too absorbed in details of exec. All the Profs in all the Acads would not paint gd pictures, if don’t have soul of Titian or Angelo. Perception of beauty can’t be learned, as much gifts as creation of new forms of beauty.

            In remarks on Exhib won’t regard simple good intentions as worthy commendation, but any man who with irreproachable intentions paints an execrable  pict, has mistaken his vocation, not an artist. Number of gd picts less than last year, but genl character more decided, good positively gd and bad positively bad.

April 24, 1852, p. 5 Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, II

Genl opinion not as gd as last yr, don’t agree, best men of last year do better now, Gray Hicks Huntingdon, Kensett and Rossiter have finer single pics, gd lscapes inferior in number, but nothing last year better than Kensett’s Autumn Franconia and Reminiscence of White MTns or Norwegian Forests of Capellen. Ports this yr v numerous and v bad, don’t know if Committee have any discretion to reject, prob not, but certain things ought not be presented except for challenging that caustic crit that if felt to be judicious would a quietus make of such flagrant misdirection.

            Largest lscapes are Spirit of War 48 and Spirit of Peace 50 by Cropsey, latter in same spot as his Southern Italy last year, have all his merits and faults. Too conscientious, knowing lscape composed of infinite detail, gives every bit full justice, spire of grass, shrinking leaf must appear bcause really exists, and not satisfied til every pt of his pic teems with infinite variety of life and form as in nature. Upon this lavishes resources of color great fertility of imag, ea bit of mosaic forms his pic sincerely studied wrought with genuine feeling, eye is thus attracted by a thous beauties, charmed by delic observ, and wonders that mass is not subdued into genl impression.

            Effort is hopeless, the fault of Duss school tho manifested in a less mechanical manner. Lscape it is grace of single tree and harmonious consent of many trees in bold beaut groups, vague hill outlines, observer knows ea tree aggregate of infinite tissues, but not visible in impression, sees little of leaf but whole spirit and power of lscape strike eye and heart, genius of artist is to deepen that impression. Artist shld study tissues anatomy, but they must not appear. Duss men reticulate leaf, let tree shift for itself, Cropsey has the sunflower and the sheep, lscape must take its chance, so it does not haunt you. 50 has aggregation of beaut poetic objects, palms, most poetic graceful temples with delicat tracery, all imagery of pastoral poetry midsummer idyls, dreams, yet does not soothe spec into tropical reverie. Old artist who borrowed bits fr many women to create ideal solved problem. Fine words don’t make a poem, pictque forms brill ptd don’t make a gd pic, must be harmonized into single impression that is neither partial, commonplace, obvious but direct beaut. Capellen Norweg For and Diaz Cows in a Wood 75, v diff styles of feeling and treatment, no prestige of poetic assoc, Diaz ordinary homely cattle piece, small, burnished fr varnishing, easy mastery of brilliant color, no collateral suggestion, just passage in nature so glance at it is a strain of summer, begst mood of scene, not highest triumph of art, but secret of its great success is subjugation of material including omissions to single impression. Cropsey strikes higher, aim to represent Spirit of Peace, show tranquil life is result of Peace, so composed an unreal landscape, features drwn fr Nature, with artificial and conventional grouping, and therefore removes it fr sympathy, a passage of Arcadia instead. No more Spirit of Peace than So Italy or any quiet lscape, a peaceful scene only.

            The subj demands alleg treatment, aim not only to represent effects of Peace, but force contrasts of Peace and War on mind, emphasize that this state of things proceeds fr Peace, but fails to exercise direct moral influ, no spec feels on regarding it that Peace was cause of tranquility. Landseer’s pict of Peace does it, sheep cropping flowers in cannon’s moth tell story, without it, no more Peace than cattle of Diaz, just this which makes it a work of art not merely a pleasing pic.

            Treatment and conception is true of companion piece, and general true of Cropsey, loves nature, patient fidelity, glowing and teeming imag speaks in brilliant color and elab forms, great pleas in study of his pics and well wrought detail, which is their cardinal defect. Glaciered precipes in 48 and angry clouds have reality and depth of feeling, skill of treatment. Italy a study 279 a pathetic sentiment, so just and poetic, comparative simplicity and subjug of material, sweeping grace, the pleasantest of his pics, value akin to Diaz and Landseer, story is told, that poetic elegance and romantic decay are Italy. No real lscape nor meant to be, a pensive thought, every man recognizes.

May 1, 1852, p. 5 Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, III

Aim of lscape ptg: reminiscence of aspect of nature, by means of that excite thought or emotion. Fundamental principle of crit. A kind of jugglery in pics and statues, for they are the result of means whose use known to v few. ‘A Statue alw imposes upon me’ once said to us, and mystery of brill colors confuses majority specs.

            No more diff in estimating absolute of a character pic than a poem, art a lang, communic ideas, must mean something or not a work of art. Better works reveal soul of lscape, lesser the sense.

            Capellen Norwegian forests 410, one of 3 finest, Kensett’s 2 large ones the others. Not exclusively Norwegian, gloomy grandeur of any mid forest wilderness nook, dank slimy rotting torpid aged tragedy rank and loathsome life, symbol of grand old barbaric Norse king dying, familiar to primeval nature, majestic vigor. Solitary leisurely bear intensifieds wild solitude, so not vague or meaningless, but to increase effect. Sunbeam in center also emphasizes gloom, contrast animates, gives effective color, but introduces with it a certain sentiment, ameliorating its sternness, touching symp, perhaps too much concentrated sun in the circumstances, but noble, austere.

            Kensett’s Reminiscence of White Mtns 417, genius essentially tranquil, broad repose, conscientious detail, studies of rocks, individ of trees, no master in the country, finds quiet effects in any natural feature, soothing influ directly affect spec, May and June, affects treatment by a delicacy of handling that injures breadth, too cool a grayishness in greens, but attains effect. Reality in all he does becomes poetic, sees with heart and mind as well as eye, redeems extreme tranq fr monotony, tho simple scenes, individualizes his vision, so he suggests nothing but Nature. Highest praise, can’t tell if he’s seen masterpieces, his Ital lscapes have Ital char but no ‘old pic’ abt them, hint that imitates Claude Salv Pouss, thoroughly unsuggestive of others. Clearing storm effect. Less striking, broad daylight, than Norwegian, but retains interest longer, rest in pleasant NE. Early autumn Franconia Mtns 172 same value. Feeling exquis, autumn dreaming of summer. 58 and 64 smaller have same charm, value, 173, aerial grace.

            Another artist of undoubted talent whose works are v oppos of gd. Innes several large lscapes, much profounder regard for old masters than Nature, no sincere, View nr Berkshire 424, may be as gd as Poussin, but is artist to day satisfied with pics that might be taken for him? Imit when most perfect is most hopeless. Better be Teniers than paint pics connoisseurs mistake for Raphael’s, copy another’s conception, thought, compos, Ruskin thus prefers the sketch if it conveys the idea. If Innes paints lscape sincerely it will not look like anybody else. Wooly, scumby, dirty effect, trees all same kind and that kind unknown, earth same mysterious subst as trees are not Berkshire, or summer woods, or anything but reminiscence of pics in damp old church. Compare to Baker’s Forest Trees 433, crude in color, not mellow or interesting, but it is real, love for Nature so sincere it lives, while 424 the type of old lscapes found en quantity in backrms of pic dealers.

            Mtn Stream 401 by Innes has same faults, more agreeable, wants quality and locality, purloined blue sky; Gleam of Sunshine 40 pleases most, and gd evidence of feeling and power in all he does, not hopeless, not carefully elab and timid mediocrities, can go right if he will.

            Wotherspoon same condemnation. Bay in Naples 160 and Tower Naples 465 bad, v bad, no qual form atmosph, not Italian, belongs to unknown region of Innes’ Berkshire. Ponte Rome 95 his best, Ital atmosph and gd feeling richness, but overshadowing influ of other Painters evid all thru it

            Recall Turner’s Temeraire, true lscape, infinite horizon, tranquil sky, miraculous variety, glowing thought.

May 4 1852 p. 5, Items of Foreign Art, etc: famous Ash House gallery of ptgs sold, gives prices brought for diff artists and ptgs of modern Engl school.Studios of Berlin busy as King of Prussia plans Gallery of Celebrities at Sans Souci, names artists engaged in busts and statuettes

May 8, 1852, p. 5, The Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, IV.

            Church’s Wreck 145 one of most pop, not inferior to Beacon of last yr, remarkable percep of form, feeling of grandeur and gorgeous effect implicit v evident, accuracy of detail that in Home by the Lake 456 nearly destroys breadth. First of our marine ptrs. Requires study and skill. Compares to Poet Turner, immortal realm of vapors.

            Technical marines w/o imag are lowest form, in Stanfield’s alw something small and commonplace, doesn’t revel in universal jubilee of Nature, too exclusive matter of fact of wave and sands in his. In 145 Church has genuine poetic impulse, surf masterly success, close observ and skillful manip, highest triumph is solemnity of sea. In other pics recall superficial and striking details of effect, no one surpasses Church’s fine detail but has also broad and grave character, meaning, thought that elevates them, melancholy made visible, pathetic solemnity of Church this year and last. Still find his pics a little rigid and metallic, not yet mastered atmosphere so want of richness flowing grace air of infinity.

            Home by Lake 456 exquis transp of distance allure eye, will have none of foregrd, unity thus disturbed, divided into two.

            Le Chene and le Rosseau 448 Decamp, noted mod Paris lscape schl ptr, will provoke merriment and scornful crit, but worth study, infinitely preferable to the “old pic” of Inness, River Ford 447 and Scene on Saco River 446, because of touch of master, force of pic, unpracticed and doubting hand in 446, scumbled wool of 447, or sentimental weakness of 453. Decamp aimed at single effect, attained it, bold and fantastic caprice, scors detail and color and relies on grim smearing of light and dark, hi order of intellig, not the nervous feebleness that covers canvas with inadeq imit of details, annihilated by his searching vigor.

            More beaut and pleasing is Summer Hrs 191 Geo A Baker, best of our artists, voluptuous color promises success; does he rhyme well sd a penetrant crit of a Poet’s first effort, if does, safe, for no genuine music in verse, but implies genuine poetic genius, color is same in artist. 191 is a strain fr Decameron, fragrant to fancy of luscious fruits, Keats’ description fo a peach, sumptuous, pure rich mellow, luminous, freshness vivacity, rejoicing heart, sweetness  red blood, spring flowers, not yet the natured fruit, blossoming of young year.

            His triumph is his danger, color subsidiary to thought, only Nature’ complexion. Whole charm of 191 is color, tho not in pic opposite, Going to School 169. Grouping not graceful or poetic, lscape not suggestive, figs not persons only forms for color. In Going to Schl exquis sentiment, boy char fig of heroic, confident eager able to guard girl maidenliness finely contrasted. In port ldy 220 Baker skill to commonplace result, an Exhib pic, brilliantly colored, success in a dangerous direction. More pleasing is 377 port ldy, reality and modeling, not a flat surface. Forest Trees 433 same freshness, vigor, confid, uninteresting scene treated w/o monotony.

            Great advances on last yr, Richards’ lscapes, Williamson, elements of gd artist, crude color but brilliant, vigor and effectiveness, wants careful study and accuracy subord detail, pics have air of hurry, eye can’t search deeper, first imp is best, Lscape 113 on Longfellow’s Voices of the Night, bold effective forest not suggestive of spirit of verse romantic sylvan scene, not delicate nor dreamy. 42 and 56 have poetic and suggestive subj, but effect insufficient, need to be purely exquis in color as in Diaz, or elab with thoughtful detail to reward eye. Pict exhausted in first glance, only consummate genius can dash off fine things. Wmson’s pics superficial, thin, not rich and suggestive, but show facility and boldness. Richardson carefully ptd sm lscapes, little individuality of observ, parallel in well considered unexceptionable verses yet not poetry.

            Wandesforde Vespers 119 great beauty and feeling,no one sure how lscape looks in moonlight, but spirit of vespers broods tranquilly, cold gloom, solemn and tender; Pass of Glencoe 258 water color admirable tho utterly unobtrusive, silence desolation.

May 20, p. 5, 1852, Fine Arts: Exhib of NAD V.

Whatever Durand does is undeniably excellent, his position is assured, a quiet pastoral poet, a Thomson on canvas, alw soothing, never inspiring, sure to please, equally sure not to surprise, a careful and loving student and imitator of placid aspects of Nature, a genius that breathes pastoral peace over all his works, our feeling has been confirmed fr year to year, little marked advance, tho no retrocession. As with Bryant, his experience doesn’t deepen/widen with time. Do today what did 20 years ago, but he who labors to preserve a rep will be apt to cease to deserve it. Artist must leave what he has done in perpetual passage to greater, unceasing advance.

            Durand’s 3 pics this yr, Lscape 374, Haystack Mtn, Vt 406 and God’s Judgment on Gog 139. First two hardly as gd as usual. 374 is rigid and painty, water does not flow, leaves don’t thrill, lacks easy grace the prominent aspect of Nature. 406 has great sweetness, but is feeble. Easy to recognize artist in it, but doesn’t win and hold eye, delicate and tender, but lacks peculiar fascination we remember.

            139 essays a new style, deserting antecedents, leaving summer meadows, sunny skies, grazing cattle, quiet streams, aims to depict fierce shock and conflict of supernatural powers, in gloomy mtn gorges, under storm clouds and whirlwinds, show work of Jewish Jehovan on sinful Gog. Subj evidently of great scope. Work must be a success or it is a failure. In vain that parts are gd, that the master’s handling is seen here and there, if not majestic and terrible, if doesn’t smite spectator with grandeur of scene. What is obj sought by making this subj art? To impress spectator with sense of divine justice more profoundly or differently than by the simple narration. Thus if artist illus call of Jesus suffer little children by a pic of him embracing infants, no imp as a work of art unless such celestial beauty and love depicted it outran similar emotions occasioned by reading passage. Kaulbach in Dispersion of Races at Tower of Babel and Destr of Jerusalem grasps theme with richness, variety and splendor of imag which is exhaustless. V few spectators consciously bring to those pics what they see in them. That is their triumph, they embody in commanding form the vague suggestions and flitting dreams visited the mind as it contemplated the story. Secret of fine lscape or portrait, simply the revelation to the observer of what is hinted but not expr by scene or face. Same for best so called relig pics. Spect couldn’t anticipate a fine Madonna, of Raphael or other Master, fresh as new flower, yet a human face and form drawn perhaps fr someone he knew, stroke of greatness means nothing is obvious or commonplace, as natural as sun and moon but also as adequate.

            Primal fault of Gog is as inadeq and obvious represe of scene, story not emphasized, no deeper sense of wrath, nothing subtle, penetrant, persuasive in treatment, so mind recurs, fascinated, startled and impressed. If undertake to paint burning bush or awful incidents of Sinai, not enough to give a mtn side with a flaming bush, must interpret Scripture as poet and preacher not by letter but by spirit. Cry of imagination as an objection to great treatment is absurd, the perceptive spirit of man, the interior eye, is key. When artist aims to render visible circumstances around which cluster vague awful majestic assoc, true of all striking events of Scripture history, consider shadowy critics for whom he paints, anxious lest destroy grandeur of impression by stripping away its illum clouds. Masters seized weird and winning traditions for which mind instinctively demands twilight and an infinite horizon, moulded them into new imperial forms. Is the fierce vision of the Hebrew Prophet made more palpable, lesson more sternly urged? If not, only a story told by talent, not a poem.

            Fails in view of highest requirements of art; choice of subj shld make symp of spectator coincide with intent of work. In Kaulbach’s destr of Jerusalem, symp necessarily excited for Jews’ fate, deepened by reflection of no just reason for Roman invasion, so needs to balance this instinctive sympathy for fall of old order in order to enlist his feeling for the new. Holy peace leads Hope into happy future, triumph.

            Symp of spect in this pict is on wrong side, not with Prophet’s vengeance, but cornered miserable host, surrounded by supernatural foes. Jehovah an omnipotent autocrat, divine King, a mistaken idea, and rebels agst his authority as mere men with staves appeal to our compassion. Mind recoils fr prophet, a monster to use such power, without hesitation.

            Historical facts have nothing to do with point; art is more than facts, it is the treatment of them with signif made manifest. Artist must consider what in Bible is of universal signif, what will command univ symp. May paint a pict technically true, but not great. If an Indian’s idea of Great Spirit is true, and he requires sacrificial victims, a faithful pict of that could not be great unless something in it sweeter and truer than its subj. Merely presenting a victim suffering tortures of superstition disgusting. Same here—wild beasts destroy armed host, awful battle, not the wrath of Christian god, but idol of crude and cruel superstition. Quarrel is with moral influ of this pict, revives a low idea repulsive to noble and humane mind, generous instincts. May aim to inspire greater reverence by showing terror of vengeance, but what child would become more trustful reliant on god, inspired with love. Failure is preaches wrong law, not new one. Art deals only with highest possible thought of the subj, and vengeance is not highest thought, and as pict of that old idea, it is inadequate. Excellent details. 

20 May 1852 p. 6, English Exhibs of Ptgs, in London Times long notice of RA, Eastlake and Landseer have nothing, Stanfield a highly praised lscape, Creswick, Mulready, Roberts, Ward has a Charlotte Corday on Way to Execution, but critic says has made her a victim not avenging angel. Maclise’s great pict of Alfred has finish of a miniature and brilliancy of missal, what Pre Raph attempt, finer drwg careful details, heathenish wildness and fury in horde of Danes contrasts with observant countenance of King, but vehemence of color and minuteness sacrifices beauty of art to hardness and precision, genl effect powerful and displeasing.

            Critic of Times won’t retract censure of Pre Raph brethren, but Hunt’s Hireling Shepherd tho ludicrous gives promise of powers. Pickersgill and Venetian imitators have same result. Mentions some other artists, and a pure and manly David by Westmacott.

            Nat Institu of FA we gather has few pics of great char, except one by Am artist, Glass.

May 25, 1852, p. 6 compares Jenny Lind to Turner, unmatched genius

May 31, 1852, p. 5 The Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, VI

            Opens with shot at corresp in Eve Post of Friday who said their commendation of certain qualities in a pict shld be termed ‘a lover of foreign notorieties’ and accuses him of attacking artists, degrading those who know art better than him; Post addresses those who do not think for themselves.

            Titan, Vandyck, Rubens Velasq were port ptrs, can’t deny Acad ports don’t remind one of them, been the butts of caustic crit and satirical verse for quarter century. Loves Baker, tho lacks tranquil tone, has overflowing richness of youth.

            Full length: Healy’s 32 carefully finished but flat, personally but not poetically interesting. Carpenter’s 67 same char of gd likeness, no genl interest.Desire to have best expr of a friend is to see him as he is in mind and memory, his poetical likeness, something better in our friends than anything visible, except in a few instances, that’s what we require represented. Shegogue’s ports do not satisfy demand of scions for majestic sway of ancestors, wax and wool feebly treated, ought not to be given prominence.

            Gem is Gray’s 344, sm cabinet but delicately thought and treated, rare flower, Ital mellow transp and rich tone, better than others, 74 clean and wooden to painful degree, 422 want of simplicity injurious as eye wrestles with accessories, but all fresh sweet color and charming quiet tone.

            Dag never a work of art. Every port need not be beaut, as a beaut person, must have beauty of propriety, be characteristic, as in Hick’s exGov Fish, no Apollo, but stands in living reality, success in its treatment, masterly modelling, truthfulness and subord of accessories so unity of work, chiaroscuro, heroic self reliance seeks no assistance fr conventional curtains and columns just facts, harmonious color, palpable, does not look like a fresco on the wall or black paper pattern, stands on his feet, head is proper center of interest, no tedious and frittering detail soulwearying in Germ pics. Hicks has been accused of indiff to exactness in inanimate repress of minor accessories which lack detail, in desire to produce splendid color effects, charge agst Turner too, but shows here that he has that knowledge and skill. In pic of De Camp, easily recog seal of intellig and power, tho artic of leaves and grain of wheat not made out, like Parisian lscapists, close student of nature and only great knowl lets a few sweeps of brush indic intended effect so vigorously.

            Hicks accused of infatuation for pigments leads men to Couture and Diazy and Fr colorists and deserts them there dazzled, bewildered, but if he has observed and assimilated, has not been consumed, studied but not reverenced leading Frenchmen. May 18 by contrast has nothing of mod Fr virtue in ptg and all its vice. Fault of treatment in Fish is want of due official dignity in costume, he is in official role, Gov shld be in full dress not overcoat, like King with scepter.

            Rossiter’s 438 makes ancestors poetic as in heirs’ imagination, 3 sisters round a piano, sweetness grace brilliancy, air of romantic life, Venice, ripe fullness, rapt intentness, happily blent, pictque impression, also likes his 329, angelic charm. Last year’s Freeman’s sketch of Angel at the Tomb has similar spiritual beauty, saving a slight expr abt the mouth which is not agreeable and not in 438. Poet saw Undine. Rest of his not so pleasing, 10 v careful and exact in details, destroy genl effect, not mellow rich. Syrian Girl 51 great beauty, glare of atmosphere, hand waxen.

June 7, 1852, p. 5 The Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, VII

            Last glance. Requiem of De Soto, 6, White, certain vigor yet unsatisfactory, incident admits of poetic and pictque, but imag of artist accepted a commonplace idea of it. Leutze’s Gallantry of Raleigh 29 ptd ten years since, well known incident treated in most obvious manner, costume pic, little notice except Leutze’s vigor and brilliancy. Sumptuous Eliz court, splendor aristo, imperial richness, eye searches in vain, Eliz is least striking, eye slips off directly on the pert little page behind, no new meaning or beauty to scene. Expect justific of subj in pic itself; Trumbull’s Congressional pics called shinpieces bcause mind disdained to see nothing but row of solemn gmen in tight black small clothes, when looked to see men who laid foundation of republic. Did wear knee breeches, but when we think of them they have an air of lofty and devoted manhood, if artist can’t deepen this feeling, ought not to paint it, unless content with rendering satin, velvet and feathers deceptively. Defect of 29 analogous, spec does not find as much as he brings. Over it, 31, Huntington introduces profusion of velvet, lawn, silk, damask, plush, in on under and by which sits Bishop of Canterbury, v effective, air of gd likeness, sympathize with confronted with such a mass of haberdashery that with the horse hair wig, only represents pontifical.

            Jacob’s Dream 33 most pop of L Terry, no claim to exactness of drwg, richness of color, anything suggestive in concept of Script, has yet air of purity grace sweetness. Compos most palpable defect is apparition, lts what shld have been infinite, vista of radiant avenue of Angels shld have vanished in Heaven. Muller’s Valley in Alps 37 like 144 Canadian scene a gd impression of wild lscape, but with his great fidelity, can’t find them interesting, not lscapes a head and heart feel it.

            53 one of Elliott’s best ports, tho 419 his finest, remarkable uniformity of excellence in his works, alw sense of facility alm carelessness in exec as if cld easily do all he wished, leaves us with desire that he wld wish to do more. Certain pts carefully elab, likeness alw admirable, exquis grace imparted to form, great satisfy to friends, yet lack essential charms, want of glow. Plenty of local color strongly laid in, vermilion enuf in lips etc, but not natural hue, too brilliant, ensemble suffers. 53 wants color. Genl impression of his pics is of great whiteness or blackness, air of unreality, while feeling of propriety in highest sense. 53 fr peculiarity of position a strange even a little grotesque fig, alm an affectation, suggestive of ladies ‘of quality’ in annuals, but this is naturally and beaut obviated by slight bit of lscape, its rustic ease reminds spec that posture is dictated under the circ the most natural and graceful.

            Mathew’s port gman 94 one of best, simple and strong, moulded and colored, Boutelle’s lscape 96 nearby too confused, but certain pleasant boldness. Cranch’s Castle rock 99 fine study of rocks, great local truth, also his Gleam of Light 299, breezy sentiment, in 99 of fresh summer day; his 443 a clearing off shower another success, truthfully conceived. 101 Lang’s young Ital beggar and her child suggests Raphael but this and Fair Penitent 45 wonderful advances. Peele’s Girl and Rabbits 166 characteristic, careless in exec, bad drwg palpable, no richness of effect, but man of decided talent and confidence, so it’s individ and pleasing, child’s intentness and easy grace, gd still life, absence of pretension, truthfulness in details, gd pic with v great faults. 2 kinds of faults, of imperfect study and just conception, latter accompanied with painful conceit that burnishes its blemishes as beauties. Mediocrities elab are most painful subjects, happily few this year. 134 Gifford dreamy summer lscape, like Stoddard’s poem re atmospheres of sleep, sweet and poetic, dreamy haze atmosphere of Lotus, may seduce artist fr healthy sincerity. A means inferior men use to conceal faults of work, must avoid suspicion of subterfuge, some want of strength in Gifford’s lscapes and freshness, apt to have a slightly fade air.

            Huntington’s port ldy 149 best pic shows, great richness and feeling, higher order, accessories do not wean eye, action of right arm and hand conventional and stiff, hand wax not flesh, fingers can’t bend. His Trib Money 409 same crit as Leutze’s Raleigh, no more than a pleasing pic of a scene already v grand and solemn in spec mind, some subj can be satisfactorily treated only by remarkable power and may hardly be repeated except by eminent genius. Hunt’s pic sweet gravity, but not a new Christ. Don’t require perfect novelty, but it shld be his work, not another’s or no call to be an artist. This like Durand’s Gog makes a certain claim and implies a certain standard, to be a work of the artist—ought not recall Titian’s Trib Money, and it’s not better or more imposing or more signif, no new thought, great idea of both is contrast betw intellectual loveliness of Christ and low cunning of Jew. Huntington hardly gives with sufficient subtlety, brutal visage brawny Jew agst tender tranquility too much of phys contrast with spiritual, true opposition shld borrow nothing fr physical repulsion, shld be intellectual contrast, as in Retzach’s outline of the Game of Lfe.

            176 attrib to Landseer, no v marked char. 441 characteristic of herring, a Landseer w/o genius. Doing Nothing 184 quiet by Jeell, no great mechanical merit, pleasing sentiment, novel direction. White Slave 343 Hinsdale has great pathos, Hood’s Song of the Shirt made palpable. Williamson’s Revolutionary Airs 200 also homely but natural pathos, diff betw it and Edmond’s Speculator 230 is former concentrates on figs and sentiment, while latter excites admiration for ingenious detail of rude farmhouse, figs superfluous. E Terry’s Down Hill 203 great spirit, Cattlepiece 221 decided interest, contrast of chafing bull and tranq of cows beyond. Casilear’s Lscape Comp 210 great accuracy and care, monotonous and timid.

            4th rm sculp/engrav, notices Hubert, Colyer, 410 by Brown vigorous watercolor, notices Shaw, Palmer for beaut bust of last year, 271 and 286 port busts both admirable, extreme grace of sentiment, sincere feeling, mech facility; Rogers’ Night thought to be Greenough’s and attracted attn., deserves it still, don’t underst expr of pain.

June 12, 1852 p. 5 The Fine Arts: Reviewers Reviewed. We recently crit Durand’s God’s Judg upon Gog, didn’t suppose our opinion wld be shared by all, ready with open mind whatever others might say in its favor, for diff of opinion in art fair and impersonal, ok. Eve Post and “An Artist” in Home Journal poured out animadversion upon us, but not set forth pict’s greatness, which is inadeq to highest requirements. Our critique is denounced as slaver (?), sophistical and degraded, showing other than the best motives, impeaching divine revelation, willfully misrepre Scripture, ? or worse, uncourteous and offensive, an outrage-coming fr under cover, personal hate and spite in disguise, revealing a little hell in the critic’s mind, vinegar of such acrid proof, etc.

            But no word of picture’s merits, except that it fulfills its office as well as a picture can. The first article of the Post assumed to consider the principles of our crit but its personal acerbity prevented the writer fr comprehending them; Post refrained fr attacking those principles until the picts of a certain artist were crit, and has heretofore never really entered the lists until same artist was subj of remark, inevitable suspicion that its articles written fr feeling for an artist rather than regard for Art, beaut friendship, but not weighty crit. Dignity of art is lowered by flippant and personal tirades.

            Home Journal begins by quoting our crit, which identifies Durand as a quiet, pastoral poet, soothing not inspiring, pleasing not surprising, careful student and imitator of placid aspect of nature, confirmed fr year to year. As with Bryant in poetry, consistent, no progress. Disapproves of Trib’s anonymity, but responds that personality of the critic is nothing, principles are never anonymous. Home J continues that this damning with faint praise is ok for hero of the hour, mtd upon vogue, blinded public, debasing genl taste by clap trap or filling pockets by hurried abuse of certain  popular elements of effect, excusable.

            Trib responds it’s a compliment to compare work to highest ideal standard, to Michael angelo or Shakespeare, Milton. Home J says shld be silent for failures of able man, only one socially froised (?) or overshadowed who lets off a petard of this kidn under the seat where the approved have been placed by opinion.

            Trib responds repect for great men, and that prevents our wishing very able men to sit in seat of greatness; distinction can claim no immunity fr truthful, frank and manly crit. Post must admit defective ideas or absence of ideas under head of “false principles.” Critic must speak of work based on a wrong idea, no matter how excellent the details. Our canons of criticism differ.

            Home J also accuses him of not judging Durand for what it is intrinsically, but lugging in Raffaelle and Kaulbach, as a cotemporary of Teniers might laud him by setting forth the greatness of styles he never attempted. Such talk about the grand style is a bullet, a grudge agst Teniers, not love of ptg. Trib defends that every instance in art of treatment of same subj is standard for measurement. For a new subject, an involuntary standard is erected in thoughtful mind for judgment. Destruction of Jerusalem: for success, image involuntary suggested to our minds by the subj must be repro’d or deepened, or treatment so orig it is felt as good as our own. So when crit last year Church’s Deluge, perfectly legit to say it was not a fine conception of the scene, and to point out how better. Also, we necessarily refer individ pict to probable treatment of subj by great men in same class, must be of same lofty spirit, as comparison will show.

            Claim that work should be judged intrinsically, not by foreign standards—but what is the intrinsic character of a thing? Nothing at all. No two things alike in the Universe. Intrinsic character of individ specimen matters less to our judgment of goodness than experience and idea it has formed of excellence. Home J means that when looking at Gog, ought not to think of how others might have treated it, nor of manner we think it ought to be treated, including our conception of the scope of the event—must exclude everything, we should omit nature altogether.

June 15 1852 p. 6 Foreign Items notices sculpt Wm Gibson’s various statues being worked on in Rome, his Robt Peel for Westminster Abbey a gd likeness but fig merely immense muscular gladiator wrapped up in a blanket. Refused to do mod costume. His statue of Stephenson for No Western Rwy directors is magnificent, sitting fig so costume peculiarities not so noticeable, exquis bust of Queen, agreeable likeness, for a sitting statue, with alleg figs. 

July 10, 1852, p. 6 The Fine Arts: Pre-Raphaelitism

A competent and judicious observer writes us fr London abt the PreRaph pics in Royal Exhib that attracted so much attn. and agst whom London Times and Dickens wrote pungent satire:

            New school of young men to be treated tenderly, symp and firmly. Saw pics myself, can’t fail to impress any mind with novelty and earnestness, despite disagreeableness in many respects, Millais’ Huguenots and Ophelia haunt one. Force is intensity, deep pathos, drawbacks are their PR peculiarities, a formality fr avoidance of conventionally graceful compos. Not that I value conventions for their own sake, but these have a gd basis. I know intentional to elab accessories etc, fr idea of ptg Nature as she is, but quarrel with it. Hunt is second.Ruskin’s pamphlet does justice. 

July 29 1852 p. 6 Fine Arts Exhib at Paris; produced more than $10,000. 1st prize to Sappho by Pradier, sculpt, not highest class of works of art, nearly 1300 ptgs in catalog, one immense one by Horace Vernet of recent taking of Rome by French, nearly one wall of hall, figs half size of life, but a panorama rather than a historic ptg, no one obj to which all action tends, eye wanders. Supplies a strong central light instead, with group of soldiers among whom is commander of outpost, who are surprised at supper. No want of truth, exactness, much that would have added value to it as mere work of art sacrificed to truth, cold diffuse light precedes sunrise, unpleasant to eye, deep flue fills pic to center then blue uniforms, light of lamp little relieves eye fr impression of so much blue.

            Exec of work magnificent, natl characteristics perfectly preserved, lightening of firearms obtains lights and shadows. No disting person, no officer of hi rank appears, everywhere single hand to hand contests in which rude animal courage rule. Series filled with deeds, no one great action.

            Meissonier 3 sm exquis picts, bravos, man at work, sharpening sword. Angigua, pupil of Delaroche, much admired pic of family of peasants escaping a flood.

Sept 25 1852 p. 4 and 9, Vanderlyn’s obit: if his Columbus failed in vigorous and artistic treatment, may be ascribed to financial difficulty having a depressing influence on his genius. Hope some competent person will resolve difficulties betw him and the city. Notes port of Genl Taylor. P. 7 an account of Gilbert Stuart fr Newark paper, thought highly of his own excellence

            Sept 29, 1852, p. 6, Burr as Vanderlyn’s patron, won over by his precocious ability at illusion, anecdote from “L”. (Lanman?)

Oct 19 1852, p. 6 New Pub: Genius of W Allston—reviews Lectures on him by Wm Ware, intelligent tribute. His success due to highest intellectual culture, as one sees in Bryant’s poetry or Irving’s prose. Genius for color, expression, may have lacked grandeur or vigor or expression, but saw beauty

Oct 26 1852 p.5 Death of Webster, definitely not C&E outpouring—30 years of antislavery not negated by two of compromise with south in false hopes of getting presidential nomination. Not original as an orator.(Charles Lanman was his personal secretary)

Nov 18 1852 p.6 Bruno Bauer is going to devote some of his letters fr Berlin to explaining Comte, who is not part of any clique, but is more aware than most of the French of Germ historical criticism. P. 4 Editorial, owe gratitude to gmen who ran Art Union without compensation other than abuse fr vilest sources such as NY Herald

Nov. 22, 1852, p. 6, Mr. Bryan’s Gall

Many old pics imported, generally trash, sold by crafty pic venders to Am utterly ignorant of Art except the names of its masters, no sentiment but contempt, no lang but condemnation and exposure. Foolish and pernicious bcause create a false taste, prevent purchase of our own artists.

            Old pics of merit serve 3 useful purposes, illus to student immutable principles of Art, record of ruling idea and degree of civilize at time of production, antiquarian gratification. For these need the best, all, and the exceedingly poor.

            Bryan’s coll the best, most genuine and complete seen here (he has restored many of them), must have beneficial result on student, but also furnishes chrono histo of art, shows progress. Will bring back recollections of Euro galleries and their treasures, Remb, Rubens, Teniers Steen, Terburg, Snyders, Ruysdael, Vandyck,Cuyp, Durer, Cranach, Byz, and goes thru Ital school, says gems are by Correggio and Domenichino, will forget noisy confusion of great city and feel only tranquilizing power of relig faith, Spanish, French etc. While all the material occupations of Am activity rush onward, need gallery to keep alive sentiments that serve like a compass to the ship. Also to teach hist of art, open to all classes, not trash in picture shops.

Nov 27 1852 p. 7 “Our School of Design,” letter to editor fr KPP, NY is best place for it yet for want of sufficiently liberal plan, fear will be a failure. Subscription raised on grounds of giving profitable employment to more cultivated class of women, appeal is to benevolence not love of art, but success depends on guiding invention on carved liens of beauty, economical ends will only be attained by producing beaut designs better than imported ones. Not everyone can invent, and even if people can be trained to kaleidoscopic invention thru the Pestalozzian system, won’t necessarily be beaut. Need genl cultivation to bring creative fullness, must have liberal training of mind as well as hand.

            Nor enuf to place fine models of masterpieces before pupils, designing is not imitation, but discovery of principles, which spring fr rlns betw mind and forms of Universe, manifested in delight, felt by ignorant and unscientific, but artist can analyze. Need intellectual philos in teachers, need books of Allston, Mengs, Reynolds, theory of art. Need as a head someone other than respectable young lady who can guide pupils thru Pestalozzian, which applies drwg to machinery, furniture and mechanical forms. Good for elementary school. Head of a school of design need not have originality of genius herself, for originality can’t be taught, but shld have taste, knowl, be an aesthetic critic, such a teacher has refused the position for insufficient salary. Pay more. School will soon support itself. Not related to lady involved. Get means of illus, expensive books, art journals.

Nov 27 1852 p. 3 Circulation of Eve Mirror 960, 120 in First and 2nd wards, 75 in 3rd ward, 160 in 5,6,8,9,16th wards; 55 in 15th ward; 30 in 7,10,11,13, 17th wards, total 440 papers, plus 300 sent to other newspaper offices.

Dec 4 1852, p. 5 “Mr. Thackeray’s Fifth Lecture” –Hogarth characterized as jovial, honest London citizen, who loved roast beef of Old England, had proper contempt for French frogs and mounseers, foreign fiddlers and singers, and above all, for foreign painters, not very refined, but honest and merry, and like John Bull.

Dec 11 1852 p. 5 A Speculation—Columbus Group assoc wants to purchas group of Columbus unveiling new to old world by Prof. Costoli, disting Ital sculp, in DC, seen no model, but litho of design v poor and commonplace affair. No need, group of Persico, also a disting Ital sculp, a deformity to the Capitol already. Impudent speculation. Ought to give commission to Hiram Powers, Crawford Greenough already doing it. 

March 2 1853 p. 7 promotes Washington Gallery in old art union rms as one of best ever, Cozzens involved in the Committee, it’s raising money for NY Gall of FA, has Leutze’s but also best and most pop artists, Durand, Hicks, Elliott, Cropsey, Kensett, Rossiter, Baker

March 5, 1853, p. 6, JCD, Fine Arts: Hart’s Bust of Clay and Pruden’s Copy, publishes Joel T Hart’s explanation that Pruden’s bust is a copy of his, not unique, contradicting an account in the NY Express.

March 25 1853 p. 6 excerpts fr letter of Grace Greenwood to Natl Era what Amer artists in rome are doing, loves Crawford’s Washington monument, triumphs of genius, also praises Story, Richd Greenough, Mozier, Ives, Rodgers, Bartholomew. Page here talking grandly on art, peculiar but profoundly just, ports as a revelation of soul, not unsatisfying shadow, have mysterious element of sentient. Loves him. Terry, Hosmer

April 8, 1853, p. 6 The Fine Arts: The Washington Gallery in the Art Union rms

            Funds go to a permanent gallery of art in the city, Stuart, Hicks female head, Woodville Old Captain a port is forcibly ptd but conventional, schl of Mr Dusseldorf. Page ports might have been prod’d half a millennium ago. Cole’s finest, view of Florence, Empire, Durand, Kensett, Church’s Twilight we sought to do justice to its sublime and solemn genius in 1851. Leutze’s Henry 8 and Anne Boleyn one of his best, fresh and muscular, finely conceived, but doesn’t like Hester Prynne or News fr Lexington, both caricatures. Rothermel’s Pat henry not equal, all confusion. Mount’s pics have genial char but regret lack of artistic culture. Powers’ bust of GW has no value as a port, little as an ideal work, he is great in representation of actual nature, but not higher qual of genius in ideal. Neither of Leutze’s Washington at Dorchester or Young Wash are pleasing, stony, implausible.

            Preeminent feature of the gallery is GW crossing the Delaware, stirring, full of life and electricity, direct hold of its subj, feel blood flow quicker. But pleasure short lived, won’t bear critical exam, not its anachronisms, which are justifiable to heighten genl effect and render it truer to internal char, but faulty conception, characters lack depth, earnestness. Energetic, go ahead fellows, ready for a fight or a frolic, but not heroes. Keen dashing and slashing leader not GW of our reverence, a vigorous embodiment of phys force and spirit, but not his grave, great soul. Equally shallow is char of his companions, Frenchman helping support the flag has sentiment but is a theatrical fig. effect of work depends on its movement, but doesn’t possess elevation. Gross incongruities of drwg typ of Leutze, tho dashed off as alm to deive the eye and make it believe deformity is beauty and ordinary rlns of things a matter of mistake. Meager and melodramatic.

April 22, 1853 p. 6, The Fine Arts, Exhib of NAD

            Fewer in number, as gd in qual, as alw, mass of pics, some 450, entirely below notice save as exhib ptg as an occupation and not in any sense, an art. Remarks on comparatively few that really challenge crit. In dept of fig compos, absolutely nothing. Some few local scenes are worthy of notice, as WS Mount’s little 160, and Tait’s Scene on the Prairie, 430, both conceived with simplicity and truth. Edwin White’s Separation of the Pilgrims, 13, sober modest, deficient in pictque beauty and forcible treatment, too much in genl style of Mr. Duss. 95 Village Pastor by DM Carter well enuf conc’d, but whole wants nature, for this reason, figs wretchedly poor in every particular. Entry of GW into NY, 239, drwg by Darley, spirited conception but faulty, exec with carelessness, disproportion and want of comprehension of nature, fig of W is in stature like his great Euro contemp Napoleon, whereas the two were total opposites in that respect. Face hardly recog as like, distant figs too small, prob their persp rln guessed at not submitted to accurate laws of science. Heads lack nature, extremities thruout slovenly done. Rather in light and dark than light in shade, so spotted, blacks in places where shld be only gray tints. From what we’ve seen of this artist, his forte is in outlines and grotesque illus. 291 Spring Mintrop an elab drwg in arabesque style, scholarly and conventional. 233 wc by Whenert fr Poe, neither inspired nor dictated by his spirit. Freeman’s pic of ital. costumes 26 not worthy of him, incongruous in color, bad in form, wrought with lines as sharp as if worked in sheet tin. Several other attempts at composition, but little or nothing in them to praise.

            Chief attractions are a few ports and lscapes more numerous and beaut than usual. Speak of those give prominence and emphasis. Am ptrs and sculp in Euro have nothing, except Freeman, Huntington and some younger men. Tone of gallery improved if page, Leutze, GL Brown, Crawford, Powers, Hunt and Woodville just sent one ea.

            Pres Fillmore by FB Carpenter, Young Lady L Lang, both full length, former a feeble likeness tho suggests the orig, exec tame and impoverished thruout in demi-tint, so flat, without power. Lang’s is simplest and most pleasing, subj agreeably handsome, connection of right hand with the body a puzzle, monotonous grace tone pervading is disagreeable, lscape in backgrd too much like its neighbor on left, as is true of all the lscapes in his pic. 58 Chas Eastlake best port by him, breadth o flight, quiet tone, gd char of drwg, for NY Gallery, fine acquis to that mythical coll. Elliott a dozen heads, best is 433 if any choice, a visible falling off in excellence of his pics, want unity in color and simplicity of exec he hitherto had, violent exagg in contrast of tints at utter variance with nature, expr seems forced to verge of caricature. GA Baker exhibits numerously, some of his among the best, but want orig of manner, a cross betw Elliott and Huntington, not sufficiently individ and indep. Gray’s some dozen ports are as usual yellow, tame and flat, cabinet pics best as purer in tone than his larger ones, 329 and 334 gd examples. Hicks only 3 heads, but 2 of superior excellence in any exhib, 122 ldy 146 gman. Exec indic great variety and freedom fr mannerism, ea treated power and style adapted to subj, neither resembles the other, man is bold, vigorous, full of masc force, dashing and daring. 122 intense relig elevation, deep inward spirit, piercing severity in eyes, coloring approp sober and harmonious, detail careful and conscientious fidelity, a master-piece.

May 3, 1853 p. 4 , Am A-U Invest

Leg apptd committee, DB Taylor, Champlin (Chamberlain?) and Clapp, met at Astor Hse. Would call on petitioners to proceed with charges: that directors assumed the char of a close corporation, whose members have but a ltd voice, that persons other than members have voted and perpetuated directors. Also charged that they recd salaries when not entitled to do so, and accounts audited in unsatisf manner by interested persons. Have not returned money fr sold prop to members, and in fact made them and a few others only members for 1852

            Joseph Monk, general clerk 97 Broadway for last 4-5 years, corresp secy on down. Says elections railroaded, committee arranged to fill vacancies. Sd Geo W Austin (treasurer) told him voters were to be brought in by MO Roberts manager of a line of steamers, people were there when vote cast who were not members. Says Cozzens got compensation for procuring subscribers among his personal friends, many fr Century Club

May 4 1853 p. 6 Am A-U Invest, day 2.

            Joseph Monk cont’d testimony. Others besides Cozzens and Col Warner (corresp secy) who got compensation were Wm J Hoppen, ed of Bulletin, Wm Allen Butler for contrib to Bulletin, Evert A Duyckinck for publications in his paper Literary World, HJ Raymond of Times for ads, Fred E Coe for traveling to see the distant secretaries. Accuses Austin of spending money on Cahmpagne and charging it to advertising, purchasing in his own name fr Le Roron & Villot a bust of GW for $30 charged to bldg. account, Raymond overpaid. AB Corwin an informant for him.

            Raymond sworn in, recd $132 for ads, also for a shared prospectus another $408, plus postage. Malignant accusations fr Herald and editor of Day-Book.

May 5, 1853, p. 5 The A-U Investig day 3

            Monk is suing managers for overtime/extra services, also house rent, and advances, for more than $5000. Austen treated him with duplicity. Accuses Cozzens of hugging the Committee. Art Union attorney points out that Monk’s former job was with the Seventh Ward Bank, throws an odor around him (me: Tammany politicians dominated, like Isaac Varian, William M Price, anti-Leggett/Equal Rights/Eve Post forces; Wetmore one of them). With him to hear Austin talk abt champagne were DWC Boutelle, Washlager, my son, Redner. Cozzens sd entertainments paid for privately.

May 6 1853 p. 3 Am a-U investing day 4

Only names Cozzens, Warner and Austen as conspiring to reelect comm members. The ptg not delivered to a Canandaigua subscriber was Village Bridge by JM Taughner. Counsel asks witness if pict sent not more valuable than that one? Answer: a matter of opinion. I do think one sent was equal in value, would prefer it to one retained. Kensett ptd the substitute, same title. The subscriber had previously drawn a work he considered contemptible, and this one was more so in opinion of comm, so they ordered another one, costing $111 rather than $20. Clapp and Taylor at odds on how to proceed.

May 7, 1853, p. 6, Am a-u Invest day 5

Monk says members of the Comm purchased imported pics, works of art and foreign productions, as a matter of speculation, fr Williams and Stephens, Broadway, and sent to Boston to be disposed of, and AU met with a loss by the operation. Austen sold own purchases to AU at price above their value. Great deal of partiality shown in purchasing pics in latter years, comm members chosen for influence and standing not their knowl of art. Austen would bring a pic purchased by him and sell it as the work of the artist, check payable to bearer to reimburse himself, thus get pd for an injudicious purpose; bought at Wms & Stephens, also fr SC Bingham of Missouri, put on cat of distrib, and instead of Austen being the patron, AU would foot the bill. JW Glass of London sold many works to Institution, he not being an Am, to exclusion of others having most pop pics in gallery, have been faulted and opposed in efforts to sell the same, great partiality shown to members of the Century Club. Bailed out NAD. Partiality in prices, artists who courted Cozzens or manager and those who denounced got more than mild and modest. As many as 14 pics fr an artist in London, not a naturalized cit or resident artist, meritorious artists receive less because poor and compelled to accept. Wetmore was alw liberal to the artists. Had to get drafts cashed by  members ofComm.

May 10, 1853, p. 7 A-U invest day 6

Also pd an editor, R White. Pics purchased at Wms and Stephens and sent to Boston to be sold were The Tangled Skein and The Gypsies.The small party inside had the management of purchases, Austen instrumental, Beefshooters fr Bingham on a commission for $300, crayon drwg Study of a Head by Niles was afterward run inon the Comm

May 11, 1853 p. 6 Am A-U Invest day 7

Asks for name of meritorious artist who was compelled to take low prices, names DWC Boutelle and others, Thom Doughty, Harting, WE Miller, J Volmering, T Burford, Brueckner? S Evain? JM Culverhouse, Walter Libby, F Heinrich, A Wietz, HJ Brant at that time a member of the Century Club, many more. Boutelle’s Trout Stream $350, Coe told me it was a gd pic. What was its value? Mere matter of opinion, worth $100 more than pd, but may be mistaken, was auctioned rather than distrib. How was he coerced? Coe says Boutelle offered it at a higher price, but Coe thought $350 was all he should have at one time. Volmering complained frequently, offered less than he asked, prices ruinously low, compelled to accept, but not fair in comp to prices pd other artists. Other artists made same complaint. Heinrich complained prices inadequate, could not live. F. Well and Fred Coe shaved $5 off prices offered. Austen bought a crayon study head to P Neills for $30.

May 12, 1853 p. 7 AU Invest, day 8, witness Henck called by Coe to give statement, re favoritism to Glass, when he had quantity of pics to sell sympathies of Comm excited by someone saying he was coming to America or getting married. Boutelle often forced to sell, and at one time when Comm wanted to swell the artist on exhib he was engaged to paint a number with promise they’d be distrib or get a gd price, but was forced to sell them under value.

May 13 1853, p. 4, NA elections to Council, Durand, Cummings, Richards, Stearns, Edmonds, Elliott, Baker.

p. 6 A-U Invest, day 9?. Junius A Smith sworn, secretaries of AU for a number of years, got 7 subscrib in 1851. John H Williams, business 353 Broadway, deal in looking glasses, prints, ptgs and engravings, has sold pics to Institution, maybe two dozen on account of the artist to whom they belonged, but a pic ptd by Flagg we purchased and advertised and sold to AU was Isabel, by Cozzens or Austen. Resident artists, don’t know if naturalized or not, on account of Oddie, Culverhouse mostly moonlight and convivial scenes, Le Grand, Taite and Brent, Burford. Culverhouse is English by birth but grew up in Germany, Le Grand Germ or Swiss, residing here, Taite English but intends to live here, Burford resided her 20 yrs. Reluctant to say how much he paid Flagg, $100, and furnished him with orders for portraits, commission on which was $50, and framed it at $25, then sold it for $175-200. Wms says AU exercised discretion, judg and gd taste in pruchases fr him, resident artists.

            Wellis was sworn as a subscriber in 1851, drew Cattle Reposing, told by Dr Clarke of Seneca Falls it was a good one, but was disappointed and gave him away, not a judge, couldn’t tell diff betw $5 pic and $100.

May 14, 1853 Amer AU Investigation, p. 6, testimony of Culverhouse, an artist who sold pics to AU, he was satisfied, didn’t alw get priced I asked. DWT Boutelle compelled to take a lower price only bcause couldn’t sell any place else. I have felt hard toward them at times, bcause didn’t advance prices to me according as I advanced in style of works I furnished. Complained of treatment to Mr Cozzens, thought Comm prejudiced agst me. Cozzens pointed out any defects and improvements in his pics. Monk told me re Trout Stream that Cox (Coe? Cozzens?)  sd $350 was too much to pay for it. JB Sterne heard complaints abt partiality. Know JW Glass, know not Am by birth, resides in London, AAU purchased many of my pics.

            Monk is one who claims Austen speculated with AAU funds. Did Austen sell private pics to AU? Wetmore says knew Austen had ordered a pic fr Bingham, Best Shooters, and allowed the AU Comm to take it, thought it a gd decision for Bingham’s pics alw popular.

            Canandagua pic? Prosperity of AU depended on opinion in large districts with many subscribers, Comm looked to results of drwgs, alw anxious at least one gd pic shld reach Canandaigua, by drwg of 1848 subscribers there dissatisfied, Secy wrote this. Very near end of 1849, no more mod value pics, 2 ptgs offered by unknown artist, Comm alw anxious to expand to new artist, pics were not deemed works of superior merit but purchased, mores careful exam showed quite inferior, but in hurry little was said and they were distrib, one awarded to subscriber in Canandaigua. I, Wetmore, advised and take all blame, that pic shld be suppressed and swapped with another, didn’t know him personally, ordered a pic to be ptd by Kensett instead, one of most promising in country.

            With respect to Willis pic, did not state he acted imprudently, pic by Hinckley in possession of Warner, never belonged to AU. 

May 16, 1853, p. 3 Am A-U Invest

Austen sworn in. Chair of Comm explains he didn’t know Monk, Monk asked him to present petition to Legislature and he did so because it bore names of persons I knew. Commissioned Bingham for Shooting for the Beef for $350, Art Union Committee wanted it, Bingham sold it to them and I rec’d my commission, AU agrd to pay for it when they got in funds, but Bingham wanting money advance it to him. Neills was distressed, told Monk to give him money and I would be respons if AU didn’t purchase drwg, which they did without knowing he’d made an advance on it, Monk a defaulter to the Institution.

May 16, 1853 Popular Amusements p. 4 condemns dance, theater, cards, sedentary amusements as immoral and unhealthy, need more ballparks, galleries, at low rates, real cheapness of works of Art, consume nothing, never have colds, never strike for higher wages, wealthy citizens shld spend on Fine Arts as much as they do on that expensive lux, the Ital Opera, but he likes cosmoramas, dioramas, et al tho don’t belong to highest walks of Art, instructive to all, living artists who paint better than Banvard, yet no masterpiece brings Jerusalem et al so vividly to mind. Notices Frankenstein’s Niagara too, remarkable artistic power

            -also says AU Investigation drags heavily and uninterestingly along.

May 17 1853 AAU invest, evening, p. 5, Tenth day.

            David Austen Jr auctioneer of pics in 1852, John H Austen managed sale, no commissions charged, usually ? percent for pics. Cozzens and WH Appleton advanced money or carried debt for the institution. Money pd to Hoppin was for editing Bulletin, not for serving on Committee, Duyck rec’d money for ads in his paper.

            Austin pd money to Cozzens for articles re the Art Union by RG White to be pub in diff newspapers. Cozzens as an ordinary member of the NAD was called in to a mtg re how to pay NAD debt, agreed on a raffle, Cozzens didn’t like it and sd AU wld buy their pics at prices Pres of Acad judged, purchased for $2000 and sold in December for $2350.

            Eleventh day: R. Grant White, ed at Courier and Enquirer since spring 1851 when Raymond left, not connected with it fr spring 1848 to 1851 in any way, and my previous connection was as critic, not as an editor. On Oct 1 1849 recd $100 fr AU on account of some articles setting forth objects and advantages of the institution, on 6 Sept 1850, recd $50 for same services, don’t know in what papers they were published, one in National Intelligencer, one in The Express of this city, and Boston Courier, some in shape of communications and one adopted as an editorial, often wrote small articles or paragraphs connected with affairs of AU at suggestion of Cozzens and sent to committee rms and never asked or recd payment for them.

            Nathaniel Jarvis Jr, recording secy since 1847. EB Corwin says recd note to come to annual meeting of members, assumed every member got such a note, previous annual meetings published in papers. Fred Coe denies any such conversation about the Trout Stream took place. Payments were for his services as a lawyer, not compensation as a Manager.

            James R Whiting, was counsel for Seventh Ward Bank, where Monk worked, called to prove Monk was not truthful. Cozzens says Glass is Am, student of Huntington.

May 19 1853 p. 5 DC: Colossal Statue of GW, effort to expend more than the $50,000, Pierce won’t do it

May 27, 1853, p. 4 Fine Arts—Brown’s statue of De Witt Clinton. Constantly surrounded by a crowd in front of city hall, a novelty, colossal statue in bronze or marble not erected before, too bad we don’t have more, approp for republican people. Only one we have is awkward and absurdly praised creation of Clark Mills of Jackson at Wash.

            Clinton hero and benefactor of NY, comprehensive mind and commanding port. Brown’s work by no means satisfactory. Gd pts no doubt—head animated, expressive, well wrought, drapery over arm carefully and gracefully arranged, but as a whole v commonplace. No inspiration, no electricity, betrays uncertainty and inadequacy. Never modeled a colossal, couldn’t observe at sufficient distance, not slightest trace of genius, large imag, or mastery, imposing only fr magnitude, multitude can’t tell if it has merit or not. Shld compare to statue of Jefferson by David d’Angers of Jefferson in Gov Rm City Hall, best statue in country, nothing commonplace or oppressing the artist in it, just simplicity, life and power.

            Gravest faults not poverty of conception. Observe legs, doesn’t rest on either or both but dubious straddle, awkward, extensive splays for feet, right hand also too large, ungraceful exposed right arm hangs awkwardly, doesn’t belong to body, nor does head, drapery badly managed as wadded diagonal folds around abdomen. Obj to relieve inelegant modern costume, but not gained by taut hauled crosswise ribs, uglier than attire. Back better as cloak hangs unconstrainedly if not altogether agreeable.

            Brown no tyro. Utterly inferior to other modern artists. Pedestal bas-reliefs are where he’s at home, accordingly simple, pleasing and correct, tho not v orig or poetic. Statue designed for Greenwood, $15,000. Recommend an open spot.

June 9, 1853, p. 4, Art Union Investigation—Report of Leg Comm, by Qui Vive, special corresp, on charges in the petition sent to the Leg. Denounced how managers are annually elected, and manner in which agent paid bills, Managers recd consid sums of money for services in capacities other than Managers. In 1851, $60,000 rec’d fr 13,600 subscribers, $41,000 spent on pics, which were sold with real estate in 1852 to pay off liabilities. Comm attrib failure ofAU to false basis on which it was estab, viz approp 5% annually fr entire receipts for a Building Fund, while a membership is gd for just one year, hence the injustice and great opp after accumulation of real property to an unjust division of property among a small number of persons

June 11, 1853, p. 7 The A-U Report of Leg Comm of Inquiry, in full. June 21, 1853, p. 4 Aesop fr Albany reports that Cozzens et al want the testimony published so Monk’s contradictions can be shown, and disagree with conclusions re elections and building fund; and on June 24, 1853, p.3, they print the A-U’s memorial to the Assembly

July 2, 1853 p. 6 The Fine Arts, The Exhib of the NAD.

Almost closing, waited to publish remarks on lscape, so general average of praise and blame struck by public already. Desire not to crit partic works as instruct public and artists, and when comment on pop native ptrs is mostly censure, prefer to postpone til severity of genl judg prepares way.

            Diff depts. of ptg develop human emotional and mental char, determine relative worth. Science increases aggregate of knowl, and closer ptg does this, more deserving of intell rank w/exact sciences. Work of art’s noble conception and compos sets forth clearly great facts, Kaulbach, Delaroche, Vernet rank with Harvey, Newton etc. As man more complex than tree, representation of human life higher and more valuable, soul expressed in passions, and passions and soul direct steps of mankind, render face beaut or repelling. Lists incidents of heroism.

            Genl nature also interest, sunset brings peace, others excite mind to meditation, tho too often terminate in unmanly and useless sentimentality. All nature affords proper themes for landscape, but must be stimulant to mind rather than opiate to the sense. Intellectual artists don’t do it, or when lscape ptrs are of strong minds and daring genius, their great works show terrific power and motion of elements threatening destruction, or overwhelming man, or displaying the infinite. Lscapes of fig ptrs have bold vigor pure lscapists lack.

            Yet if man of strong mind, loves nature in all varieties, will make noble works. Turner indep of former practices, existing opinions, orig subjects, courage of exec stamped his genius, power and fearlessness. Need this in our school, but since death of Cole scarcely any evidence ofmind. Durand’s trees, tho studied fr nature, are mannered and ?, Kensett’s foliage not individualized, Cropsey’s designs have more character and vigor, but flat and weak pics.

            Inexcusable defects. Durand’s chief work, 31, designed to show progress of improvements, canal, rrd, telegraph, Indians look with wonder, subj well chosen, but meager and flat in treatment, not thought out, facts observed but only considered, timid manner of one who lacks confidence. 429 by same artist, storm hovering well conceived, but seems a miniature, no grandeur, but forgive this feebleness, acquired manner when vigor of nature less well understood. But younger men, Kensett 49, like all his former works, barren of invention, power of thought, a dreamy, sunny, hazy, lazy sentiment that gratify these dispositions in all, gd dgree of success in exec but too speckled thruout. One rock may be covered with lichens and mosses, but no reason why all rocks shld be. But all his rocks are speckled, brownish and gray, at Niagara or White Mtns. Only studies nature just before or after noon, on cloudless days. This work a study magnified beyond all reason, dwarfed trees and deer look lost amid cyclopean remains of antediluvian world. Should give variety of natural effects.

            One of best is Gignoux’s Winter Scene 41, less diff than in summer, but clear, cold and wintry, rosy tinge to snow truthful and tender. More French than Am, hasn’t influ our artists.

            Cropsey’s principal work is Niagara Falls, v near a fine pic, but choice of subj is radical want of judg, can’t show downward movement and roar. Has done much finer. For last year or two, no improvement, pics want nature in every respect, shld cease slavish imit of Cole, and paint fr orig observation. Has a fine fancy and felicitous touch, needs to follow broad and general char of nature.

            Pic gd conceit Inness, 37, but deficiency of space, and more look of Calame or Ferogio than nature. Idea of wind’s movement gd, and shows some activity of mind. Alw deep modest sentiment of tone, but no love of nature or respect for individuality of form, relies entirely on some ill founded notion of effects in his own brain.

            Little pic by Casilear 145 sunny exquis manip, less like Durand and Kensett than usual, too much pervaded by yellow tone.

            Church more intell observation than any other, but too much too careless this year, clouds at sunset (81?) not equal to ones in Washington Exhib, but has studied clouds. Something penurious in trees and impoverished in his vegetation, earth sterile, excess of small execution and detail with dirty dingy color til comes to sky, grapples with all times of day. Though a pupil of Cole, has not a taint of his manner.     

            Others don’t deserve reference, little but fault to find, pop taste has been educ beyond such works.

July 16, 1853 p. 5 The Exhib at the Crystal Palace: 1 Sculpture: no sphere of art in which the public is so extremely humbugged as in sculpture, which brings before us forms without color, a thing unknown to nature, only outlines and surfaces, abstracting them from mass of qualities the common eye beholds, consequently the common eye is unable to judge of its excellence, as a blind man the correctness of a model of the Parthenon. Not observed nature in that aspect, so can’t tell whether it’s faithful and artistic. Only know carved by illustrious Mr Thing, or famous Baron Thung, so go into raptures, and are dead humbugged.

            If stand near Baron Marochetti’s equestrian statue of GW in place of honor under dome, it is bad unqualifiedly and entirely, beneath mediocrity, yet seems to be a source of pleasure to many humbugged people. Same horse for Richard Lionheart in London so much admired a movement to erect it in Hyde Park, which will fall thru under vigorous opposition of London press. As deluded in England. We never saw that statue, but pronounce it intolerable. No group with that horse could be worthy of any crit except to explode its pretensions, ungainly, wooden, lifeless and ill-proportioned animal, action impossible in a real horse (fore foot lifted to paw ground with violence, raised hind foot in a gentle trot). Colossal abortion nothing to figure astride it—attitudes that assumed by a bag of meal. Body short and squat, legs long, head out of proportion with either. Face has not elast resemblance, looks more like Franklin than anyone, tho hate to believe it a likeness of any. Head bare and right hand holding hat on thigh is twisted in manner that suggests palsy or other preternatural flexibility of the muscles. Palm turned outward, fingers out of proportion. No pt worthy to be admired or tolerated, his Euro rep must be among a v ltd circle.

            What of image called Webster by Carow, an Engl sculptor, name heard but works never seen. A disgrace to its maker, outrage on memory. GW a genuine work of art compared with Webster. Not a wood carver in town who cuts figure heads for ships who wouldn’t lose all his customers, head deformed, forehead bulges with hydrocephalus, features feeble and expressionless, body arms legs draperies pose action all not only without merit but beneath contempt. Pity included in exhib.

            Amazon by Kiss undeniable ability, orig in Berlin and medal for best in London, she isunder attack by tiger, face movement indicate courage superior to his ferocity. Beaut woman, vigor and grace, wounded horse, bold heart and firm hand, all powerfully appeal to feelings of beholder. Contrast this living horse with deformed by Marochetti, great merit in execution. Far superior to mediocrity in mass of recent sculpture. Power, knowl, sense, but not faultless. Compos defect, directly in front, can’t form idea, tiger unrecognizable and hides Amazon. Interesting and pleasing work, not first rate.

            Muller’s Minstrel’s Curse, Germ trained in best schools, come to estab himself, severe and vigorous chisel, elegance and beauty. Caught spirit of beaut ballad, father dignity and strength, just rage, boy fainting in languor of death touching grace, not on pedestal seen to best advantage.

            HK Brown bronze fig, designed for a monument, essentially same as last year’s Angel of Resurrection or family likeness, tho this one has no wings. Female, draped to feet, little meaning and no beauty. Big feet. Draperies v commonplace and insignificant.

            Great attraction is Thorwaldsen’s colossal Christ and apostles, designed for a church, need architecture, scale off here as they are crowded together, but all betray hand of master. Has superiors in some respects (Houdon’s and Powers’ in realism?), but broad powerful erudite, artistically rich and graceful draperies. Compare to Browne’s draperies. Conventional expression.

            Considerable Ital statues, in marble, uniformly v poor, one pleasing of a child threading a needle, intent expression prominent among dreary blankness of neighbors.

            Large marble and bronze yield palm to animals and birds in French bronze, heron by Comolera couldn’t be improved in vivid truth to nature or details of execution, partridges, wolves by Delabrierre, tho less pretension, remarkable for beauty and artistic finish, small and comparatively easy subjects much excellence reached, while nobler horse and man rearely modeled with truth and life. Not so in palmy days of Parthenon, when artist gained in power as his subject rose.

            Equestrian Jackson by Clark Mills exhib nearby, crowds attracted, excessively and ignorantly praised, monument of absurdity of doing what you don’t understand. Lauded on 2 pts, made by young self taught, and unpropped on hind legs.both ridiculous. Genius of Michae angelo can’t as tyro do gd equestrian statue, requires learning and discipline, man can’t forge a horseshoe til he has gone thru an apprenticeship yet expected that work infinitely more diff needs no instruction/ Nonsense merited endorsement of last Congress with premium $20,000. But rearing horse with no prop is mechanical not artistic point, could be gained by any former artist who has enough ignorance, or want of conscience. No difficulty whatever in it if adopt manner of Mills, secret consists in substituting for legs of a horse those of a gigantic ox or moderately sized elephant.

            Disproportion of horse’s hind legs is excessive, fr rear or front a deformity that would be glaring if any contrasting beauty in the work. Rider does its part, a stiff, awkward, graceless and undignified fig, nothing less pleasing than angular, elbow-crooked sort of way right hand holds military hat. Can’t go over in detail, doesn’t need such crit, speaks for itself as work of a novice, not a work of art, no artistic features. Ingenious for a young man, but unfit for Congress to pay for. But not so poor as Marochetti’s GW.

            National misfortune for an Am to produce such a work beneath crit, personal misfortune for it to be grossly and falsely praised, delusion an’t last. Earnestly counsel Mills to doubt his own powers. Begin arduous work of an Artist.

Sept 16 1853, p. 6 “France: American Art” by WEJ, the Trib corresp. European critics repeat that we excel in invention of practical machinery, so our attempts toward perfection in the fine arts must be miserable failures. Lengthy review of NY Exposition by editor Duplan, Anglo Americans manufacture enormous quantity of pianos, yet few great musicians; Germans and negroes are fundamental resource of US music. They have some sculptors and ptrs, whom they much admire, believe almost arrived at era of artistic devt, an illus of patriotism. Am ptrs succeed in lscapes, but far behind artistic and academic schools of Europe, same with sculptors. Art Union sustains the artists without creating a great national art, lacks the element of museums, collections, living traditions of genius consecrated by centuries.

            Corresp says we write so much poetry, so fond of music, buy and put into our houses an immense number of pictures, good or bad, native or foreign, our books filled with engravings, illus sheets, steamboats churches and public houses elegantly decorated, we have the taste for the fine arts.That the palaces of Euro are vast museums of art simply proves kings have money, not more taste or genius. French music has been called into being by royal grants and privileges, patented opera houses, conservatories, professors and singers all paid out of public treasury and taxes, while in US it is done unaided by private enterprise. Know that competition, friction of mind agst mind, that moves on human progress toward perfection, every man has desire to excel, Europe’s crowded fields and competition give her artistic rep, and state support.

            What on the contrary in Young America? Scattered population, absence of collections/models. Inventive genius inseparable fr fine as well as practical arts.

            At this moment in Paris a ptg exec by young Am artist a peculiar source of pride to all Ams who have seen it, bcause created enthusiasm rare among French critics. Powell’s work for vacant panel in rotunda at DC, victorious in gauntlet of Fr crit, commendation rarely bestowed, call it best work for many yrs by any foreign artist in Paris. Crowds of persons of distinction in fine arts daily visit his atelier, English and Fr nobility. Genuine historical ptg, Julien disting litho offered 500 francs to litho, same price he gave to Vernet for La Smala, has also litho the head of the artist, while Etex, sculp of the bas-relief on Triumphal Arch and great celeb, takes artist’s head in marble. Favorable notices in the journals, Revue des Beaux Arts too, even Duplan astonished at its perfections. French crit is severest and justest today.

p. 7 City Items: Works of Art, Chas Muller bust of Shakespere and Clay, talent as sculptor mentioned before, full of spirit, beaut exec, also a statuette of a fireman in counting rm of Trib, stalwart and manly fig, NY, trumpet in right hand, leaning on pillar, conception v happy, fig excellent proportion, face full of char

Oct. 10, 1853, p. 7 City Items: Powell’s De Soto removed fr AU rms to NAD, because of a diff betw artist and managers of AU, can be viewed to better advantage, judgment of Albion an excellent authority, will induce public. Have recd fr Powell details of why left AU, conduct of active managers shown in unfavorable light, but seems personal rather than public interest.

December 10, 1853, p. 6 The Fine Arts: Powell’s Discovery of the Mississippi

            Pretensions, govt commission, v hi range of art, gained approvalof disting masters in France, corresp friendly to artist pubd in Trib sd pic was of best order, severe standard.

            Attempt made to bully critics who obj to pic, by saying Comm of Cong approved subj, but doesn’t matter, q is whether it’s a signif interesting and pictque subj in hist of country.Some incidents have dramatic interest of their own, personages act fr elevated feeling and for a great end, GW cross Delaware, Pilgrims, Penn’s treaty. Successful depiction requires genius, must reproduce inward feeling and dramatic power of scene, to this class Powell’s clearly does not belong. Discovery of a river and that is all, wonder at bigness of stream, no moral interest, no grand heroic purpose in its characters, no momentous consequence, utterly wanting in the best elements of pictorial effect and those intellectual features render it attractive, an inferior subj, can only be raised fr mediocrity by conception, arrang and exec of parts.

            Evil genius governs this too, overlooked the really pictque and intell imp features to seek a lower and poorer sort, an artificial and meretricious method instead of true and natural one. Could have done something with a band of brawny and reckless adventurers approaching an obstacle, fierce expressions of human character, but simple, natural and manly neglected to convert it into a fantastic sort of holiday procession, embroidered doublets, snowy plumes and velvet surcoats, as fresh and fine as tho piratical gold seekers dandies. Inferior subj degraded by weak and frivolous treatment, not hold artist to literal exact fidelity, may depart fr precise verity to heighten genl effect and bring out spirit and meaning of scene, but this departure has opposite result.

            Excellence in compos and perfection in exec allow it rank? Grouping of figs commonplace. Conception of indiv char generally barren, unmeaning, feebly exec, De Soto a most insignif personage, blankly looking, no suggestion of heroism or power. Indians have nothing aborig but complexion, while women who cower away are simply Parisian models, unmistakably French in face and person, with a reddish painty skin and v poor specimens. Nor would women be so prominent at a meeting, Indians took care to keep them out of the way.

            Foregrd portions ptd with free and vigorous hand, still life such as cannon, chest, and small arms really well done, best of all is head of wounded soldier, finely ptd in true historic style forms striking contrast with rest, tho drwg of fig is grossly faulty. Half nude fellow at work deficient in anatom, cannon has no business in the pic,De soto not a well formed man, horse badly drwn with neck abt as long as body. Tolerable success and great labor on armor and dress, coloring weak but harmonious, gradation and note not unpleasing if not great, pict a failure given its intentions.

            Also notes JC McRae’s engrav of HW Beecher after thom Hicks port, characteristic pose of address, likeness full of character, eng fine specimen tone singularly harmonious.

Feb 22 1854 p. 3, Lit and Art in England, fr our own Corresp, Truth will reveal herself to devout worshippers, preRaph are illus, get at the truth, and make their meaning plain. John Millais ptg a pict to take the teeth out of The Times’s critic, traveled with Ruskin in Highlands last autumn and scene in Tresachs with port of Rusk looking on a rainbow nr a waterfall, to be his finest work, sd to be marvelous, with luminous depth of color of his Hugenot. He paints like one who “stipples” in his colors for immortality. Will become greatest painter of our era, at 21 already greatest genius in RA, next to him, Holman Hunt doing a scripture subj. There will be a compromise betw critics and preRaph at next exhib.

Feb 23 1854 p. 4 Art Intelligence: encourage NAD to have exhib this year, realized fortune fr sale of old property, won’t look good to neglect public function; David Leavitt of Brooklyn ordered Wash at Monmouth fr Leutze, $10,000, gets gd reviews in Germ, powerful individuality of GW domineering whole scene; Crawford casting Jefferson statue for VA

Feb 25 1854, p. 5 Sketches of Lectures, Gold and Gilt in Young America, Geo W Curtis to Mercantile Lib Assoc: pic by Turner of Gothard Pass, neither form nor outline, a brilliant suffusion only, bloom of color penetrates brain, rosy realm of fancy belongs to youth, audacity carries the day, their faith makes children so audacious, splendid secret of youth, cries What is history to me. The spirit we see in Young America is merely an old acquaintance in new guise, though has no single representative as Alcibiades, diff spirits of youth here represented by diff classes, but if among us instantly got into Congress, outstripped YA in smallness of boots and largeness of sleeves. What is pop called “YA” is a spirit appearing chiefly in politics and society, radical in one conservative on the other, reads Burke on French Rev and seeing flood of immig, fears their assimilation. In Bowery takes form of b’hoy, in Broadway dances by night and lolls at hotel windows by day, believes to be idel is gentlemanly and tipsy manly. Gilt counterfeit desires to be gmanly, idea that to labor is not so. We are all sons of cobblers, money can only effect distinction where applied to tastes; james and john both make money, but James loving art uses his to create an atmosphere unbearable to John. If I as an educ man meet a nobleman, I am likely to be symp, but if meet a man merely rich, inclined to believe no, just seeks false society. For a young Am to be a gman, don’t be a faded caricature of a dissipated nobleman, employ your means nobly

March 14, 1854, p. 6 Art In Washington by a Germ traveler and pub in Das Auslant in Stuttgart, devotes much space to sketches on America, transl here. Praises classical architecture, but all the works one sees pervaded by proud feeling “we are the freemen of America” but artistic value only to those not by Americans, some misshapen goblin mounts native Am back and drives purest taste out, makes work laughable, spoils harmony, Greenough’s Domestic Jupiter, seen fr a distance ok, but closer seems to have just come out of the bath. Persico’s Columbus is in a rope dancer’s posture, Indian woman looks wretchedly.

March 17, 1854, p. 7, City Items: Thomas D Jones, sculptor of this City, alleg group for Wash monument fr Welsh inhab of NY, half life size, finely modeled dog etc, describes it, invited to his rooms 300 Broadway.

March 25, 1854 p. 6. Italy:Am Artists and Tourists. EWN, corresp for Trib. Visited studios in Florence, hardly need speak of Powers, alw busy with busts, sent Il Penseroso to Lenox of NYC which might add to a smaller rep. Sculptor of less note but scarcely less merit is Hart of KY, designs labor saving machines, many artists and critics like Ruskin think illegitimate, see no beauty in machine wrought, or good fr evading sweat. But improvements that increase accuracy and nicety, reduce costs, commended by this progressive age, machines can’t perform labor of brain, but are facilities for more perfect embodiment of artist’s idea, relieve labor to enable more thought and feeling, aids to progress. Only old fogies will use old method. Now at work on ideal female head full of expr and sweetness, Virginia. Jackson, sculp fr Boston, much promise.

            Of ptrs, Edwin White prominent, among Am artists generally. Burial of De Soto and Last Mtg of Pilgrims in Holland decided impression on art lovers at last two acad exhib, doing another pilgrim pic of signing of famous compact on Mayflower. Design and studies promises even finer, other pics in prog illus of pt of interest in Am Hist. earnest, industrious, true artist, love of art, feels its responsibilities, desires to dignify hist of country.

            Poet Ptr, Read, divides time, v delightful pics I nstudio, poetical in conception, graceful in form grouping, brilliant yet harmonious in color, deserve their popularity, but poetry better, eminently Am, full of charming sketches of scenery and character. Admired in England.

            Robertson fr Wash pursuing studies. Tait, young artist fr Cinti, begins as a landscapist, with his poetical temperament, enthusiasm, love of beauty, needs only careful study and practice.

            Few Engl artists, Dobson with pre Raph tendency, exceedingly elab and carefully studied pics, Stanton exquis penciling, delicate, spirit in design, good illus for lit.

            Ital ptrs mostly copying, art a trade, pict dealers pocket lion’s share of profits, not often copied directly fr originals. Only few attempt originality, and with poor success. Bazzoli regarded as best ptr, large and v beaut pict of Even on exhib in his studio, but a gaudy, trashy, vulgar Eve, bad in sentiment, color, drwg, no real merit of any kind, yet plenty of admirers. Marco has more merit.

            Countrymen buy art, or give commissions with discrim, taste, liberality, patriotism, but most just want caricatures or diminished copies or doubtful originals of the old masters or multitude of unheard of artists of the past, relics of the past, done by foreign artists like they want their furniture and dress to be. Couriers profit fr recommended painters/dealers. Madonnas, martyrs, saints and embodied superstition of all kinds cover walls of our houses that ought to be adorned with works of our own time, breathing spirit and genius of present, or looking onward to the future. Hard to convince such persons that better pics can be bought at home than in Italy, one lscape of Durand, or Cropsey, or Kensett worth all copies of Salvator or Claude in Florence or Rome, one gd illus of Am hist fr White or Leutze more prized than doz copies of saints fr Guido or madonnas fr Raphael. Must suffer inundation of bad copies, our Art will languish for want of support, but hope a better time coming, and influ of past, its superstitions, its worn out systems of govt and relig, and its Art which is their offspring, will cease to control our new world. Vassalage to taste superstitions of Old World, ought to declare our indep therefrom. 

March 30, 1854, p. 6 The Fine Arts, NAD

            29th, number of pics not so great as usu, but might have been curtailed more without injury. Why admit so much unmitigated trash, tho it sets off what is gd to better advantage and gives most ignorant opp to crit. As a whole, superior to recent yrs.

            Pic of highest pretensions Huntington’s Gd Samaritan, 38, several figs of life size, most prominent place, sorry to not be able to praise it. Subj utterly hackneyed, wld never attract artist of orig ideas except to treat it diff fr all preceded, Huntington has not done this, nothing new nor striking in his conception of story, or approaches touching simplicity of Word. Trite and commonplace conception might agreeably employ as means of exhib great executive powers and mastery, as a mod piano virtuoso might select familiar theme to show great skill in writing variations and splendor of fingering.But pic without merit even of that sort, as barren and commonplace in artistic erudition. No knowl of muscular movement, sense of strain, ignorance or carelessness in other parts, coloring agreeable in genl hues, but v gross fault of absence of gradation. Man in backgrd in coat of bright and prominent color as those in foregrd, if lower, stood back harmoniously in its place. Similar elementary faults. Seems in many respects borrowed fr Benj West.

            V diff is May’s Cardinal Mazarin taking leave of his Pics 71, surprises beholder with excellence, no previous productions prep for striking achievement, admirably conceived, true historic feeling, exec with knowl and freedom of master. Those who charge schl of Couture with scene-painting, will doubt truth fr disciple May in bold yet accurate drwg, coloring. No work of a higher char for years.

            Glass 3 pics, two usual steel and fuff clad horsemen, 274(?) an interior also ov cavalier times, all alive, forcible, full of movement, merit of positive and vigorous character can’t be denied, tho no great elevation of sentiment or orig of conception or power of enlisting the feelings, alw manly, decided, no tricks and no disguises. Lines bad or gd are clear and strong, tells his story so everybody underst.

            Ehninger conscientious and pleasing compos, certain ideal treatment on common subj, 296, Am Farm Yard, barn and fowls well drwn, negro boy natural and simple, no praise for sky and grd. Most beaut is 20, Dead Page, corner of gallery, killed in duel, youthful grace and beauty, Ital grayhound watching with touching expr of grief and wonder, lovely little pic.

            S Mount but one compos in proper vein, Coming to the Pt, 150, returns to theme of bargaining re horse, sorry not to compliment, but a great falling off. Comic humor of his former works here very very feebly reflected, while lscape, horse, accessories inexpressibly poor, horse a child’s toy, price of so worthless an animal.

            304 Puritan and Monk by Germ Schwartze esp praise, pic of char with great simplicity and earnestness, doctrinal discussion, triumphant air of Puritan, kindly expr of Monk, agreeable, drwg gd, coloring sober rather hard.

            Ports best, characteristic heads finely freely ptd, without conventionality, but perf knowl of resources of art, manly and noble style, equal to Engl Fr Germ. Elliott’s pics better than last year in tone and finish, not so crude and raw in color, less uncertain in outline, hits char of sitter, touch v delicate and pleasing, alw a certain spirit and freedom in heads renders attractive and pop. Only does ports so his natural talent narrowed, belittled, weakened and rendered merely hasty, superficial and careless. Best of ports here is 21, ldy, ptd some time ago, v badly drwn, breadth of body monstrous and unnatural. 357 gman, no arms, coat sleeves with hands at ends, but no bone or muscle. Port of Bryant 299 has not had usual luck in seizing char of subj, head and body on diff planes, some feet fr the other. This class of faults not ignorance or intentional neglect, an eye perverted by specialization.

            Hicks, marked by uncommon variety of subj and treatment, free fr mannerism, employs every style with freedom as it serves purpose in hand, port his aim at far higher level of excellence that catching vivid superficial traits of countenance, paints personality, temperament, essential and perm char, searching intellectual process, profound study, rare wealth of erudition, orig command of principles and means, best have true historic value, as HW Beecher 27. This is hi art, vigorous and faithful likeness of countenance external expr and mind and impulses. Eye can kindle, face can flush, lips launch wit, nervous hand thrill with generous sentiment. Here is man as we have seen and heard him in public, ptd clear delic outlines faultless truth unconventional and free handling thruout.

            Less pleasing but alm as successful is Bishop Wainwright 43 (successor to Onderdonk, much liked by C&E), performing offices, serious and severe, paternal dignity, genial kindness. Full length of Geo T Trimble, Quaker gman well known here for pub school syst, exceeding reality, without sacrificing feeling that it is a work of art not a stereoscope or colored statue, lifelikeness legitimately vigorously produced, severe truth to natural forms, tender feeling for color. Simplicity, dignity, delicious hues, benevolence, head more winning or morally impressive, treatment in accord. Most remarkable in exhib. Orig, audacity of method, versus conventional mode fr old painters, curved and graceful liens in palatial halls, still blindly followed as in Shegogue’s port of Col burnett 5, but Hicks is faithful to facts as they are, not a pic of middle ages but living history of our time. Absurd to employ palace, tapestries, architectural dec for founder of public schools. Courage in full length to resist idealize and disguise accessories proper for this pic, difficulties of truth conquered, backgrd full of straight lines and angles, bare and unadorned. Audacity but appears true to nature, more truly ideal than what wld be pronounced more so by ignorant and thoughtless, more intellect in it.

            Others of Hicks 11 port, 142 154 port of John C Calhoun, 266 Study of Trees, worthy. Geo Baker pleasing Group of children 13, deserves pop. E Terry animals 53 119 167, genuine feeling, Alanson Fisher port of Mrs Beecher Stowe v faithful likeness, lacks force and decision. Gray 5 pics, best is 347 of 2 kids, mannerism degenerates fr year to year, abyss betw him and nature widens. Originals of heads great variety of temperament and complexion, but here alike hard, yellow, void. Next to ignorance and incompetence, nothing more fatal than a false manner, inflexible. Gray long since bade adieu to nature to give appearance of old pics, led to result, pitch his theory of uniform yellow tone to dogs to retrieve genuine power.

            308 Student Frank Howland, simple, true, delicious tone. AH Wenzler 172 miniature v beaut. 181 Ulke water color, German, full of char. Hays elab pic 225 Terrier and Game, too crowded, too black, seen better fr him. Tait paints birds with v great fidelity and beauty, 218 Duck Shooting, lscape not as excellent.

            One pic such an utter deformity and sense of moral evil, duty to condemn it and hanging comm, 382 (?),Port of an Infant, LM Spencer. Impossible to believe nature ever produced so monstrous a little creature, flesh hanging in bunches as if loosened fr frame by beating, face and person so discolored and distorted. In old pics little fiends not unlike this port, not fit to be seen, shld have been excluded.

April 22, 1854, p. 6 The Fine Arts, Exhib of NA, 2nd article

Lscapes show marked improve, but not among older artists. 4 classes.

            1st category, generous yet close observ of nature, Cropsey, Kensett, Gifford Coleman Hart, 380 383 Gifford, cleverness, real prog in tone exec, monotonous color. 103 hart touch crips, local color, pervading yellow disagreeable untrue, nature never seem mellowed into vagueness with a solution of gamboge. 58 Storm coming on free fr this objection, proves can paint clearly and distinctly, breezy effect, more natural than 103. Coleman 75 same yellow hue is ruin of work, thruout exquis sentim feeling for nature, youth, hope sunshine, but atmosph lungs could not breathe, needs invig oxygen to clear it up, then stroll would quiet most perturbed. Kensett does not equal himself, vaguer in form, grayer in color, same want of unity and propensity to drag colors over ea other, gives mossy speckled char to everything not its own texture. Studies of rocks finest, sentim and truth in distances, gentle, quiet and tremulous, great favorites with many.

            35 Coast of Genoa, Cropsey, finest outdoor ptg on walls, perhaps since Cole, alm only one that in some degree does not resemble that artist, but breathes pure air of coast, bold conception, manly and artistic treatment, no dark shadows or green trees, miles in the distance, indolent monk in convent before dim pict or rude carving, military procession triumphant over it, fishermen. True intellectual sagacity, actual nature in pictque variety, relig and industry overlooked by parade of milit power. As to manip, confess know little, a work of art good when obj fairly represented, but outdoor scene requires atmosphere and Cropsey a great success, facts faced with unflinching courage, no skulking behind smooth and soft to screen want of knowl or tickle liquorice tastes of confident connoisseur or effeminate dilettante. Faithful delineation of local incidents and pure atmospheric space throughout bears impress of buoyant and virile power. His other works belong to sentimental class knowns as ‘v pleasing.’

            2nd class: elaborate conventional style. Church and Durand, both so marked in manner known instant eye falls, some years since dealt lovers of nature a blow, with pugilistic zeal repeat it w/o mercy under applause of misguided friends. Another sunset with solitary house, twilight with pool, thunderstorm, rural scene with well shaped trees, very pleasing, how delicious. Artistic manhood enslaved and crushed in effort to fashion nature in mould to flatter taste of picture lovers, who never look at Nature with student’s eye.

            Church excellent memory of cloud effects, 64 a Country Home not as happy, unnaturally woolly appearance, finish tho admirable, relative proportions untrue, indiv drwg fine. You are never near to foregrd, alw seem in miniature, tho ptd with greatest truth to last twig. Conventionalism is in uniform brwn color of trees, whatever the time, imbues all his foliage, no vigorous healthful green of summer to flourish.

            Durand by common consent no pics so universally admired, yet fr manly point of crit, weak in conception and hard w/overfinish. Less elab than Church, but flinty smooth.

            In looking over country, cultivated eye sees here is a pine, there an elm, an oak, in a forest distinction betw forms also marked and partic, hemlock et al grow in striking contrast, no matter theme, lscapist shall give these characteristics. In Kensett, moss covered rocks strikingly true, Church’s skies, but in Durand elements of nature so feebly held, the sense never thrills in beholding them, tho in some pastorals where quiet pervades, effect is soothing. In Thunder Shower 386, subj a grand order, moment is weighted with solemnity and awe, by this Durand’s pic seems feeble, suggestive, but compared with real storm, ineffectual. 356 Primeval Forest more successful, opening rather destroys solemn and mysterious feeling of interminable woods, but in best style, with more boldness than usual. Trees not first rate, trunks too thick, foliage too painty, not clear what kind of trees. 39 Strawberrying happiest, trees are like others and so not gd, sky not atmospheric, but compos delightfully rural, drwg and grouping of cattle natural.

            Gignoux 26 29 of most conventional char, winter and autumn more truth than spring and summer. These three artists as conventionalists, successfully reiterate, when depart fr beaten track, lamentably deficient, result of nonsystematic study or indiff to nature’s variety. But if accurate drwg is remedy, tribe of artists present first fruits who delight in literalness without natural color, fall into class of misapprehension of nature and principles of art, PreRaphaelites in lscape. Gives v gd explanation of history of art that produced preRaph in Engl, where sentiment of art was degraded into conventionalisms so utterly meretricious fr every pt of view, lscape ptrs began to depart—Turner esp, cheered by Ruskin, followed by mod preRaph who were disgusted by false effects, generalizations without knowl, arranged without principle, for aristocratic false taste, votary of untruth Etty, Millais Hunt men with strong heads and tender consciences, who aimed at truth and appropriated literalness of Raphael’s predecessors, ignorant of his laws of generaliz. In Engl to paint history ot ralk of hi art provoked unrelenting hostility of RA, and idiff of aristo and genry whose art was utter unnaturalness, manly intellect opposed. But not appropriate for lscape. Pre Raph can exagg in hardness and sharpness of lines every obj to expr its individuality of form, texture, local color, ok with rock, mosses and water in foregrd, but falls apart for middle and distance where details not visible, destroys individuality, so must begin some sytem of generalization. Too orig to adopt great Italians, contends for actual drwg of every obj, but shld bring accuracy to atmosphere instead.

            Lscapes treated in Pre Raph manner, 117 Falls of Niagara and 2 others by GW Frankenstein are worst specimens, add to hardness and detail style of glaringly false and unnatural color. 290 and 301 Forest Spring by Stillman more modest in color, better drwg, 381 Hope, superior in naturalness.

            4th class: so thoroughly imaginative as to betray neither knowl of nature nor any degree of artistic power. Artists not usu highly strung poetic beings, 2 best characterize it are pretentious ones in first Gall: 10 Indian Paradise and 14 Alaster, by Richards. No evidence artist saw external nature, poetical visions and dreams, supernatural result slightly sentimental esp 14.

            Some pics mix lscape and fig to defy class, but have gd study, 111 HG Wild, coloring, 136 Too Poor to Play and 231 Sunny Moments GH Yewell, artistic feeling, need finishing

June 6 1854, p. 3 long letter on Art and Lit in London fr our own corresp, RA exhib, those who can’t get out into the country for spring, get glimpses fr pictures, world of nature, in smoky city prison. Vast quantity of wearisome excellence, painful cleverness, absence of great genius. 1530 pics, few absolutely bad. Pre Raph progressing among artists not belonging to school, but absence of Millais not compensated for. Hunt’s pics well worth while, alleg Light of the World, long quote of Ruskin’s defense, so long accustomed to see pictures ptd without any purpose whatsoever, that the unexpected existence of meaning in a work of art may first appear as unkind demand. Corresp agrees with Ruskin’s evaluation. Stupid imitations preserve truth of distances, objects represented just a nature, not the idea to look on a cornfield thru a microscope. Pre Raph principle applied to Lscape works better, Collins, Dearle, fresh and real. Hunt’s Awak Consc best bit of passion in Acad, painful subj in associations and truthfulness, marvel of skill.

            Mentions other delicious bits of lscape, sea pieces, simple transcripts of Engl life, fine portraits, inclu one of Louis Napoleon which must rejoice his enemies, head and neck of a beast, eyes of a fish, body of a gman, sd the likeness is a gd one. Hist ptrs large and loud as usual, esp Maclise.

            Ruskin’s lectures pub, pre Raph uncompromising truth, true portrait, attacked for care and labor of system by those who practice slovenly imperfect style. False pre Raph misunderstand, stop with simple outlines.

            Loves Tennyson.

Sept 12 1854 p. 3 Fine Arts—notices Leutze’s GW at Monmouth, exhib in Germ with v hi commendations, patron/cost. Notes Rembrandt Lockwood at Racket Club bldg. his pic of Last Judgment, private viewing, large and ambitious, those who admire boldness can’t find a more signal example of it, noble courage of genius or rashness of presumptuous ignorance?
            likes Goupil’s engrav of Geo Sand, Beranger, and Couture, striking effect fr small outlay of means, eye and hand discip by closest study of nature and unique. Notices Crawford’s prog on Washington monument for VA.

Sept 21 1854 p. 7 Fine Arts notes approvingly the historical subjects being ptd in fresco for Hses of Parliament

Oct 7 1854 p. 7 City Items, New Pics Leutze’s Wash at Battle of Monmouth exhib at rms of NA to invitation, larger than Crossing Delaware, exec with more cate but lacks something of its romantic interest. Wash on horseback, with Hamilton and Lafayette, burst of indig brings Lee’s retreat to a halt. Vigorous individuality of Leutze’s talent has crowded work with his peculiar force and magnetism, scarcely fail to be popular. Of claims to hi rank as hist pic will speak at length hereafter. Has a ptg of Milton at store of Williams & Stevens, most favorably spoken of. 

Mar 8 1855, p. 7 The Fine Arts: Dealers bring disting Euro artists, Wms and Stevens, Landseer specimen, Goupil Delaroche and Scheffer, now charming little hist piece fr H Vernet of Brethren of Joseph, impressive, masterly, poetic imag. If not a great picture, one only a great cld do.

            NA—exhib, lack of space limits what is shown, rigorously exclude all without hi degree of merit.

            Goupil pub neat litho of Mayor Wood, after Brady, just now most pop man in town. Likes young Germ sculp Chas Muller.

            Artists and the Hard Times: Elliott and Hicks hands full of ports, Durand, Kensett Church and Cropsey full quota of beaut lscapes, Lang (Guthrie) and Carpenter (Chase, Caass, Seward, Houston and Mallory) at DC, Grey at St Louis. Huntington, Baker, Stearns, Powell, Chester Harding doing Gov Draper. May who exhib Cardinal Richelieu at NA last year in Paris as copyist. CP Cranch also in Paris doing views. Hamilton G Wild, WW Story, TP Rossiter, GP Healy at World’s Exhib, Dana and Cheney, Powers port ptr and various others 

Mar 13, 1855, p. 7, City Items

            NAD opened 30th exhib, fewer pics than usual, but not inferior in interest or excellence. Lscapes and ports some of rare merit form bulk, not a single historical work of hi char, Hicks, Elliot and Baker will maintain rep if not increase. GH Hall has sm fig compos, Ehninger has 2 poetic little pieces, tho not up to those he did last year. Darley an elab pencil drwg, has many admirers. Saml Lawrence a couple of heads in Crayon, watercolors by well known Engl artists. Among lscapes Church most prominent, none but tropical subj, recent journey in Ecuador. Durand, Cropsey and Kensett stay in our latitude. Several by artists less known, special notice will try to afford.

April 2, 1855 p. 6, France, fr our own corresp, opening of Exhib, countrymen here (Healy, Cranch, Babcock and others send in specimens), finest display of contemp art yet seen.

April 18, 1855, p. 5, NAD Exhib, 1st Article, RT

            Journals of city announce its opening and closing, some articles will excite a little attn. among a few lazy loungers, but annual exhib will pass as quietly and unnoticed as in former years. Sad for Institution ought to answer to its title of National. Radical indiff to progress in art in country where every other sort of progress distinguishes it. Explained by inferior value of works. Public indiff damps inspiration, or poverty discourages public favor? Both.

            Trads of ptg necessary to it being underst are missing, need study of great Masters to educ artist, guides of taste, orig and models of artistic science our ptrs lack. Artist must produce orig creations, and to increase his perfection, must know contemp masters, such comparisons produce new ideas, styles, rivalry and emulation noble.

            But young artists are left alone without known principles or practical notions, our vital forces go to industry commerce etc, don’t have leisure/repose for arts, we are alw on the march.

            Our superior artists have only been devd in Euro, where they remain, like Powers, Crawford, Leutze. If fixed at NY, Boston or Phila, wld be lost in conflicting currents. So at NAD no sculp, nothing to praise in grand relig or hist ptgs, ports and lscape mostly.

            Have seen ports by Raph, Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto, Vandyck, Rubens, underst a single human head on canvas immortalizes a man, great artists employ all resources of genius on this, not secondary bcause it demands less than complex combos of historic canvas. Port can be a chef d'oeuvre. But so diff to arrive at this perfection comparatively few attain celebrity of Julius II or Caesar Borgia, none in NAD, many tolerable.

            Henry F Darby 2 pics struck us by fidelity of expr, accuracy of color, large and intellig method, port of Dr Condict 12 and 6 place him in first rank. Prefer this true manner of Darby to talent of Elliott who runs too much into monotony of Engl schl. 24 resembles in concept and realiz, 50, which resembles 110, and so on. In this last, violent contrasts of color in backgrd hurt relief of head.  Never discover whence Engl schl derived idea of impossible backgrds, science of grds of paramount importance to effects, point is to make them contrib to relief of principal. 2 methods, pose subj with lscape, drapery, furn arranged to set it off, or isolate it in a vague backgrd graduated sufficiently to demote light, softened to tone relative to scale of colors. These are only rational limits, but Engl have invented third, false to nature, but sometimes succeeds, of fantastic skies with incredible hues fr most somber dark to most glaring brilliancy, thru pell-mell of indisting tints. This is method pref by Elliott, scale of his palette seems to proceed fr willful and prejudiced determination, not fr conscientious study of nature. Hence lack of variety, repeats same modeling, contrasts of tone, sorts of color, habitual posture and attitude. More favorable estimate fr single portrait than many.

            Thom Hicks ptr of talent, grand scale port (46?), effect not adeq to his conception, not succeeded in filling the vast apt in which ldy, principal subj, is seen alone, so lacks unity. Truth to nature nnot sufficiently combined with view to genl effect, predom gray tone not agreeable, sofa more Amer than graceful, hyacinths in a line whose monotonous regularity tho often seen in our houses is not favorable to successful pic composition. Greatly prefer his port of Verplank, 99, or of Lucretia Mott, 30, whose Quaker costume requires no gray tone. This head marked by artistic talent and intellig.

            Enormous port 28 by Geo A Baker not even as successful as 46 of Hicks, which it is a pendant, color wanting, light dull and defaced, accessories the reverse of artistic. Cotton, ship and other obj suggest some rich merchant who underst commerce better than ptg, a business pic, recognize taste of patron not artist, great advertisement in oil. Prefer 128 Rev Nath Taylor.

            J Boyle 169 sketch of a child deserves better hang than insufficient light of sm gallery, more happy handling and color than 157, where stiffness of attitude injures qual.

            Prof C John, The Favorite, see correct knowl rather than ancient inspiration

            Why does Gray studiously efface his indiv by appearance of sham antiques? Exagg reverence for old masters pushed so far his works invested with haze, seem to have hung in smoky gallery, port of child deficient in freshness, flat and wants relief.

            Lazarus’s group of children at foot of oak attitudinize too much, not playing, don’t stir, have their pic done. A vulgar pic, dog might be a wild boar.

            JB Stearns shld mistrust ashen tints predom in port ldy 41, possible nature mixed them in hair of orig, but shld not appear in shadow of carnation whose brilliancy they destroy. Genl effect satisfactory, tho head seems exagg in proportion.

            Edw Mooney paints with truth, felt in his port, feel nature, tho unartistic, as in 25; same applies to Jenkins 27.

            Magadalen of Huntington 67 wellptd, wants orig in arrange and color, appreciate better if not for reminiscences sugg by subj so often handled

            The Amazon, JH Wright, like all other Amazons that like to see themselves in equestrian costume, on a backgrd of lscape, with paternal mansion in distance. Cafferty had much betteridea forport of ldy 77, left hand too strong, but one of the gd things in gallery. 87 in uniform has air of emerging fr a coal hole, spilling coal dust on 86, color of which is tarnished. 188 Greene honor.

            Crayon ports generally much better than oils, in first rank excellent heads of NP Willis and Geo Bancroft, 271 and 243, perfect resemblances, intelligently rendered, generous and bold, nervous pencil. V fine head of Parke Godwin 219, by Thom Hicks, nature with sure skillful hand.

            170 180 by Philip Ott, and Elma Gove, 172 by Lazarus, 267 by Miss Stebbins, have gd qual, prefer to heads by Duggan 231 and 273 not sufficiently studied, too much of superficial fancy of some Engl artists.

            Pastels insignif, except Guillaume 163 and 201, first esp finely exec, other more striking, light too direct.

April 27, 1855, p.5 RT, NAD, 2nd article

            In absence of hist or relig ptgs, surprised so few genre among ports and lscapes that compose the Exhib. Small encouragement in this field, Art only esteemd by us for gratification of our tastes or our peculiarities, not the dignity of its inspirations. Cities have no public galleries, appropriate no funds for purchase of Art, aim at useful not agreeable, no pics in churches, no decorated state leg, so no relig or hist ptgs. Wealthy indiff to value of a pic, prefer to bring back a mediocre copy fr Italy to show they’ve been there to an orig ptg by an Amer. So scarcity of genre pics, artist depends on pencil for daily bread, paints what pays best. Human vanity, every man derives secret pleasure fr his port, esp if resemblance flattered. Orcoc beaked man likes a straight fig, blemish on left contemplates right profile, merchant puts cotton around his feet, savant books, cantatrice with favorite music often one most dreaded by her audience, nouveau riche cargoes of diamonds alw genuine in pic, lit man pedestal of his works, politician will attitudinize as inspired genius haranguing, etc.

            Best genre pic without comparison is PF Rothermel, 129, false title in catalog, the Virtuoso, describes Amateur of Engravings, which means a musical amateur. Praised as springing fr gd understanding of color, expertness of pencil. Little canvas we prefer to others infinitely larger, happy distrib of light, harmonious tings produce successful effects. Bright chimney set off by contrast w/large chest in shadow, accessories in place and contrib powerfully to effect of dreamy old man, excellent feeling in head, attitude natural and true.

            120 and 122, JW Ehninger sm pics Sunshine and Shadow, old mariner with healthy son and dead son, mournfully philosophic idea, unstudied simplicity we admire because belongs to subj, effect fr faith of artist rather than resources of studio. Naturally a colorist. Prefer Shadow to Sunshine in compos and expr, and to his Quodlibet, 191, sketch of ldy where dress is well done, but aerial persp wanting, head stuck on backgrd, panes of glass not visible, lscape has neither air nor distance.

            Snow Scene of B Vautier smoothly ptd cleverly managed, children treated with care, boldness, personage whose hat is seen does not retreat far enough. Sir Toby Belch of Geo H Hall has expression.

            Politicians of Hasenclever 55 is rough sketch, effect has become vulgar, tho exec with spirit, on a subj given to engravers to be hunt in barrms until Maine Law closes them. More of professional trick in such pics than serious study, alw the same everlasting checkmate, invariable reading of invariable newspaper, inevitable argand lamp that never goes out. Tiresome by their familiarity.

            Principal merit of Country Connoisseurs 100 JA Oertel is fidelity of attitudes,expr, details, truthfulness and humor of expr atone for faulty coloring, gray and without sufficient relief. Nature of pic demands exam fr pov less exclusively artistic to do justice to intention.

            From this pov must seek to explain how WS Mount managed to procure his rep. He copies nature in her familiar and humorous expressions. Understands and seizes prominent features of pop types, reproduces them in a ptd design. Ask no more of him than that, he is neither ptr nor artist, coloring is merely illumination, tones all false, composition meaningless, drwg often incorrect. 2 pics with his name are below mediocrity, Walking Out 75, how shall we speak of it? What is in common betw this caricature and a true ptg? Nothing that is not bad. 72 has ambitious title, Webster among the People, is there cleverness, compos, judgment, feeling? Nothing of the sort. Great orator reproduced mechanically, nothing in attitude in keeping with the subj, for resembles leader of an orchestra keeping time, rather than statesman discoursing on destinies of an Empire. Among the people—must we then take for the Am nation the man seated quietly in a char, where seems astonished to see a polit celeb so unhappily travestied, the rowdy who displays at orator’s back an ostentatious banner, poorest of inventions, and ptr, suppose Mt himself, getting ready to do his miserable sign board? Vacant and cold, without color or cleverness, grandeur of subj crushes with all its weight the meaness of the performance. Not here as much as wld serve for a colored litho, the only profitable account to which the faculty of observation of the author of the Power of Music cld be turned.

            Must not forget Calabrian piper 255 of Wotherspoon, color details well managed, fig too angular and stiffness in its ? but an artistic sketch.

            Large crayon drwg of Darley, Drovers 276, same categ, expr and movement in details, whole wants body and subst. Some parts well studied, but not sustained by others, backgrd slightness of mere sketch. But design gd, a pleasing litho.

May 2, 1855, p. 5 Club-life in NY: exotics, don’t spring naturally fr social necessities, but as they have them in London, we must have Clubs too, as we have liveried flunkies, Gothic churches, and Academies of Music and of Painting. Habit of imitation yet strong on us, as of necessity with all colonized nations; only indigenous institutions are monster hotels, Mormonism and black Slavery. Imported clubs as with other Euro luxuries, but begins to root and thrive, tho very names show how unreal and unnecessary they are, don’t represent classes.

            Club org in NY 25 yrs ago called the Albion died out, Century Club instituted some 10 or 12 yrs ago to unite in social mtgs authors, artists, amateurs and patrons of art, rms in brick store on Broadway and Prince st, but rents hse now in 9th st. Name without meaning, members of every class, ptrs, journalists, brokers, auctioneers, engravers, dry goods, judges, grocers, booksellers, crockery dealers, lawyers and idlers. Smoking, drinking and reading poetry fave recreations, annual party for ladies and clergy, inexpensive, anyone may join unless a member objects.

            NY Club founded 15 yrs since of fash young men abt town, house in Broadway, dissolved to get rid of undesirable members. Universe org a year or two on relig foundation, Catholic. Journalists Club has rms in Moffatt bldg., Broadway and Anthony, only a few days old.

            Union Club new hse in 5th ave, only one comparable to London, desultory character and indefinite purpose, meaningless name, all kinds of people for individ convenience, restaurant and reading rm for members, 500 belong. Idlers are life of Club house, but few in NY.

            Formerly in hse on east side of Broadway belonging to Wm B astor nr Walker st, then nr Bond st, new hse imposing brownstone, tho architectural details won’t bear critical exam. Magnif dining rm, black walnut, hotel conveniences.$100/admission, $50/yr. French chef.

May 5, 1855, p. 7, The Vagabond Sculptors: profound writers of antiquity unlike present day critics acknowl in meanest votary of aesthetic pursuits, if superiority marked his efforts, presence of that spirituality which constituted criterion of high art.

            But who has formed a standard whereby to crit mod sculptors, temerity to institute comparisons betw wandering venders of gypsum images? Fortunate vagabonds escape trails of those who assume to walk above them, life of itinerancy thrown vail of romance.

            Moderate estimate 200 makers and vendors of images in City, perhaps 1/8th have fixed habitations, and shops, remainder itinerants who manufacture own wares and vend in streets and villages. Exclusively of Italian origin, usu fr Lake Como in Lombardy, emigrate in small parties, plan to return, superior in morals to most emigrants, least troublesome class of foreign poor, tho add little to importance or usefulness of society.

            Unlike their fellow countrymen the Troubadours, don’t centralize forces in any partic quarter, inhabit extreme wards, very heart of city, in half furnished room, center has table and board covered with plaster of Paris, strewn with knights with crooked lances, poets without noses, cross-eyed Madonnas, quadrupeds vividly colored, immense variety of busts, praiseworthy industry, toil at night to complete stock of images for next morning. One bed shared by 3 or 4, no other society.

            Alexander Palvi, fair example, met in Broadway, had also traveled thru US and So Am, not more than 1000 image makers on this Continent, most single and young, accumulate as much as $5000 in ten years, pickpockets do not suspect us. Develop new political and social ideas here. You ask if there is anything like progress in our profession; I think there is. Instances has assumed importance of an art. Inspires poor boys.

May 7 1855, p. 6 Exhib of NAD, 3rd article, RT

Lscape most interesting portion, if a schl of ptg, will necessarily be that. If human nature has greatly advanced in our day, it is not in beauty of the type nor the pictque char of its arrangements. It is not only in institutions but in races that society is democratized. The universal morale has gained, doubtless; but ptg has lost. The great models have passed away, the horrible black coat having enveloped the civilized world, there no longer exists in the new Am race the material for a Paul Veronese. We belong to the brush of another grade, in place of Marriage of Cana inspire ptgs of Pres So and So, with his Cabinet.

            But if man becomes vulgar and ugly, nature remains grand and beaut, god’s work/artistry, esp inNew World nature preserves majestic grandeur, vast solitudes, deepest sky. Imag can find poor aliment in cities cut into solemn squares, in same politico-mathematical formulas, seeks elsewhere. Nor does it require the tradition of historical or relig ptg, lscape a modern invention, except for Claude, Rosa, Poussin, lscapes of great schools of ptg are but conventional matters of secondary detail, and drew imaginary rocks, ridiculous temples, colonnades profiling agst sky after most impossible fashion, the historic or classic style, which was nothing but false style.

            Our age first to render external nature truly, fr the moment that the Realists took for their end and obj Nature as she is, lscape ptg was created. Practical knowl of laying on colors and skill in drwg sufficient.

            JW Casilear, Early Autumn, 13, one of best, ensemble gd, dispositions happy and natural, well placed, behind groups of trees largely handled is beaut dist finely toned, sun shade and atmos are all here, Showery Day 92 v gd color and effect.

            Mediterranean Sea Coast JF Cropsey consulted his recollection, idea better conceived than rendered, effect of setting sun true, nicely expr, foregrd less happy and wants relief, trees a little confused shld be more detached at backgrd. In Mt Wash 35, same superiority of conception over exec is striking, shld not pride himself on green tones, violent, too strong contrasts. Apart fr defective coloring, subj has grandeur, occas for inspiration. Ease as well as fancy in June Morning 3 but too much green in Mtn Glimpse 84.

            Gignoux excellent Indian Summer 109, Autumn special to No Am, ptr in danger of exagg or improbab, but no such defect, happily chosen motive, maintains fine harmonious effect, group of trees full of nice details, reflections in water capital, cobalt of distance transparency autumnal, prefer it to Sunrise in Witner nebulous tone much less rich, linear persp not right

            FE Church, 4 So Am ptgs, most impt Tequendama Falls, grand scene, precipitous rocks vastness well rendered, cascade in masses, vapor, Everything is in place. Sun, southern nature, vapory atmosph equally in Cordilleras 49 and La Magdalena 131, Eamoca Palms 63 full of local color, animated with char dtails, perhaps exagg as in colossal palm tree of Cordilleras, disprop to figs on mules, but possible inexactitude disappears.

            Durand Summer Afternoon 104 and In the Woods 113 masterly skill in drwg, prefer first, more beaut compos, tree groups well studied eleg disposed perhaps could use more decided vigor. In the Woods ashy tints deaden light, which should offer broader contrasts in a wood.

            Like much Tin Brook 56 Geo Inness, orig manner, massive style conscientious as natural, no arrang combo or fancy involved, foregrd meadow hardly varied by sheep and clouds, but second plain tree clusters are altogether remarkable, air animates space. Placed too low, deserves more favorable exposure, arrangers did not underst its value.

            Oct Day Kensett 123 capital inspire fr nature, autumnal color bold and truthful in foregrd, mist well rendered veils afar vast plain most happily to mtns.

            Boutelle’s large pic 8 distances err in too green, falsifies aerieal persp, foregrd proportion wanting betwixt fisherman and leaves of tree. Study fr Nature of Coleman Jr, 23 is what it aims, gd without pretension. 85 Boddington, satin like lscape, v careful nice fine. 91 Susquehannah sufficiently characteristic. Wm Hart lscapes 68 and 83 chief merit is Am temper, same for 116 by Coleman. 134 Stillman carefully studied design, prefer greater warmth.

            Second Shot AF Tait 147 one of gd things, still life excellent andhunters all alive and v well conceived, details too, page fr forest life.

            Catskills 81 wants air and light, is opaque; Ital Ftn 177 of Chapman, little nice, careful.

            Won’t stop before the daubs, atrociously green (64 and 136) or platitudes such as 105, but watercolors in entrance hall, 257 Venice W Wyld, effect excellent, Prison Ships 178 Ch Parsons, sketches 268 and 261.

May 16, 1855 p. 7 City Items play Take that Girl Away features harum-scarum painter who falls in love with every girl he sees

June 15, 1855, p. 3 Europe Revisited, No VII: The Sights of Paris, Horace Greeley, editorial corresp. Dead Christ in chapel of Invalides may not be approved by critics, but fixed my attention, illusion so perfect as to be painful, and therein if anywhere, is its fault. Louvre best single coll of ptgs, masterpieces by illus dead, tens of millions of dollars, free. Paris unsurpassed in Shows and Spectacles, Gardens, Galleries, Museums, lesson for NY, profitable. 

June 18, 1855, p. 6 Europe Revisited, no. VII: The Exposition, Horace Greeley

Fine Arts dept more than 5000 works, living art of 26 foreign countries, US has 12 artists, Mexico 1. Likes Couture, pre Raph school awakens interest, Ophelia many will condemn but defy any to pass it. Likes best FR Pickersbill grief unsoftened by hope. Lists the Americans, all ptrs fr NY but Gignoux, who has NY scenes, Cranch’s Niagara might have been made to please the million more by pleasing the judicious less. Healy has Webster, Smead the Engl beauty, Franklin. 

Dec 3, 1855 p. 3 Prog of Fine Arts, letter to editor, source of pride artists have patronage at home, return of Edwin White, hist ptr of rare attainments, studio 709 Broadway, lists ptgs on exhib, his Pilgrims at Delf Haven sold a couple of years ago to Pres of New Engl Society of NY, among Duss best, enlists all sympathies.

            Mlle Lander of Mass pupil of Crawford, will vie with first sculpt

Dec 17 1855 p. 4 The Am Fine Art. In noble pic Delaroche, copy here, Hemicycle of Beaux Arts, 3 gods of Grecian art preside over center, ought to give more credit to shipbuilders

Feb 19, 1856, p.3 Geo Wm Curtis lecture on English Fiction in Clinton Hall, novel as real and worthy of attn. as fine statue or beaut sunset. Great artists decried their art but the art lived. Raph ptd the Crucifixion and envied the shoemaker.

Feb 25 1856 p. 7 corresp fr France, Tuileries palace grandest in world, tho critics say wants harmony and rules, facades ornamented with statues, caryatids, groups, hi and lo relief, 261 by 155 sculptors, at more than $300,000.  Great public spending to pacify France.

Mar 7 1856, p. 6 Lit in Paris, our own corresp, Gustave Dore, artist who fully possesses spirits of the writers he illustrates. His Wandering Jew woodcuts, series of 12 wood engr, large, effects of light and shade given with unusual breadth and grandeur. Want of unity of thought in series and indiv plates, follows legend and his own imagination, which is rich, vagabond, extravagant, madly drunk, solemn grotesque, ravingly absurd all riot together but without incongruity disfiguring all of them. Fine symbolizing of terrors of a guilty conscience, illus that phenomena of outward world are conditioned within us.

March 12, 1856, p. 5 From Washington: Intercepted Letters NO. 111, addressed My Dear S, signed TB.

            describes visit to Capitol, paused to criticize groups in marble on side of steps, well enuf as ornaments to bldg., scarcely call attn. to them as specimens of country’s genius. Dislikes fences around them. Very fashionable now to sneer at budding taste in fine arts of our infant govt, brass horse and Jackson (place more impt obj first) striking for its rude originality, tho horse a rough specimen with congealed exaggeration of action rather painful to behold, tail out of all proportion, balance of a Nuremberg toy, from which with a clothes  pin in a hi wind artist caught his idea of the group. Nightmare.

            A young gman in our company sd he liked the work all the better for our strictures, artist meant to illus char of Old Hickory who wld when so pleased disregard all laws, prefers a kicking horse.

            In rotunda determined to be pleased with ptgs, old ptgs worthy attn. on account of their daguerreotype fidelity, tho claim staggered in one by a group of two little girls with five hands. Hand of  Fate?

            Worst ptg is last, Powell’s Discovery of De Soto and Miss. First impression is of a huge litho badly colored, as flat as artist’s feebleimagination. This subj requires illus of De Soto and Miss, search in vain for either. Instead have fat, gaudy, theatrical orig, in a forced melodramatic attitude, on a dress horse fresh fr stables. Were these two really near Miss, shld wonder how they came there. No great fearful flood of waters, parent of Am commerce.

            Angers to see so wretched a conclusion, when success so attainable. Want evidences to eye of heroic qualities of noble leader, who struggled thru to immortality, why could he not paint facts as they were? Little band, dreary march, show indomitable will conquering phys obstacles and controlling fate? Ragged homely sufferings of leader and men wld have shown this. But mediocrity strains after absurdity, while stumbling blindly over the sublime. Powell turned up his small nose at the facts, gives us a French general parading on banks of Seine.

            Failure run thru lesser points too; Indians a v approp feature, but misconceives, not called on to paint one Indian or a group as Catlin or other artist might see and depict, but required to place a fair representative of the race, proud, silent and brave. Catlin may have found an Indian who was a sneak, but Powell was not called on to paint them in this would be historical effort.

            Why couldn’t Congress purchase Leutze’s great ptg of GW crossing Delaware? Not a historical pict, for artist has unfortunately left out principal personage-W. recognize features and form of hero, but not his character in rather exaggerated young man in bow. But a great work of art, improve taste of our people. Or employ Healy to paint his magnify pict of Franklin pleading cause of Colonies at Court of Louis XVI? Have heard ptg he alm threw on canvas in two months for Exhib at Paris severely criti, but sketch is an exquis thing, beaut contrasts Franklin’s earnestness with frivolity of corutiers, republican simplicity, eagle before the sun.

            Pause before bas relief above the door, Boone in combat with fearful savages. Terrific, numerous Indians are down and dead, no mistake, full of bullet holes, largest sized bullets. Boon is coming at survivors, evidently in earnest, wishes so to be considered, and gives survivors to understand subj not open for discussion. It is fearful.

April 9, 1856 p. 5, NAD, 1st article

            Reviews history, says artists made egregious mistake in feeling entitled when they started NAD to exclusive control of an institution designed to promote cause of art, for art is not for the benefit of artists, but for the world, institution best managed by men with knowl of affairs and free fr preference, jealousies, fantastic theories and rivalries. Art flourished most vigorously where artists not the managers, but the managed. By inspection of its 31st exhibition, can come to just conclusion as to wisdom and fitness of founders.

            Art a dwarf in leading strings, compared to growth of rest of city, Opera House, palaces of Fith Ave, gothic churches, ornamented hotels and steamers, sculptured facades of bldgs. On Broadway. Duss known now, as are great names in euro art, Delaroche, Couture, Ary Schaffer, pre Raphaelites, Maclise.

            But where our great names? School of art? All our decorations are work of foreigners. Artists study abroad not here. In lit and science, Longfellow, Prescott, Bancroft, Willis, Lowell, Melville and Hawthorne, Morse but for telegraph. NA just has 288 pics, many foreign, as result of its influence.

            NAD has excellent artists and amiable gman, but as an institution, no considearable use. Best to shut it up, let young artists put in better aims/managers.

            First need to instruct public how to look at pics. Salute ticket taker, Mrs Crocker, and to prepare eye for artistic splendors, look first at work hangs directly over door which leads into larger hall, after gazing on this miracle of art, look at companion piece on other side, when desire for something better whetted in these unresisting imbecilities, you will be in gd condition to appreciate alm anything. When select work to examine, look long enough to familiarize with artist’s meaning, if any, and free eye and mind from dominant color and sentiment of pics near it. Looking at misc ptgs is like drinking mixed liquors, flavors become mixed and neutralize ea other, killed by its companions. To avoid accus of partiality or invidious distinctions, will take catalog in order. 

April 12, 1856, p. 8 long mixed review of 3rd vol of Ruskin’s Mod Ptrs, doesn’t think he should be so negative abt achievements of mod art, dislikes him using Scott as its rep

p. 4 NAD, 2nd article

Hang Comm excellent taste/judg grouping cluster of kindred feeling little pics:

            Warm hazy rather yellow Lscape by Gifford, 1, at one’s ankles but view fr elev standpt;

S Coleman, a flowerpiece not a lscape, sweet gentle delicacy delineate grasses andobtrusive flowers, young women mar it. 3 Thom Hicks Sketch, voluptuousness, sensuous feeling, reading a romance, wish he’d confine himself to little poems in pigments so suggestive to imag and satisfy to eye, great pics on small canvases are needed for sm saloons and cosy apts, and doesn’t cost fortune to frame

            4 port lady Wm S Mount, whoever has seen one of his life size heads will regret he shld ever have ptd one larger than this, one of most creditable fr him

            5 Summer Rose Geo A Baker, sm port young lady w rose, v graceful and lovely

6 Luther Nailing his Protestation, Theo. Kaufmann, large canvas, man in brown gown, nothing more no gd reason for calling him Luther or place Wittenberg, as devoid of sentiment and feeling as a paving stone

            7 Last Scene in Lear, Rothermel, a terrible subj treated in a terrible manner, crowded with figs who all look exactly alike, as if members of same family and nothing to do but stand and thrust eyeballs out of their sockets. Only a lobster has such protuberant visual organs. R possesses great facility of drwg and consid skill in compos, but pics have marvelous mannerism and perfectly wonderful destitution of sentiment. Nothing in poetry so touching harrowing as lastscene, but not an emotion of any kind in scene as represented.

            8 Laughing Girl JE Freeman, gd deal of laughter in face of hearty Ital girl, but doesn’t appear quite natural, too suggestive of a laughing model, one is pained at thought of  poor thing keeping herself on a violent grin at so much an hour

            9 Sketch fr Nature, Shattuck, very well, interp secrets. 10 NG Shepherd, gd ‘distance.’

            11 Study of Grasses and Flowers, Shattuck, a perfect thing in its way, nothing better, put himself out to grass like Nebuchadnezzar and gone on hands and knees, a genuine reflex of nature, not a great pic, but so observant aneye, accurate hand, tender love, can trust

            12 RS Pine, cold blue sky, 13 Eliza Greatorex, Glen, decided talent, gd sky is v gd thing. 14 JR Brevoort. WG Wall, View in Wales, used to exhib sea pieces here earlier, long while in England, this not partic characteristic, but pleasing and trunks of oaks well drwn

            16 Gd Shot, AF Tait, very bearish, not anything else (portrait of huge black bear)

            17 Little Red Riding Hood, John T Peele, one of the best pics in one of worst places, break neck looking up at it, subj hackneyed, Since Reynolds did it millions of others, yet so full of tenderness and innocence of childhood, artists try to give new version. Peele achieved great success, just stepping fr grandmother’s door, loveliness and innocence of morning of life, hollyocks admirable of denizen of garden of poor, incline lovingly.

            18 Alanson Fisher, late Rev Spencer Cone, not v gd port nor v gd pic

            19 Mt Equinox, Vt, GH Boughton, don’t know either, sincerity v pleasant scene, v pleasant repress, v gd.

            20 Going to School, Jerome Thompson, genuine New Engl lscape, children playing do not appear to be going anywhere, weak and clumsy, don’t add to value of pic

            22 Going to Mill, Wm Ranney, boy on horse standing in water, remarkable that every obj has appearance of being made of same material, horse, trees, earth, sky water rocks all composed of same subst

            23 Volmering Forest, too much of this pic, if Germ is so brown and dismal, poets lied

            24 port ldy Baker one of dawning lights of Art, head justifies expectation of earlier ports, lovely girl, ptd with singular purity, most gracefully naturally posed, backgrd and accessories not gd but not glaringly bad, best female port in Exhib, arms andshoulders well rounded, flesh tints exquis tender, happy effort

            25 Flower Girl, JE Freeman, same subj as laughing girl, but diff apron

            26 port ldy Geo Inness, pensive, hung too hi.

27 Edw Hoey, Broken Strap. 28 A. Fisher. 29 F Schlegel. These 3 atrocities properly placed agst ceiling.

30 Fortune-Teller, WM Hunt, diff matter to crit or even offer opinion of work like this, for quite impossible to discern artist’s meaning or reason he adopts so strange a method of expr his ideas. If artist fr idiosyncrasy of vision or necessities of his position compelled to use fragments that look like dried mushrooms with a vehicle of soapsuds, we might allow for his peculiarities and admire his overcoming difficulties and latent power. Forced to believe that his ptg in so extraord bad a manner simply attempt to imitate errors or eccentricities of a pop artist.

Surprising that  a young artist with such natural capacity shld voluntarily abandon fascinating resources of his art, charms of color and chiaroscuro, to give appearance of dirty ground glass, destroys brilliancy of local coloring and renders outlines expr of obj indistinct and uncertain. But great ability in pic tho destitute of meaning and sentiment, illus nothing, tells no story, all it contains might be expr on thumbnail, but large canvas and life size figs. Drwg and expr of figs extremely gd, color such as it is harmonious, child admirably posed, action perfectly expresses disgust and terror, a v gd pic without any partic meaning, well done in a v bad style

31 Thirsty Drover, FW Edmonds, most unimag artist ever put figs on canvas. All his heads belong not to same family, but same person, monstrous eyes and thick lips, subjs not only low but common. Roadside farm house dilapidated condition, surroundings characteristic of slovenliness and poverty, drover sits his horse as tho had no spine.

Lake Pleasant, E Terry,cold and monotonous, little or no merit as a pic 32. 33 Arguing the Point: Settling the Presidency, AF Tait, does not appear to advantage in this pic, excessively commonplace, in Mount’s manner but w/o his delicacy of characterization.

34 Port Ldy JB Stearns gives actualities w/vigor and precision, but doesn’t transmute thru alembic of refining and ennobling imag as a ptr ought if he can.

35 Zadoc Pratt, Elliott, many portraits ofhim, never one so unlike.

36 Still Hunt, GW Waters, if we knew him, ask what principle he named pic. Not partic suggestive of a still hunt, but does not suggest anything else

37 View Catskills, Edward C Post, what use putting pics agst ceiling? May be equal to Turner or Cole, can’t dislocate neck to inspect

38 Port Gman—DDW. James Bogle, mysterious and tantalizing initials, v respectable appearance, v gd but not splendid

39 Visit of Consolation, Edwin White, large, unmeaning pic, ruffianly-looking fellow prone, simpering young woman, tone of color gd, consolation we did not find

40 Edwin Shelden, Saml Lawrence, Who is Edwin Shelden, who is Saml Lawrence/ 41 Mill, JH Hill, just what pretends, port of a windmill, nothing more, v gd in hard and unimag way.

42 Artist’s Daughter, JB Stearns, catch us criticizing

43 A Symbol, Durand, As come tall cliff etc, four lines fr Goldsmith’s Deserted Village as an apology for his pic in the catalog, if illus the poet wholly missed meaning, given simile and not subj of verses.Symbolical lscapes are just the greatest abominations in art. Loth to speak in this decided and perhaps harsh manner, bcause respected head of Acad has a weakness for things of the kind. Even seen his lscape of whole of Bryant’s Thanatopsis, amiable enthusiast who will perpetrate such evidences of sheer fantasy. A lscape is nothing but a lscape, it is not a moral essay, no possible arrang of rocks and trees can give them an ethical char. Tree nothing but a tree, moment you convert it into a sermon loses all its sylvan beauty.God never intended external beauties shld be put to such uses. Some remarkably nice pts in this symbolical lscape, trees in foregrd well put in, top of mtn gd, if can imagine a position to see it, but don’t see where spec could be to take the view presented. If above clouds, no village, if below, no village AND mtn top. Pict characterized by some of D’s best qual, But,----.

44 Ports of Children, HP Gray, have one unfailing gd pt, never glaring, tints alw subdued, and gd many people wish he’d vary his monotonous tone and put a little light and sun in. Never a better opp than representation of 2 fine boys, one on rocking horse, but both are solemn and lifeless, no more feeling or sensation in countenances than in head of horse. Once saw port of boy looked like budding conqueror, full of life, movment, poetry and bubling sparkles of youth, but not the work of Gray.

45 Sisters Wm Ver Bryck, feeble looking young women, hung close to ceiling. 46 Roman Ruins, A Nichols, v brown and out of sight. 47 Emily P Lesdennier, Jas H Cafferty, not at all creditable to his talents, large and staring, subj not well represented

48 Wreath of wild flowers, John T Peele, if only pic in room, constitute sufficient to draw those who love art and capacity to feel when art is most beneficent and refining, redolent of innocent, charms of purest pleasures, not often so purely expressed. Nothing glaring or meretricious, sentiment poetry religion of humanity embodied, heart melts, all full of loveliness and nature. Prince Albert bought one of his.

April 19, 1856, p. 8, NAD, 3rd article

            Sugaring Off, Forest Scene in Early ? AF Tait. Young artist paints certain objects with rare ability, not a glimmer of which, however, is displayed in this pic, which has no other recommendation than being an indig subj and true in its details. Lacks tone and imag, qual indispensable to lift ptg out of region of mechanical art

            Port Lady Hartford, HP Gray, fallen into distressing mannerism, chronic idiosyncrasy of color, which renders one of his portraits just as good as another. Never knownso respectable an artist w/so little variety in method of treating his subj. ? is sd to be a gd port.

            HK Brown by Geo Fuller, v carefully ptd pic, exceedingly gd likeness

            Smugglers, A. Fredricks, a grt display of rocks, peculiarity is they have appearance of being covered with velvet. Smugglers are Spaniards by costume, rather accessory to compos than principal objects.

            34 Samuel, Henry F Darby. Why fig of naked woman sitting on side of bed shld be called Saml perhaps artist can explain, we can’t. hangers did well putting work agst ceiling.

            35 Port of Lad, WT Mathews, may be a gd pic, if hung where cld be seen, we shld pronounce an opinion.

            56 Port Ldy, C Elliot, v striking head in characteristic manner, lips rather too positively vermilion tinted and cheeks cause unpleasant suggestions of rouge.

            Hi Peak, No Conway, RW Hubbard, thank the Hanging Comm for gd posit for quiet and unobtrusive pic, where its beauties can be seen, not one of staring kind that attracts eye of careless spec, but repeated exam consider it one of best. Most palpable defect is figs, but may be easily blotted out by artist. Foliage is incomparably fine, whole pic most faithful study of nature and close observance of her mysteries, alw give lscapes an atmosphere, some of our more eminent lscapists think of little imp’ce.

            58 Valley of Adige, Tyrol, EW Nichols, commonplace view ptd in v conventional and commonplace manner

            59 Study Head, sketch, Geo Baker, like his female heads generally full of sweetness and grace,s hld make ports of pretty women his specialty and refuse to paint any other, then all women will be anxious to sit to him

            60 Card Players, E Johnson, name new, resides in DC, but if unknown now soon deterre, one of most remarkable pics in exhib, hardly fail to impress images on mind of every one. Subj low, coarse, villainous and vulgar, 2 ruffianly vagabonds playing old sledge in shockingly dilapidated apt, youngster and shockheaded child look on, elder player just thrown an ace of hearts, exacting look of knavish triumph might become doughfaced member of Congress just betrayed country to secure place in Custom-Hse. But doughfaces not apt to have such look of gd, hearty conceit as this old fellow w/rubicund visage. Vigor and expr of figs form grp are truly wonderful, little child, dirt rags beaming face, seriousness and flesh and blood ness, details of apt minuteness and fidelity resemble a photo, yet subord to heighten general effect not divide attn. with cardplayers, extraord merit

            61 All Talk and No Work, FW Edmonds, nearest approach to Mount’s style, which Edmonds seems to aim at copying, that we’ve seen, but his manner without meaning. Scene is interior of a barn, figs are white man and negro. Nothing more.

            62 Hon Wm L Marcy, FB Carpenter, all aimed at is truthful representation, succeeded, but Marcy wld impress one more favorably than this port, so can’t be called a gd one; gd port won’t undervalue its subj.

            JH Wright, Edw Bowers, nothing in partic, child with flowers

            66 Remains of Ft Famine,Straits of Magellan, Wm Heine, v dismal pic of v dismal scene, sun shining but v gloomy, as view of world where few artists go, degree of interest better ptgs don’t.

            67 Morning in Damascus, Thom Hicks, how cosmo we have become, position of this and 66 would, this shows acquaintance sitting on roof of hse, clad like an Oriental, smoking narghilly, full of sunshine. For some cause not in the pic itself, Hicks operates as a kind of whetstone on the faculties of critics, but simply a v brilliant pic, artist has boldly attempted an outdoor scene in clear sun, rejects all aid fr pictque architectural accessions, distant view of Eye of the East, brilliant atmosphere, succeeded admirably. Fault has been found with sitter’s leg, which is rather long, as tho capable of going over a gd deal of ground in v short time, v ideal leg shld be regarded as peculiarly approp to one of most persevering and accomplished travlers of the day, only stops to give an account, sd to be Bayard Taylor, those who know intimately think fav as a likeness. A man of his standing as a pedestrian ought to have just such a pair of limbs, no doubt artist has not in slightest degree exaggerated.

            68 Lscape, Tilton, as we passed piece of bronze leather 46(?) asked Who is Samuel Laurence? We knew one, the admirable and amiable artist whose exquis crayon ports so justly admired, finely idealized head of Thackeray and satisfying head Tennyson all seen and loved, port of Longfellow rare merit of speaking likeness and poetical representation of author of Evangeline, but did not recog accomplished artist in this port on canvas, seems ptd by somebody afflicted with colorblindness, can’t disting betw tints of living flesh and dead color of tanned sole leather. Nature appears to vision of Laurence in lines of black and white, not the only fine artist no perception of color, Maclise and Ary Scheffer same, as are majority of French schl.

            Ask who is Tilton? May be something in his lscape, but what that is excellent beyond low tone and harmony of color, can’t decide, a dark lscape, may have innumerable beauties long study might develop.

            69 Study fr Newport, Edw C Post, foregrd and rolling surf in little seaside pic v gd, better, indicates more than expresses.  70 Mill at Clarkstown, JH Hill, v creditable lscape compos

            71 Il Virtuoso, Ed White, man in velvet cap and red legcasings, examining coin or medal, no fault to be found, subj perfectly expr, fig well drawn, color gd. But nothing in it, nothing that appeals to symps of spec, or suggests anything to imag. In Landseer’s the Mourner but a dog, but what volumes of thought in his action. If White had any fancy orimag, why not put it into this well ptd pic? Fig of a man in red leggings is nothing to us, so we move on

            72 Happy Family, Quail, AF Tail, full of freshness, genius, strong claims on our leniency and admiration. Impossible such family sat for ports, yet perfectly depicted. Old cock, careful sentinel, head erect; old hen full of motherly tenderness and affection; little quails, nursling dependents as happy and innocent, free fr forebodings of evil as tho no such things as rifles. One of finest pics in Exhib, amply atones for 2-3 indif perf by Tait hung in vicinity.

            72 La Sierra Maestra mtns, v indiff pic; 74 Port ldy, Huntington, in his best style

            75 Sword, JW Ehninger, pretty little pic, perfect as far as it goes, single stanza of long poem, but doesn’t go far enuf. Tone, color, manner of treat worthy of praise, but subj meager and void of interest. Noble looking old warrior in cuirass stands looking at blade, but what he intends, or why he examines, his thoughts and purposes, nothing suggests. Ability in such monographs merely mechanical, but of a superior order

            76 EDE Greene, 2 female heads a few yrs since attracted consid attn. for exquis delicacy of finish and sentiment purity and grace, this in same style, profile, like a pastille

            77 Evening at Paestum, Cropsey, all eves there not like this, but shld be, formisty light and lurid horizon perfectly harmonize with solemn ruins

            78 Old Barn, Geo A Baker. Gd many queer misnames in cat, but this the queerest of all. Why shld a hearty old gman with white beard, leathern belt around capacious paunch, and glass of ale, be called old barn?

            79 Meadows, Addison Richards, v slight and sketchy, 80 Mt Holyoke, FJ Perkins, 81 Study of Rocks, AD Shattuck, decidedly rocky. Geologist wld prize it. 82 River in Winter, WC Potter, may’ve seen ice with this glassy look, we have not.

            83 Sea Coast, GL Brown, has barely escaped being a great lscape ptr. Admirable qual of his pics, disting fr nearly all of our other artists, is appearance of solidity and finish. Don’t look like sketches, not rawness or flimsiness. Gd solid, substantial scene, rocks hardness, water motion depth and wetness, boats cleave, archit rests on firm base, distances are distant. Parts are superlatively fine, better surf than any other. But with all excellencies so many defects that his lscapes not satisfying, owing to their incompleteness. In this, the rocks formt he bridge, the hole in the wall, nothing better than an unmeaning heap of rubbish.

            84 Scotch Terrier, Wm J Hays, quite as natural and disagreeable as life, 85 HS Pyne.

            86 Young Husb, ?, Young Wife. First marketing and First Stew, thoroughly vulgar and coarse, but thoroughly gd in their way. Man is but a sorry-looking husband, but marketing ptd with marvelous skill, greatest of Dutch masters cld not give better or at least more strking illus of agreeable duty of slicing onions. Mrs Spencer marvelous manipulator with brush, if only had a little imag, might become great artist.

            87 Scenery Essex Cty, James M Hart, admirable tho not v pleasant, full of light, great fidelity,but too large. Better if viewed thru inverted telescope.

            88 Port E Mooney, 89 Port Gman CW Jenkin.

            90 Ex Gov Wash Hunt, Elliott, hat inhand, overcoat cross arm, abt to descend marble stair as tho in act of quitting office, strikingly gd, for Gov Rm in City Hall. But what an awk subj of an artist to handle.

May 3, 1856, p. 9 NAD 4th article

            95 Wm Morgan, Plucking a Countryman, artists want pics noticed, why they exhibit them. People who read newspapers, see name, artist wants art favorably noticed, to call it bad is flippant in critic even if it deserves it. So shld pass without notice? Causes more displeasure, feels neglected, run critic thru with maulstick. To do good and little harm, compelled to be flippant, sententious, supercilious. Regret it, can’t help it. Plucking a Cman then, flippantly but honestly, is not a gd pic. Mechanical art displayed not gd, tale exceedingly vulgar and commonplace and not distinctly told.

            JW Gordon, pres Royal Scot Acad, port, nothing indicates superior artist.

            97 Lscape, Champney. 99 Port F. Schlegel. 102 Port Lady SA Mount. 105 TH Hotchkiss, 106 both Kauterskill Cloves, imag and observ better than exec skill

92 WW Wotherspoon, spoiled by Italy, better before going, honest purpose of his own, not indistinct and feeble attempt at idealizing lscape, undoubted failure. Emasculated look at nature, juice and substance left out.

100 Dora and Gip, WT Matthews. Gip feeble looking spaniel looking us full in the face, artist gives Dora fr back of head, not suggestive of copperfield’s childwife.

John Wmson, Old Man of Mtn, unaffected prosy view of Franconia Mtn, 101.

103 Gen A Macdonald, FB Carpenter, v excellent, strongly individ, gd drwg, admirable color, defect is it has too familiar a look, as tho the Genl felt himself at ease in whatever company. Want more quiet dignity and reserve of manner.

104 Skaters Wm Ranney, decided talent, not discovered fr this pict.

109 Falstaff Elliott, little sketch, surprised admirers, few knew capable of exquis piece, graybeard old toper full of liq and lech, not quite Falstaffian, man of perfect gravity of countenance and solemn and respectful deportment.

110 Sketch Muleteer, FS Perkins, port of a mullen by side of board fence, mullen unexceptionable, not a truer bit of the country, let him persevere in his mullenery.

111 JP Decatur, JH Cafferty, vgd port ptr, one of his gd heads.

112 Alanson Fisher, ldy, charming pic and person, face esp gd, preponderance of black, great skill to create pleasing harmonious combo.

113 TA Richards, residence of NP Willis, don’t believe any such brook as this at Idlewild, terrific ptg hasn’t a bit of nature about it. 117 Owego Creek, is almost as bad.

114 Hal HP Gray, aimed at a bad caricature of his style with perfect success.

119 port gman Jno Phillips striking head.

122 Port Young Lady, CW Jenkins. Motives of Hanging Comm in exhib such a work as this, injures unfortunate artist, creates a feeling in spec anything but complimentary to Acad.

123 Girl and Rabbitt, ex of Wm M Hunt’s style carried to extreme, diff to conceive of anything more thoroughly repulsive and disagreeable. Girl does not look like a girl, nor rabbit like a rabbit. Pict in last stages of decomposition. Perversely and designedly bad, as a man of talent cld possibly accomplish. Ought to be impeached in court of art for debasing his genius.

124 Robt Kelly, Huntington at best in male ports, this best efforts.

125 Franconia Mtn Kensett, parts compare favorably with best, many palpable merits, but fr not viewed at right distance or proper light, lacks unity tone design, parts appear ptd at wide intervals, not a single view but a gd many, variety of studies, not woven in one woof.

128 Rainy Day Fs Perkins, another of the unaccountables. Straight pyramidal flame in chimney corner.

133 Madonna, Johannes Oertel, seen vast number of wretched Madonnas in Europe and No and So America, never a poorer attempt than this.

137 Lscape Church, tropical, so fine an artist, lscapes of such exquis beauty, paintstaking and faithful master of art, no disposition to criticize only pic in exhib, errors the resultof mere inattention, but great beauties of uncommon ability.

138 Mt Washington, Shattuck better at grasses than mtns. 141 Connecticut Lake scenery RW Hubbard, coldly correct, inadeq idea of artist’s fine powers, 57 much better.

142 Martha reproved, how artist of Huntington’s fine taste, knowledge of capabilities of his art, cld delib paint a pic like this in so thoroughly conventional manner, so hackneyed and elevated a subj. Greatest genius might pause before ptg Savior of the World, but not troubled with misgivings, jauntily paints wooden headed man w/o expr or vitality in countenance, dim halo, simpering women in conventional but careless costume, refers to Bible for meaning. Flippant manner not for sacred subj, artist needs spirit of devotional awe. Thoroughly bad, neither study nor earnestness, destitute of imag and sentiment.

143 Rev Fancis Vinton, Wm Oliver Stone, undoubted likeness of pastor St Paul’s, not hi praise as ptg

May 10, 1856, NAD: Fifth and Last Notice, p. 10.

            149 The Bride, JB Flagg, NA sm and carefully-ptd port of no partic qual beyond certain feeling of refinement with which it is invested. Abandons easel for pulpit, pastor of Grace Church, successor to Dr Vinton whose port hangs just above.

            153? Lady at Her Toilet JH Lazarus, A. Exceedingly graceful and beaut little pict, lady arranging a rose in her hair before a mirror, whole action and coloring of fig commendably good and agreeable.

            154 Col McKenny, CL Elliott, NA< just subj in which his brill brush exhib to best advantage, hearty old gman, with florid complexion and abundance of silvery hair, abundanct scope for artist’s palette, which  is alw overcharged with vermilion and whitelead. No exagg in this striking head, drwg as accurate as a photo, he pts old men as we imagine Claude ptd sunsets and Vandervelde water scenery, before J Ruskin with his analytical criticisms convinced us we knew nothing abt the matter.

            156 Perdita , JG Taggart. What a Perdita! Imagined it was Witch of Endor, then Queen Eliz. Yet the artist has quoted Shakespeare to prove it was Perdita.

            167 Rev Dr Cox, FB Carpenter, A.Another head of Dr Cox good, but not very. Carpenter appears all the time on v verge of ptg a remarkably gd port, but stops short. Perhaps will do better.

            169 La Marguerite, Wm M Hunt.Another specimen of his strang manner. Marguerite face turned so profile reveals melancholy sentiment of her mind. Undeniable latent power, but not easy to prophesy what that power is capable of fr these remarkable specimens. Gd in these pics is v gd and normal, while bad may be only an accident, or a perverse viciousness. Shall see more, and know better what he is driving at.

            170 Wild Horses Chased by Indians, Johannes A Oertel. Quite prob some errors of drwg, but undeniable a fine hurry-scurry abt it, bring away an impression of having seen an Indian throw a lasso into a herd scampering awa for dear life with a terrible fear of being caught and subjected to will of their master.

            175 Lscape, Geo Inness, heavy dark grn view of nature, artist, judging fr prominence of his name on frame, thinks no small beer of.

            176 Child on Sea Shore, Mrs Dassell, II. Not what the catalog represents, but an enfant terrible, sitting on a rocky precipice, with wilted legs for a cushion.

            179 Galileo, Yet She moves, Theo Kaufman. The kind of pict people want who are eternally crying for historical compositions. But a few more such wld, we imagine, pretty effectually cure amateurs of their inordinate longings. 9 of 10 spectators will take the part of G’s persecutors after seeing this representation of him. Kauffman appears to have aimed at bringing the exact sciences into contempt by exhib one of their most illustrious expounders in so unfavorable a manner. However, truth is mighty, in spite of priests and painters, and the Galileos will have the best of it.

            181 Birthplace of Dr Horace Green, James Hope. Green rendered impt service to med sci, glad to know he was born in this pictque locality, first looked upon rough nature fr windows of a desolate country tavern.

            183 Gambler and Death, JW Ehninger, admirable ptg in all parts as far as mechanical execution, perfect drwg, unexceptionable color, carefully finished and patiently studied. But what it means, or sentiment it embodies, unable to discover. Man terribly in earnest plays cards with skeleton. If Ehninger wld employ some intelligent friend to give him an idea, have no doubt cld produce a great pict, for possesses v rare executive ability.

            194 Savoyard, E Johnson, work of art whose only lack is that we have imputed to Ehninger. Painful to see such elaborateness, such exquis fidelity to nature, such power and fine perception bestowed on a subj which has no partic meaning and suggests no story to imag of spectator. Single fig, leaning agst wall, fresh young face tinged with seriousness, may suggest homesickness. Same artist’s Gamblers in large rm is as fine as this in mechanical exec, but infinitely above it in dramatic intent. Savoyard however a ptg of extraord beauty and merit, details given with marvelous exactitude, without destroying breadth of effect or interfering with face. Style the v antipodes of Hunt’s, no better contrast of 2 opposing schools of art than this and the Fortune Teller in the next room. Decide which of the two is best calculated to answ purposes of art and to be endurable. Great honor to our Acad if it could boast of teaching Johnson, but his pics ptd in Holland.

            206 The Old Lizard Head, Cornwall, JG Philip. The only watercolor worth noticing, artist of course an Englishman, no one else uses them. Characteristic coast view, dark and gloomy, heavy surf ptd in masterly manner with fine effect. If our artists instead of searching the world for ‘bits’ of lscape would stay at home and study the superb marine scenery of our coast, more in time wld be able to produce a tolerably effective marine.

            207 Earl of Essex’s Drwg Rm, Cushiobury, Wm Hunt. As an interior view v gd, but view itself v poor. Supposed it was a drwg of some parvenu parlor in Fifth ave, wondered at bad taste displayed, apt of great Brit nobleman did not change our opinion o fits clumsy char. Much finer ones all over city.

            213 Roman Peasant Girl, JE Freeman, NA, 3rd view of her by him in this Exhib, this best of three.

            243 Saml B Ruggles, Saml Lawrence, if in our previous notice of his ports we droped any remarks that underrated his talent for this style of drwg, we make amends. Lawrence’s art not of a hi order, sketches his heads pleasantly, preserving char of sitter, and imparting an air of refinement, adds greatly to value of a port. But heads are only sketches, indications not full devt of subj, and as far as they go, most satisfactory. If did more wld spoil the effect, wisely stops where genius deserts him.

            246 Water, Rock and Foliage, John Ruskin, with all our admiration for him as a critic, must still pronounce this drwg pure trumpery. Nothing in it, and accidental wipe of a whitewash brush on a smoky wall wld produce just as close a resemblance to rock, water and foliage, as this elab but worthless drwg.

            Some more works in this condemned hole where light is insufficient, for cat runs to 288, ending in a wretched ptg that ought never have been admitted.

            There are a gd many excellent pics in exhib, small as whole is, but none that give any indic of new schl of Art, new order of artists rising into being. Everything is conventional and small, and air of an artistic atmosphere, a feeling for art like that daily manifested in our lit, wholly wanting. Confess with great unwillingness and a sad feeling, no germs of greatness in arts of design. Hunt ptd his pics in Paris, Peele in London, Johnson at the Hague. The little studies of grasses and foliage full of beauty and promise are am and redolent of our soil, so is one little ptg by Tait, of quails, but little beside. Acad has done best it could, if can do not better, shld disband and give artists opp to form new institution, or do without aid.

April 28 1856 p. 6 Study of Art at Rome, Miss Patience Boswell, lady student in Rome writes

May 28, 1856, p. 6, Britain, from our own corresp, RA critics (I don’t think a  lit man an art critic by virtue of his profession as many do) say it’s bad, public swarms to H Hunt’s Scape-Goat, it is real as only preRaph pics are. Great deal of mistaken nonsense talked about them, know the men, all young, describes them, PRB resulted fr feeling that modern art was unreal and untrue as art compared with early art, closer deeper more accurate observation of Nature necessary. Admire Tennyson, Carlyle, Browning and Thackeray, don’t meddle outside art and poetry. ruskin will publish a pamphlet and cause controversy.

March 9 1857, p. 3, European Gossip, fr our gossiping corresp in London, a pict by Giotto of Virgin and child discovered in ragpicker’s shop, prob ptd during sojourn atAvignon, where he did frescoes. Next exhib of art at Manchester promises to be splendid, but not that in Paris, principal artists Ingres, Ary Scheffer, Decamps, Flandrin won’t contrib, but Vernet’s Battle of Alms and View of Sevastopol by Durand-Brager who lived with soldiers in Crimea. Gignoux Eve of Battle of Austerlitz an attraction

May 23, 1857, p. 5 NAD: larger number of good pics than any we remember. Artists who keep up public interest are equal to themselves, contrib of Page, Leutze and others with younger men impart gratifying and encour excellence and novelty. Only need liberal patronage to produce works of great tech power, exalted imag, thought, refined sentiment. Can’t wait for perfect art to start employing our artists. Notice more conspic.

            17 and 255 by Elliott, most characteristic, former old manner of force and freedom in touch and expr, latter hardly know him, much less than usual vigor in color and drwg, still expr is excellent.

            Hicks port of HW Beecher, ¾ length, simplicity, vigor free careful drwg characteristic expr, second time he did him.

            Huntington only ports, best is Verplanck 86, finely ptd, head seems to lack intel char of original, but striking. 129 lady most agreeable in Exhib, delicate.

`48 Baker best of numerous pics, pleasing subj, happiest manner, handsome women and kids; 109 children is child like but they seem in masquerade. 487 Baker’s felicitous pencil, tenderness.

            194 lady Gray characteristic expr; his 412 character inflexible, too yellow tone, 536 child most pleasing.

            470 Carpenter, agreeably, 480 Healy lady like, generously ptd, gray tones render monotonous. 35 Darby characteristic. 55 Green ideal great dignity; 242 Stone expression of age and in 512. Bogle’s best port is of Huntington, 394.

            Cafferty several elab heads, best pic is Cavalier 243. 33 124 and 420 ports by Fanani, repulsively crude, nothing to recommend them but staring and superficial likeness. Staigg fine miniatures, crayon, Rowse, Colyer, Lawrence 341 most melancholy rendering of great poet Bryant, not one feature in common with orig, false in proportion, outline, modeling, only one eye. Feeble Judge Daly 340 too. His colored ports have monotonous brick dust color at utter variance with natural color of skin, flesh tints have no more grays and carnations of nature than well tanned leather as in 2 and 257. Mrs Dassel.

            2 by Leutze, full of learning, delicat manip, not most striking. Chief merits is power of making incident apparent at once. 50 Rose of Alhambra this power not clearly forcibly exhib, tho full of fine ptg and parts command admiration, long sweep ob black drapery and rows of candles confuse it, but whole grows on spectator. Most elab compos of exhib. 473 Summons story more apparent, tho pict not as powerful.

            Edwin White has 5, best compos in coll, careful studies. 406 First N-E Tgiving is best, fine generous andindividual. 10 Michael Angelo in Titian’s studio and 590 Hagar effective.

            Rossiter’s pics numerous, usual glowing colors, 98 more golden and gorgeous than Venice. 163 Wise and Foolish Virgins oriental splendor and magnify. 61 and 540 Ancient and Mod xtianity show progress to disadvantage of xtian simplicity.

            Hunt’s most impressive is 88, Bouqueiero, alw filled with sentiment, subdued color, well conceived drwg. Lang and Hall lead this yr in gaudy color, 20 Recollections of Lake Mahopac by Lang except for some bad drwg v sunny and gay. Hall’s 82 Shakespeare’s Reverie striking and agreeable, drwg not v gd, characters want variety, Shakespeare in uncomfortable posture for long reverie.

            Tait improves in 26, Slight Chance, esp lscape. 69 Stearnspleasant, dull and dry. 112 Jones has an idea. 135 Irving well composed ptd, pervaded by quiet gray tone makes it pleasing. 360 Covering the Retreat by Carter stirring, warlike, awful conflict, tells story. Suppose roig. His 280 is totally diff style, more agreeable.

            543 Roman mom and child, Wm Page, full of power, more like old pictures than nature. 534 Time to go Edmonds tells story well. 538 Ehninger charming little study. 75 Lambdin one of best conceived and executed, free fr every kind of trick to catch eye, colore, exagg light and shade, just depicts sentimene and human feeling.

            208 Gray’s Hagar in Wilderness best compos for a long time, more delicat, wilderness not v obvious, angel too substantial for such an attitude

May 27, 1857, p. 5 NAD exhib, 2nd notice

Long conceded Am schl port equal if not superior to any other. That we are behind in fig compos owes to little demand for it, money goes abroad. Large sum spent in Federal capital, but Horace Vernet solicited. This error more unfortunate as disting artist in decline not prime of vigor, his pencil won’t reflect honor on him or us. Same money to native talent if didn’t produce great works, at least preserve national individuality.

            Money spent on foreign engrav directed agst devt of fresh talent, relies on tradesmen tricks to take in buyers, better to benefit artist for new creation than publisher. Nothing is done for art by engraving, bcause first class ones don’t pay for itself. To pay must be slighted executition or have some meretricious element for effect, so any benefit fr improving correct taste is thwarted. Plus no addition to already existing ideas.

            Schl of lscape takes foremost rank. Feature this school is assuming is disposition to finish with microscopic minuteness accuracy objects which have individuality in nature, but whose botanical geological char has nothing in common with sentiment of a scene. Utmost accuracy of stone, weed, grass, requires sharp perceptive faculties, alw at expense of sentiment and feeling, its most charming and endearing element. Mere sensation is low. Imag demands thru eye a clearly-defined suggestion, forbids sense to usurp imag right. Exquis feeling that pervaded works of Coleman now dissipated by effort to compete in useless imitation.

            Venerable Pres Durand not unsmitten, forced by superficial fashionable admiration into careful rendering of mullen stems and chickweed. No other decline of power, tho pics not full of his own pastoral sentiment. 132 Esopus Creek truly himself, mellow, stately, peaceful, Summer morning light, harmony of naure.

            Church has 3, principal is 23 Andes of Equador, best in some respects. Fault is intro of sun, error of judgment, can’t be painted, as he knew. All other respects noble, glowing, crowded with forms varied and infinite as Nature. 522, View on Madalena Rv cold black opaque. 143 Autumn strained and overdone, sentiment frittered away.

            281 Mignot Autumnal study more pleasingly successful. 484 Foray by Mignot and Ehninger, faulty in neither a lscape with figs nor vice versa, same is true in 126 Recreation and 249 Road to Mill by Thompson.

            Kensett same pleasant, upland tone as usual, 458 Coast scene, full of observ vividly exhil sea atmosph, 482 most agreeable without ostentation, sober simple soothing.

            79 Mt Jefferson White Mtns, Cropsey, mtns not white but every other color violet to red, some passages well ptd, but as a whole not pleasing; 191 Warwick Castle same effect, flat and sharp without meaning.

            Casilear holds pop admiration, warmth of color, indistinctness of form charm everybody, 155 admirable.

            Heine has 6, 6 and7 belong to Bayard Taylor, well ptd and interesting, great improvement.

165 Conway Meadows Champney, exceedingly agreeable, quiet and unobtrusive, full of sentiment.

            85 Close of Day Mt Desert most pleasant, simplicity pervading warmth truly delightful, Wm Hart, several others the same. 65 Summer Afternoon James M Hart, gd ptg fine pic, so wants unity as to prevent it fr first rank.

            Hubbard, 166 and 172 Stillman has severe drwg, want atmosphere, cold and opaque, no feeling to redeem them fr lifeless theory. Shattuck’s best are small, indivd in drwg, v sweet color. 58 Lowland Pasture foregrd full detail, but clumsy, thick effect, as if smothed in glue or mucilaginous compounds, while distance is mannered in form, untrue in color, entirely deficient in aerial persp.

            Colman falling into same qual, 516 and 546 quite beaut but v mannered. Gignoux as usual. 153 sketch by James, pics alw have essential feeling of artistic mind, so are individual, break into dry detail so great a feature, shld have more impt work.

            523 Nichols, larges of his, improvement, sky finely conceived, power, idea of fine feeling alw make his attractive. 440 Cranch also pervaded fine sentiment. Talbot v gd, not equal to past. 265 Brown as usual. JH and JW Hill literal and faithful, but cold and crude, same for studies by Perkins.

            Hays and Laurel in animals and game, both work fr dead. 258 Verboekhoven most imposing bull.

            Muller best sculpt 382, spirited and natural, Mozier v bad bust.

June 1 1857 p. 6 European Gossip fr London: art exhib at Manchester, 5000 works of art, 652 mod pics, masterpieces, portraits by Vandyke never seen, middle ages to present. Jun 18, 1857 p. 5 long notice of inauguration of Warren’s statue in Boston during anniv of Bunker Hill

Jun 19 1857 p. 3 The State of Europe gossiping corresp gives long long review of Manchester and RA, with some comments on mod art

June 16, 1857 p. 6 City Items: Remb Peale reads paper tonight before Hist Soc on Washington and his portraits, only surviving artist to paint GW fr life, reminiscences must be interesting, families of members will be admitted.

            June 27 1857, p. 1, advert notes that Cof D will be exhib and Remb Peale describe it as fundraiser for Home of the Friendless.

June 19 1857 p. 3 printed out ‘gossiping correspondent’s’ review of art exhibitions in London, both Royal Acad and much more enthusiastic about Manchester’s Euro masterpieces 

Sept 28 1857 p. 6 (has started noting theaters?) City Items: Rosa Bonheur’s famous Horse Market exhib Williams & Stevens for first time, echo applause of most intellig Euro critics, does not belong in highest category of art, subj nothing to do with ideal nor elevated emotions of soul, heavy and powerful but spirited Norman horses brought to market, pict full of a immense vitality force and character, seek vainly for feminine timidity and feebleness naturally expected. Compared with Bonheur, Landseer but a gentle parlor sentimentalist and Herring mannered and wooden. In her recent French school which has achieved such glory in historical ptg seizes laurel in this dept of art. Force and truth are qual most impress amateur, a truth w/o exagga nd coarseness. Coloring v agreeable. Prop of WP Wright of Hoboken, who commiss 3 large pics of Huntington, Hicks and Rossiter, which we gave an account.

Oct 15 1857 p. 6 our own reporter, SR, on Connecticut State Fair, less sd about fine arts the better, folly to connect it with ag exhib, a Broadway shop window worth a dozen of Artists’ Hall

Dec 9 1857 p. 3 a New Exhib of Mod Pics, Interesting Corresp. Letter to August Belmont re his late residenc abroad collecting ptgs, discrimination as judge of fa, request will exhibit, Guilan Verplanck, Am Cozzens, Wm Appleton, Jon Sturges, Em Evarts, CM Leupp, John Wolf, Wm Hoppin, Edw Bell. Belmont writes back that will comply, proceeds to charity.

Jan 27 1858 eulogy on Crawford by Thom Hicks before the Century Club, p2

Terry and Freeman his early associates

Feb 4 1858 life of David d’Angers p. 3

Feb 8 1858 p. 7 City Items, Rev Dr Hawks lecture at NYHS Old America’s Msge to Young America

Feb 10, 1858, p.3 John M Botts in Rome, fr Eve Post extract of a private letter, go ahead propensities of Capt Tyler’s ex-friend fr Virginia, got past the dress code at Sistine chapel, has seen no pics superior to works of art in VA

Feb 23 1858 p.5  The Ports of Wash—Remb Peale venerable ptr read paper last evening before Hist Soc, exhib copy of port ptd by his father when Was was but 41, tells anecdotes of GW. Says Houdon’s cast a projection of the chin and elevation of the head gave a theatrical air. Exhib a colossal monochrome of a profile corrected fr Houdon, which certainly expressed something grander than the portraits. Of those by dad thought the eyes and nose too small. In Pine’s the head too small. Peale thinks his subseq portr approached more nearly the orig than any other, exhibited it. Freq interrupted by applause.

            -reluctantly admires Boucicault, for turning life as it is into stage theater, standard drama is dead, stage must represent things as they are, Poor of NY drew in virtue of its being a vital subject

p.7 The Alleged Model Artists: in Saturday’s Trib three police inspectors or captains said to be in alleged model artist estab 463 Broome st, when Sergeant Berney descended on the place, but  not true; actually a house of prostitution.

p. 4 Celeb of W’s Bday in Richmond, inaug of colossal bronze statue by Thom Crawford, imposing pedestal, with statues around base of distinguished Virginians, veiled statue regarded with anxious interest, cheers, looks magnificently

April 13 1858 p. 5 State of Europe fr corresp in London, APC: Americans care little for ancient art, but 2 statues discov at Budrun at celeb Mausoleum now in portico of Brit Mus, best draped statues of antiquity we know, recent additions of Phoenician monuments fr Carthage are rude and unartistical, tho Roman mosaics there of greatest beauty

p. 7 City Items: NAD invitational private view, great throng, unusual merit and interest of coll, old favorites well represented, Elliott, Hicks and Baker; Kensett has a lot of lscapes. Ehninger, Carley, Blauvelt surprisingly able, Edwin White pleasing, Healy, Lawrence, Gignoux, Mignot much power but lack of study, Tait, Saintin Poor of NY, young artists.

May 4, 1858 p. 6 “NAD” its new rms having just prev occupied by 2 coll of ptgs, both extraord, and one excellent. English coll of duplicates and inferior orig Pre-Raph works, then the Belmont coll, fr studios of many of best artists in Germ, Belg and France. NAD has many more works and most by unestab artists, yet sustains comparison with previous NAD and these two Euro colls.

            Idea we are materialists incapable of appreciating fine arts is losing ground, and in recent revulsion theaters, opera and pict exhib more numerous and successful.

            Annual NAD exhib strikingly deficient in hist picts, we have not the organized appliances necessary to its study, while in genre, lscape and port, artists have means of study fr nature, we are behind no school and in many essential qual in foremost rank. Absence of academies partly explains this, as they alw inculcate conventionalities and mannerisms, and so without them artists thrown on resources of nature, so works not matter how naïve and simple bear an air of freshness and truth.

            Ports not v numerous compared to prev yrs, are of consid interest as works of art. Fine penciling and unmistakeable likeness in 113 Judge Ingraham and 535 James T Brady are in Elliott’s happiest manner, all his are characterized by a dashing vigor. 80 Halleck, 125 CH Ward, 577 the Portfolio, Hicks maintains rank, giving expression without exaggeration and color with truthful powerful simplicity. Baker exhib usu delicate manip in ports of children,26 (a gman) a gd likeness.

            Healy’s ports of ladies v striking and attractive, tho strange that 3 subj shld be treated so precisely in same way. Ports by Pratt, Carpenter, Pope, Stone, Stevens, Fisher and others equal to their former works.

            New names in genre: McClurg has 4 picts, best of which are 146 Comfort the Afflicted and 390 The Album, feeling of delicacy in sentiment and color. 23 Apple Gathering by Thomson is clever, and not unpleasing. 24 Haunted Mtn and 93 Attack on Tripoli are most striking pics by Carter, latter is historical and not free fr exagg. Lambdin has 4, and in all there is a visible falling off fr one last year; perhaps best is 627 Convalescent, the sentiment of which is more fortunate than the execution. Rossiter’s picts invested w/usual characteristic of gorgeous color. 105 Fi Fo Fum and 573 Gossip by Mrs Spencer, a gd deal of force and repulsively crude imitation of nature in all her picts, and they invariably tell the story beyond mistake. Bellows several genre picts interesting and earnestly ptd.

            162 12th Night Procession by Lang is gay and cheerful in color, more interesting bcause contains ports of disting persons. 190 The Illuminator (?) by Lourie, a gd study; 210 Malaria by Hillingford well exec and pervaded by touching pathos. 219 Warming Up by Blauvelt one of most successful, composition is perfect bcause story is perfectly told, every fig in it illus the title, well drawn and ptd with regard to character. Edmonds’ picts not improvements but as usual humorous and tell their own stories. Crayon drwgs most striking are 362 Death of Scipio by Darley and 363 Prod Son by Miss Gove, vigorous both in char and exec. Drwgs of Lawrence and Colyer have usu merits. 400 L’Aumobe?) by H Merle, pervaded by fine chara and delicate exec. 407 Costume by Michel is forcible in light and shade. 411 Sunny Hrs by Hicks is flooded with color and sunlight. 425 Interior has some gd ptg in figs, but as a whole is utterly unworthy the rep of Leutze.

            467 Luther at Home by Edwin White is agreeable in tone, but v inferior to his former works. 6 pictures of Gil Blas almost as bad as they cld possibly be. Feeble in character, false in color and tone, mannered in composition, haven’t even saving qual of invention. 505 Coming Storm by Waterman has fresh clearness of nature abt it, sky is partic gd. Mount’s little picts alw have character and an idea, tho faulty in drwg and thinly and feebly ptd. 542 Venetian Water Carrier by Perry and 543 Baltimore Newsvendor by Wood are picts of entirely opposite qual, former having dim warm color of old picts, and latter the shining hardness characteristic of a mulatto. 546 Margaret by Staigg has sentiment in expr and color, his miniatures are unequaled and superb. 468 Saul and David by Craig indicates fine feeling for color. 415  Poor but Virtuous by Saintin shows consid power, also a number of drwgs which mark steady prog in right direction. 564 Roman Women at a Ftn by Gray is one of best of his, in usual manner. 582 Zouave by May not so gd as some of his former, vigorous, but lacks fine character and truthful ptg. 590 Ehninger is in many respects his best pict, carefully studied, tho story somewhat trite. Exhib also number of ddrwgs of more than usual interest, series illus story of John Gilpin and 365 Christ Healing. 608 Elliott and his Friends, by Stearns, interesting fr its portraits. Peale’s 4 picts of children full of sentiment, childlike, delicately drawn and ptd. 591 First Sorrow is perhaps his best, but there is a want of texture common to his works and even this is not exempt. Interesting picts of animals, game, still life, in latter, 569 Hall is brilliant in color, and his group of 3 ladies, 229 Snow-Flurry has same vivid coloring. Hays and Tait well repress in their depts., 604 by Hays ptd with remarkable fidelity.

            Rich coll in lscape as usual, number of elab compositions, some excellent studies fr nature, like 13, an effective truthful bit by Hicks. Wm Hart and James M Hart conspic contribs, advanced in last year, 18 Loon Lake by JM Hart perhaps best he’s yet ptd, 260 Midsummer has more variety in genl treatment. W Hart’s studies have impress of faithful effort, but rather dry and hard, most successful 165 Meadow Groves, agreeable tho a little hard. Perkins’ studies show great care, but too hard, defective in qual of warm color. Nichols’ 4 picts are quiet, evince marked improvement. 510 New England Dwelling by Wenzler, v real, w/o artistic or pictque qualities.

            Most interesting small lscapes tho many hung so almost lost to ord observer, by Gifford. Elab finished, agreeable in tone, charm of completeness. 460 Lake Nemi greatly increase his rep. 222 Sundown by Hubbard like all his is quiet, gentle and pleasing, grows on familiar acquaintance. Shattuck barely sustains himself, except 516 Autumn, distance is exquis and deliciously ptd. 99 Lake Lucern by Bierstadt is in some respects successful, the subdued and careful study of trees and foregrd shows fine feeling for those characteristics in nature that rarely fail to please. 57 Winter Twilight by Boughton successfully expresses pinching dreariness. Champney, Casilear, Cropsey, Huntington and Messrs Hill not equal to former years, 192 by Heine shows great improvement. Dix shows some cleverness in marine views, Gignoux 558 Dismal Swamp is glowing in color. Some little picts by Innes are poems of sentiment, artist-like, simple in compos, subdued in color, flooded with profound feeling. 215 Among the Cordilleras by Mignot is most striking lscape of exhib, full of excellent work, upper portion nobly done with regards to cloud forms and tinting, same fidelity with less force pervades the middle distance, and foregrd alm painfully minute in finish, showing artist to possess intimate knowl of his subj and unflinching industry. Yet the entire work has not the impress of sublimity, nor produce a sense of pleasure in the mind, and after appreciating its separate excellent parts, the whole confuses and perplexes the beholder.

            Durand 3 lscape compositions in his usual style, more simplicity in manner of treatment than Mignot, but effect on mind alm as unsatisfactory. Work in detail is gd of its kind, separate parts are sufficiently finished and beaut in themselves, but when you come before them fresh fr nature, with a clear memory of her great atmospheric space, distance nd distinctness, feel even with appearance of superficial truth agst you that the forms are inconsistent in their rlns, w/o aerial persp, and monotonous in tone and color. 492 is best, but attractiveness meretricious, fr a softening away of all the rugged sharpness and individuality of nature, as if to harmonize with the elegant upholstery of well furnished drwg rms, yet with all this overdone penciling in other portions of the pict, the water, which in nature is smooth and delicate, is slovenly and muddily ptd. Durand studies nature, but after that he comes to his compositions with an unvitalized method that robs his labor of the charm that properly directed study ought to give.

            6th gallery has two picts of remarkable power: 581 Great Gulf in White Mtns by Colman, 613 Sunset on the Coast by Kensett. Both characterized by same clear, consistent and generous comprehension of nature, neither trick nor plagiarism, nor confined to arbitrary laws of compos, with a large tree exactly in this place, a small one in that, a mtn hare, a strip of water, with a few cirrous clouds drifting into rain clouds, with cumuli or thunder heads shining like shell of an ostrich egg, and whole smoothed down to insipidity. Colman’s pict full of sublime emotions. To look fr mtn peak and see form after form fading downward into that fearful chasm, till eye can no longer distinguish and become as faint as the thin air in which they are lost, is grand and sublime. Can’t be popular bcause subj is not a familiar one and pict hasn’t enough light on it, but same artistic sincerity and truthful comprehension of great qual of nature applied to more familiar scenes wld make universal fame for him. Kensett’s Coast Scene breaths the cool moist air of the sea, the waves and rocks warmed by last rays of sun. Go abt the rooms, struck by broad daylight effect of Kensett’s picts, no muddling, no confusion of effects, but clear gray tones of sky and air and rocks, greet eye with silvery gratefulness. His compositions look like studies fr actual scenes bcause he profoundly appreciates and conscientiously depicts one qual which nature asserts as common law, all forms and colors in open day are subservient to breadth and unity. Many other fine picts discover carefully investigate nooks and corners of rooms, as we sincerely advise them to do.

May 17 1858 p. 5 From Washington,The Decoration of the Capitol, fr our own corresp, lots of opps, best artists offered to be employed, rejected and work going forward under direction of an Ital whose rep is little better than a skillful scene ptr, employs crowd of 60 or 70 foreign ptrs Ital and Frenchmen, tawdry and gaudy ornaments, vile in taste, poor in design and offensive in color. Senate Naval Comm room has already cost $10,000, and absurd outrageous taste, servile tasteless reproduction of Pompeian worn out fade wearisome gods, goddesses etc which have passed away fr lit and art where they flourish. Similar to stock of valentines, venuses and cupids and monsters are just as hi specimens of art and have as much meaning and signif, nothing illus of natl hist or char, no necessity to reproduce cast-off absurdities of the Old World, which have no meaning to us. Plain whitewash of our fathers more respectable than these tasteless imitations of obsolete rubbish. An artist with national ideas could introduce peculiarly American schooners clippers etc, plenty of competent marine ptrs, instead of sea divinities fr baths of Titus. Italy where progress of taste as of everything else is a century behind the world, vulgar and obsolete and ridiculous trash, tritons nereids marine horses. Same foreign element everywhere, even where foreign artist does his best with native pics and engravings to make the thing American, succeeds as a Chinese artist in copying a Western ptg, strangeness of tone and feeling.

            Capt Meigs responsible, have heretofore defended him in Trib fr attacks on new Hall of Rep, intellig and integrity, gd engineer, but toleration of monstrosities under name of Art shows has not taste or cultivation that entitle him to direct the decorations. Congress shld appoint a connoisseur to superintend.

May 31, 1858 p. 3, letter to the editor fr Guglielmo Gajani, Bond st, Decorations of the Capitol, liked Brumidi’s stuff, but saw attacks agst him in Tribune on May 17. Knew him in Rome where much esteemed. On grounds of art and taste, fresco ptg, must work with great rapidity, Am artists could have learned it but wld take time and expenditure, extraord patriotism to buy it when a better article can be imported for so much less. Historical truth and severity gd for a national gallery, but in decorating large bldg’s rooms absurd to reduce everything to a matter of fact, doing away with traditional rules of art. Everywhere in Euro meet same style as Brumidi, must find fault with all his predecessors, vain to say that these absurdities of the old world shd be corrected, for all best Am artists have derived their style fr it. Absurd to despise Brumidi’s works bcause look foreign and classical, a gd Am artist would equally offend on this pt. Classical drapery can’t be given up for everchanging fashion of modern dress. Canova and Napoleon for example. The fine arts are not a matter of fact. Must have feeling and educated taste, can’t discover life in them by mechanical observation. Bad taste to see only naked women in the nude.

Jun 23 1858 p. 6 European Gossip fr London, exhib of RA fave topic of metro, as usual, great portion is portraits, Engl ptrs assume a hi rank, Grant, Lant and Pickersgill most disting. Unhappily the originals are generally of the oddest kind, the most insignif looking aldermen, most oily faced preachers, most blear eyed ladies. Landseer 2 excellent, stag in Highlands in pastel,full size, splendid effect. Maid and Magpie in oil v lively and elegant. Phillipi full of life and conception, great vigor, as is H O’Neil’s Eastward Ho (for Crimea) moving leave of soldiers, finely finished details. T Faed Listener never hears gude o himself full of telling humor, excellently ptd.

            Stanfields and Creswick only lscape ptrs worthy of notice. Hist pics only there by name, not a canvas deserving that great name. Pics of this class bad and unnatural, idea and compos childish. Leslie’s And Jesus called a little child, and Hart’s Athello’d Dismay at the Coronation of Jonah. The older academicians have become very old. FM Ward, has commissions for Visit of Queen Vic at tomb of Napoleon, is youthful girl, Louis Nap looks like a Jack pudding. Accident more likely than design, Ward smart and clever wouldn’t quarrel with his bread and butter.

            Gem of exhib is WP Frith’s Derby Day, nat holiday, truly Pickwickian humor, no detail omitted, fops, jugglers, gamblers, gluttons, ladies, gypsies, live on the canvas.

            Pre Raphs are seemingly dead and forgotten, so say their slanderers, but among artists and critics still have enthuse admirers and warm panegyrists.

Aug 6 1858 p. 6, fr New Haven, IK Marvel talk on ptgs at New Haven, How to Look at Pics, Real name is Donald G Mitchell (wrote Saratoga reports for C&E). in conclusion spoke of the critics, man may learn fr them more abt niceties of art and dexterity of exec, but shld never yield to any dictum which does not bring its own force, if yield to crit rhetoric no knowing but that he will find Raphaels in every auction shop. Must read Ruskin, hammers at cherished prejudices. You may have admired your State Hse, he will tell you it is detestable, bcause it is Greek and has no Am meaning, and half plaster so a sham. Your brick college, detestable. Cheap books, detestable. Engraving is idle and dirty. Wrong, but pleasure in reading him, courage and earnestness such noble things, carry them into art study. The painting world is only the type world. Noblest sentiments Hope et al are ours, artists have power to give outward type, we express them in our lives.

Oct 21, 1858 p. 7 City Items notes sale by Leeds on Nassau st of fine private coll of Mr Swinebourne of White Plains and GWA Jenkins of this city, gems by Durand, Kensett, Cropsey, GH Hall, Prof Sohn of Duss, Harvey, Miss Wagner, Baker, Oertel, Coleman and others. Finest opp of season for connoisseurs.

November 13 1858 p. 7 notices a popular Art Union scam, where tickets are sent to be sold, money returned for a drwg

Feb 11 1859, p. 6, Recollections of Wm H Prescott, corresp fr Washington was his Secretary 12 years ago, starting in summer of 1847 in Boston

May 19 1859 p. 4 The Washingtonian Mania—funny article about putting up Washingtons in every town

May 21, 1859, p. 6, NA Exhib, Concluding Article:

Many lscapes pleasant to pause before, but must pass, many more poor and might be crit w/o mercy, but purpose to direct attn. to good. Condemnation is v easy, critic who cares more for lively than just comment, easily betrayed into it. Not much symp or respect for spirit which condemns everything Am merely bcause it is so, don’t pretend to unltd patriotism, no patience w/supercilious air of gmen who have walked thru Louvre and Pitti and are incapable thereafter of seeing any merit in living art of own country. Expected to bow instinctively to superior wisdom satisfied w/nothing short of hi art, and are to take for granted that where such critics see nothing to praise, nothing is praiseworthy. But sometimes wisdom is only assumption, easier to blame without a reason than to praise. Artists’ difficulties and discouragement here enuf without adding flippant or unjust judgment. Try to pass by without comment the poor, unless offensively pretentious.

            Almost first and last thing visitor sees are DM Carter’s 82 Legend of St Michael and 733 Death of Baron De Kalb, first orig in conception, second not, both ambitious, neither pleasing. De Kalb treatment suggests Trumbull’s Battle of Bunker Hill, but w/o even its spirit. Legend is orig, if that be a merit, as idea of revolted angels in middle air evidently a happy adaptation of an Indian war dance to expr torments of damned. Not without cleverness as a colorist, works with care, does not excel in depicting human or angelic passion or suffering.

            125 Venus Stealing Cupid’s Las Arrow, SS Osgood, better in port than anything of this sort, whole pic is crude in color and cold in expr in everything but attitude of young god, which is quite warm enuf. Face of Venus inane and blank.

            Louis Lang 3 pics, all tragic sort, in 237 Temptation of Joan of Arc and 646 Last Slumber of Beatrice Cenci, much to praise, but both affect us as being rather nearly good than absolutely so. Excellent as interiors, gives great solidity to stonewalls, effective in dim sight of dungeons, but fails where means to be most effective, in human figs, in which interest of pics centers. Maid of O not flesh and blood, but made up fr either material of her costume or walls abt her, so little do they differ in handling or tint. Cenci not a lovely suffering woman, but a pallid doll, nor a port of Beatrice. Fig beside her a woman, but why in trad attitude of stage, with finger on lip? Jailer and priests better, tho all have struck a stage attitude. This is one of the largest pics in exhib, and its defects the more conspicuous. Blind Nidia 254 has same fault of feebleness of fig, and indecision of blind girl might have been rendered without evident and painful want of sight in the eyeballs.

            Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, 263, Thorn, marked ptg in 2nd gall, not w/o gd points. Squire, obscured by dust of his own raising, is best, but Knight, half fool and half madman of popular Don Q in whom we do not believe, a weak caricature. Another Don Q of same sort, 388, by Elliot, a vagary in which we hope he will not often indulge, as shld be satisfied w/supremacy in port. No head of his not fine, and none better as a head, than 620, port of ex-Gov Throop.

            A Parisian Gamen, 288, Yewell, worthy of notice for excellence of attitude of boy. At left large ptg by Geo C Lambdin, 296, w/o name in cat, but story of Dead Wife, in best style of this artist. Lovely face fo dead woman, hardly visible form of prostrate and stricken husb, visible gloom of death chamber, glimpse thru blind of glorious sunshine, all minor accessories, admirably managed to take fr it air of commonplace in which artist treating such a subj wld be likely to fall. Positions shows singular want of feeling or care in hanging Committee, who put below it a drunken orgie fo sailors, appealing only to lowest sentiment, on one side boy lighting his cigar, on other a ragpicker gloating over a silver spoon in garbage, the worse for this place bcause wellptd, all in painfully violent contrast of common life with stillness of death and despair so well portrayed in other.

            Works of Johnson acknowl special attraction of Exhib, crayons already noticed, oil ptgs equally remarkable. Nothing better than 621 The Pets, nothing more certain to be popular, faithful to minutest detail of form and color, careful in whole management, pleasant face of amused child, attitude of partial rest, ready to to spring on kitten shld it do the mischief it contemplates, eagerness of kitten, full of life and animation, all intensified by quiet watchfulness of parrot. Less story, less variety of incident than in 321, Negro Life at the South, but it is one the pleasure in which wld last longer. Negro Life quite equal to other as a work of art—even superior, inasmuch as there is more of it. But it is a sort of Uncle Tom’s Cabin of pictures, and gives rise therefore to quite as many painful as pleasant reflections. Both ptgs remarkable for faithful and conscientious rendering of details, qual distinguishes everything fr his easel. Nothing taken for granted, no dashing in for sake of effect, no slurring over of parts, artist trusting that in merit of his work as a whole, absence of care in minor particulars will pass unnoticed or be forgiven. But most trivial accessories receive so far as they need them the same careful study and conscientious labor as most impt features, and whole seen thru a medium as luminous as all pervading daylight. Remarkable atmosphere more than anything makes the pics so full of movement and animation, as it is the sentiment of the story they tell and which appeals to common human interest that renders them so peculiarly attractive. In The Pets a single incident, but that charmingly told. In life at South a story within a story, first, slave life, as telling as ch fr Slavery As It Is, or a stirring speech fr the Anti-Slavery Platform, negro quarters teeming with life, human and animal, old bldg., moss covered, neglected, ruinous and desolate, contrasted with well built and carefully kept dwelling just beyond, indolent servants enjoying only solace, music, mistress refined and elegant looking in on what is clearly not a daily scene, with maid, better fed, better clothed, more of a woman and less a slave in outward life than her fellow servants, all a sad pict ofSouthern Slavery when viewed fr one standpt. On other side is careless happiness of simple people, enjoyment of present moment, forgetful perhaps ignorant of degradation, thoughtless of how soon may come rupture of natural ties in which lie only happiness, delighted mom and dancing child, old man wrapped up in sweet sounds of his own creation, little boy entranced by true negro love of melody, children wondering at Missis in negro-yard, young lovers attitudes instinct with fine sentiment common to every human creature, little dog lends hilarious bark to general fun. Both ptgs fr intrinsic merit of handling and as works of imag give Johnson hi rank.

            Already noticed Don Quixote by Geo H Hall in first article, his best ptg. Strawberries and Raspberries, 355 and 364 excellent for that sort of thing. Meaning of his Robt Burns, 376? That gman, recent centennial anniv of bith lately celeb, go aplowing in a white cravat, cap in hand, face turned up looking for sky to fall? Nor like his conception of Puritans, doubt if John Alden or Miles Standish were gallant-looking gmen in Kossuth hats that he depicts.

            Twelfth Night Queen 383 by Rossiter a beaut head, carefully ptd, but rest of fig thin and lacking roundness. Discoverers, 665, has grouped the discovers of New World in pictque groups and attitudes and brilliant costumes of their time, attracts gd deal of attn. Bold promontory, backgrd of sea and sky, add to its effect. Still it does not interest us, tho take for granted he has preserved likeness when it could be had, as without that historical truth pict valueless except as a conceit, and even that not orig his. Rossiter has several others, Guardians 318 well ptd, but idea not perfectly clear. Group of Children, 469, life like, but absence of accessories a merit in Discoverers, is defect.

            AF Tait’s animals alw gd, head of buck and doe 353 capital, instinct with fine animal expr and action. Dogs in 760 same merit. Birds also excellent, but Morning’s Sport 278 almost too good—comfortable nice looking gman in boat reloading, having brought down 2 wild geese and duck that dog and attendant bringing in, about whom are a score more of dead birds, has had incredible luck. Exagg of any sort a defect guard against in art as all else. 2 little pics of fowls by Delessard, 447 and 714 shld not escape notice, well drawn, effect of light peculiar but well managed. 532 and 687 by Couturier, invidious in this connection, no artist in this line here who may not learn fr admirable ptgs.

            Head of panting Eskimo dog, 426, WS Mount, well enuf done to deserve to be cut fr its surroundings. Tease, 371, as a whole, is better, and more in his old manner. SA Mount bright little pict of fish 351.

            Oertel better as ptr of animals than sacred/alleg subjs, more expr and feeling, in his cows than patriarchs, 506 Bereft, and 675, Morning Nap. Perfect repose of one and fine action of other admirably rendered, pleasure to look at such representations of rural life. Why will artists paint scenes of which they know nothing? Anybody ever see a company of reapers squat themselves down for a noonday rest in middle of harvest field in broad clare of sun, cattle unyoked and unfed, when there is a comfortable farmhouse and barns within 5 min walk? A large ptg of this preposterous sort will prob force itself upon attn. of everybody, number of it need not be given.

            Ports rich in qual, tho poor in numbers. Head a noble thing to paint, but must have attached some other interest than comparative anatomy. Men and women on whose ports we look with profoundest interest, and ports that are great ptgs, but this worthy gman in Dry Goods Line, or that one so well known in Provision Trade, not be properly pleased their ports giving way to something else? Fewer the better that are left. Not many very bad on walls.

            All of Huntington’s will enhance his rep. Mlle Rosina 325, half length fig, perhaps a port, v effective management of drapery, port Durand 283 v spirited. But best is 664, roundness of form and face in lovely pic rendered with great truth and power, position of fig full of grace and vigor, color of whole exceedingly harmonious. 547 Port Boy more than a mere port, interest apart fr indiv likeness, one is type of beaut woman, other of charming boy in mind of artist.

            T Buchanan Read ports affect us more pleasantly than his more ambitious pics, the conception of which we shld better underst if he put them into verse. 489 a Child and 496 a Girl have all the merit of his method.

            Are Healey’s subj his own choice, or victim of unhappy circumstances? 3 ports in exhib are lifesize, and challenge attn., and as mere ptgs deserve it, tho as ports not attractive. That of ex-Pres Tyler already noticed. 586, a Lady, a v real piece of flesh and blood, and a great deal of it. 383, port of a brother artist, full of life and spirit, Healey’s share in it well done. But is bro artist actually a bro man? Is he at large in world, going about in this airy and fantastic manner, and at that hight? If so, must be in boundless West, nowhere else could contain him. Pict ptd for a Chicago gallery.

            W Oliver Stone justifies well earned rep, 484 cabinet pic life and spirit, 581 and 693, latter a port of Ehninger, the artist, exceedingly truthful likeness.

            378 and 400 by Baker are charming, in peculiar delicacy of flesh-tints hardly excelled, comparable to Gray, in same rm several  of Gray’s characteristic admirable works, 499 remarkable evid of power in depicting color and texture of flesh. Arms and bosom have fullness and foundness of great vivacity.

            Hicks, another of our best known artists, pics alw command attn.. Several of his of well known citizens are called speaking portraits, as Gerard Stuyvesant, sort of pic friends cherish. In Wounded Dove, a pretty story, fine admirable head of child, tho other parts not so satisfactory. His largest work, Dr Kane pic, v happy idea, moment chosen for heroic Arctic discoverer, invests pict, one remembers intense sufferings of those two sad Winters, with touching and mournful interest. Nothing appeals so generally to sympathies of visitors, or brings before them so vividly the scene the artist has attempted.

May 23 1859 p. 5 Personal notes death of Chas Robt Leslie, celeb artist, lessons with Sully, taught briefly West Pt, career in England since 1832, v successful, critics say failing eye and hand in RA exhib this year. Ticknor of Boston owns his port of Scott, Ann Page and Slender owned in this city. Henry C Carey of Phila married his sister.

June 18, 1859 p. 4 “Wanted a Site!” People of Boston didn’t know what to do with Webster in the flesh, nor in the brass. Imprimis, an unpleasant uncertainty in impt regard of resemblance. Some think Powers’s statue v counterfeit presentment of Defender, others swear more like Man in the Moon. On this pt, an impt one, diff become well night deadly. Witnesses have been cited, given testimony. Edw Everett of opinion he shld know statue if he met it. Peter Harvey, who saw Webster under exciting vicissitude of owing money, says ditto. Choate, his eulogist, declares with rhetorical suavity that statue is an exceedingly pleasant likeness, recalling him in prime of strength, beauty and power.

            Strong testimonials, but mere mob takes other side. May be a reason. Those who never had pleasure of eating Marshfield mutton and madeira, know nothing of him save fr newspapers, naturally expected to behold him fr 10 to 15 ft hi, w/brass copy of Constitution as big as a barrel under his arm, and poor Hayne writing in mortal agony under his boots. More enthus undoubtedly anticipated that some mechanical contrivance borrowed fr Friar Bacon, allow statue to distinctly enunciate: “Venerable men! You have come down to us, etc.” Critics doubtless disappointed by absence of blue coat, brass buttons, buff waistcoat. Powers experienced difficulty in making a Webster which Phidias experienced in making  Jupiter Olympius, and failed while the Athenian succeeded. Boston J says many ardent friends of Webster have found statue wanting in some of those attributes they’d assigned to form of revered statesmen. That ardent friend, Wendell Phillips, who is supposed to know something of art, pronounces image a hideous mass of iron. We are left in perspiration of doubt and in desperation suggest an experiment we have seen our friends the ptrs try when we are admitted to their attics. For critical purposes, erect statue pro tem on Boston Common on its head, so likeness might become apparent to everybody? Suppose in Boston Town mtg shld be voted to knock of head altogether, or try amputating an arm or both legs? Might not desired end be attained by shortening coat tails, or clothing statue in bona fide, genuine hat, shirt, coat, breeches and boots formerly worn by him? When work thus perfected, every one will see that it will be both decus et tutamen, not simply an embellishment, but will frighten birds fr fruit trees in Public Garden.

            Momentous q of likeness insignif in view of more impt q of location. Statue remains under a bushel. Leg gave it yard rm in front of State hse, but Comm in charge keep it on its back, decline to put it up in that classic locality. Hesitancy a boyish piece of business, says B J. Before people order a bronze statue of a man who on 8, 10, or 12 occasions saved this Fed Union, shld think of what to do with it. Too large for largest front entry. If on roof, will make chimneys smoke. Undignified and waste of material to erect it in the backyard.

            Solemnly and sincerely appeal to give statue house room, or send it to NY. Some ofour innkeepers content to put up horrible lithos of Webster, may permit it to work out its lodging and breakfast, or can abide at free quarters in Park, alongside miraculous freestone Wash which now decorates that pop locality.

June 18, 1859 p. 4 Wanted a Site! People of Boston didn’t know what to do with Webster when alive or in brass, unpleasant uncertainty in regard of resemblance. Very counterfeit presentment or man in the Moon? Edw Everett, peter  Harvey who saw Webster when in debt, Choate, shld know the statue if he met it, W in prime of his strength, and beauty, and power. Mere mob on other side, who know him fr newspapers, expected he’d be ten feet hi with poor Hayne writing in mortal agony under his boots, constitution as big as a barrel under his arm, blue coat and brass buttons, not godlike enough. Wendell Phillips who is supposed to know something of art, says it’s a hideous mass of iron.

            Try erecting it on his head. Put it in the Park alongside miraculous freestone GW. (later has a funny article about conflict betw Webster statue and one proposed of Horace Mann across from it)

June 21 1859 p. 5 Theatrical: A New Play by John Brougham at Metrop theater, life of Quenty Matsys, Blacksmith Painter of Antwerp, fell in love with daughter of a painter of the traditional stamp, who swears daughter shall wed only a great ptr. Titian involved in a deception

June 22 1859 p. 4 Personal: very short notice fr Phila paper that Remb Peale and Thom Sully are ptg ea other’s portraits, emphasis on their ages and venerability, at request of a patron Jos Harrison. Also notes Longfellow presented a fine port of Alex von Humboldt ptd by Wright of Boston to Portland Nat Hist Soc

Aug 10 1859, Wm Page in London with his Venus, may be one rejected at Paris exhib on ground of indecency, Athenaeum says has ideal disregard of proportion in detail permitted the sculptor, but most idealArt, ambition honorable when realism in ptg as thrust on us as its only excellence, Venus has haughty and triumphant beauty of her who cld bring sword and firebrand among men, well modeled, but suggests past constraint or commission.

Aug 12 1859 p. 5 Europe/France, fr London corresp, Salon just closed, live battle pieces in Italy and crows of other historical subjects for last two months (which will fig on canvas in next Salon) prevented mention before, and now, happily for your readers, alm too late. Nothing but relig controversy duller than most of the so-called crit of pics which reader has not seen, exhib was fatiguingly extensive, some 4000. Abundance of fair merit, talent, little genius. Pic drew highest prizes was by a German, attracted most attn. fr masses, The Golden Wedding by Knauss, transl the Gemuchlichkeit of festivity, full of sentiment without sentimentality, hearty humor without vulgarity, cheerful 3 generations of family, air of refined beeriness. Goupil will engrave.

            Nonsense in Am papers why Page’s too-celeb Venus not admitted to Salon, true and only reason was not that it was indecent (which it is not, particularly), but not well enuf ptd, having seen it, agree. Countrymen May and Rothermel ea exhib fine productions, handsomely spoken of, May recd medal in 1855, Rothermel an honorable mention.

            One large ptg of camels in dreary waste of canvas had foot long signature of G Washington, but he is French. Two singular portraits of young Soule, son of exMinister to Spain, other of Hon Mr ---, speaking in Senate on Cuba, fierce, annexatory, swooping eagle qual given with an extraord deal of sign and black paint. Laugh, I remarked to an artist friend, the man who ptd them was not a fool. No he was insane, my critic snapped. Distinction was sound, observation applicable to numerous works of art by fierce, emphatic young geniuses.

p. 7 City Items: Church’s Heart of the Andes, in exhib at RA, justice not done by hanging committee. Church is at German Gallery 168 New Road st, can judge under more satisfactory condtions. Niagara manifested extraord power in vigorous and honest presentment of scene defied hand of ptr. Equal power here, example of literal and minute style, some critics call representative, historical or topographical, never been approached for scale and elaborateness by any work of art in this country.

            Study and labor expended deserve call colossal, picture in a certain sense, a generalization, brought into compass objects in strict topogr truth cld not have embraced, mtn spurs and summits, must diminish space between, spectator standing at a consid elevation. Along left bank of river runs hi road fr Guaranda to Hambato, which brings produce of Quito to port of Guayaquil, and conveys foreign gds fr  latter to interior of northern Ecuador. Figs give scale.

            Some will say only suggestive or imag method can recreate for spectator what painter saw and felt, be this as it may, a grand and unique work.

Oct 20, 1859, p. 6, notices Remb Peale doing his GW talk in Boston, and EL Brackett of Boston just done plaster bust of Rufus Choate, which pleases his admirers.

Dec. 7 1859, p. 7 City Items, GQ Colton of 37 Park row, will with Sarony, Major & Knapp doa  color litho of C of D, Peale certifies its accurate and admirable, sell at $1 rather than the usual $5, sure that this way he can sell 100,000 copes

            March 15, 1860, from the Post notices that Remb Peale recovering from his illness, tribute paid to him by local people

            May 7 1860 p. 1 ad for Cof D back at Cooper Institute

Oct 29, 1859 p. 5 notices photo bk of Raphael Madonnas, credits Putnam for leading way in applying photo to book ill, also WA Townsend, who publish Cooper, bringing out 64 illus by Darley of best engravers

Oct 31 1859 p. 7 City Items: Dusseldorf has Sonntag’s fine Dream of Italy; 2 pics by Bonheur at Goupil’s get hi praise 

Nov 5 1859 p. 7 “Page’s Venus, by B. Goddess of love now in NAD rms after leaving Duss gall, admiration for this not without some antagonism, by those whose vision is vitiated by prejudices or corrupt thoughts. Perfectly nude but perfectly chaste, expr indicates no improper thought, differs fr all the embodiments of ideal woman, Venus by Page in Boston Athenaeum shows her exulting in her conscious loveliness, more voluptuous. Orig work copied fr excellencies of antique predecessors. No veil, yet so pure a look, only a churl cld cavil.Looked to poets not painters. Not modelled fr life, but a Greek torso in Brit mus, triumphant discovery of Italy. Motive hi and noble. Public mind awakened to higher physical training, necessity of cultivating arts of health, disregarding costly injurious fripperies which disfig and embarrass human body

Nov 12 1859 p. 7 Palmer’s White Captive in Schaus’s new rms 629 Broadway for private view, entirely nude, delicacy refinement, muscles of face illus victory of xtian civ, as Tuckerman expresses it, moral self control, unsubdued in moral superiority, thoroughly American.

Nov 16 1859 p. 7 paragraph on Rosa Bonheur’s dad, parents disapproved his marriage, had to give up art; Joel T Hart’s bronze colossal statue of Henry Clay elicited praise fr Germ art critics at royal foundry display of models; City Items, rossiter and Mignot’s Washington at Mt Vernon, 1787 visit of Lfayette, praises, home after the war.

Nov 21 1859 p. 7 City Items (regularly notices Duss gallery, which also advertises heavily) lists on exhib Church’s Heart of Andes at Studio Bldg on Tenth st, Rosa Bonheur’s at Goupil’s new gall on Broadway, Home of Washington after the War by Rossiter and Mignot at NAD and Dream of Italy, Sonntag’s well commended pict, at Duss Gall

Dec 19, 1859, p.6 The Home of GW After the war, prob intended a pic to appeal to pop and domestic feeling rather than great work of art, commendable if nothing meretricious or unconscientious, may serve as method of ed to those who need culture and strengthen reverence, pleasant rather than great, common level of unpretending retirement, exemplification of homely virtues, admirably succeeded. Carefully and honestly treated, faithful portraits, GW dignity if a little too oratorical for a priv conversation, bearing of Lafayette ease of friendship with involuntary deference, subord details well managed, suggestive mimicry of boy with his cannon, timidity of girl, warm Summer, harmonious, prefer Mrs Curtis sitting in her chair nto a yard or two away, many would be glad not to be reminded by the black girl that he was a slaveholder

Feb 9 1860 p. 4 Congress having thrown away $50,000 in procuring fr Clark Mills a new deformity of sculpture, to which name of GW attached, Senator Pearce of MD moved to approp $3000 to set up monstrosity in DC. Having got for his wretched statue twice as much as Browne rec’d for his admirable one in Union square, he might bear cost himself. Hope put up where seen by as few as possible.

Feb 25 1860 p. 3 Art Items, introduces Van Beest with enthusiasm, auction of Geo H Hall known for still life, but his full sized head of Don Q attracted attn. at NA last time. Loves Eastman Johnson at Atheaneaum Club, rustic lovers. Blurb fr Albion editor Young on Page doing another Venus in Rome, another masterpiece, also his Aaron and Hur, great success and a legitimate one.

March 3 1860 Art Items not enthusiastic about Miss Lander’s Evangeline at Duss Gallery, true feminine delicacy, but dislikes effect of color thru polishing, akin to Gibson. Notes various others, including Freeman’s ptg for Hurlbut of Christ, not succeeded in elevating sentiment of our Savior.

March 10, 1860 p. 6 Art Items: too bad to have city exhibs at same time. Huntington has in studio one of finest heads, friends of Rev Dr SH Cox wld recognize it but it is Gen Swift of Geneva. Hawthorne introd Paul Akers and WW Story statues into romance, says he wanted to bring in Randolph Rogers’s bronze doors at Capitol. Mentions Whitridge in NY, CB Ives with work owned by MO Roberts, and bust of Prof Silliman. James J Jarves trying to secure for Boston a coll of early ptgs, have more luck fundraising here, where only authentic examples of early Ital art are Bryan Gallery in Cooper Inst. Elliott. Geo L Brown. Young sculp Volk at Chicago striking statuette of Senator Douglas at Parker’s in Broadway. Athenaeum Club

March 12, 1860 p. 5 Report of US Art Commission, recommends native artists, Henry K Brown, James R Lambdin, John F Kensett

March 13 1860 p. 6 The Jackson and the Washington Statues in DC, corresp of NY Trib, WMD.

            Artists have to crouch as beggars for Congress’s patronage, or scramble as for spoils agst those who trust to polit intrigue in pushing their claism, banish the true Artist, Congress has hallucination US has just one sculptor, patronage whose profuse liberality only equaled by his incapacity.

            In scorn of genius and derision of learning, trusts equest statue to utterly incompetent, boasts just a plasterer, sole claim of merit is horse of Jackson stands on hind legs, as though balancing a piece of metal had anything to do with art rather than steelyard makers or manuf of rocking horses. Artist makes Jackson secondary or accessory to those wonderful legs.

            Statue of GW beneath crit, not a line in it like nature, neck of such inord length it could eat oats fr cap, throat so far back over breast impossible, head and neck not fitted, scapula too high gives strange and bloated appearance, strangely suggestive of a monstrous potato. Horse is badly frightened as looks toward Whtie Hse, striking contrast with expre face of inanimate rider. Backward start so sudden, yet impassive rider not budged, patch work piece meal, put together v ingeniously but in defiance of harmony. Contempt.

March 21, 1860 p. 6 Art Items: praises E Johnson’s Pink, little slave girl purchased by Plymouth Church, real and ideal, on fox’s skin, looking at a ring; also did a portrait of a lady rises to region of ideal. Fine Art Commission at Nat Capitol finally in competent hands, rectifying wretched mistakes of late Superintendent, know duty, have gd system, Brown is Chair, will exting all the costly trumpery and begin again, credit to Pres Buchanan that he selected them.

March 27, 1860, p. 8 Last Artists’ Reception for the Season in 10th st Studio bldg., connoisseurs, fine exhib of sketches and unfinished pics, Bierstadt’s Rocky Mtns extraord, Indian trophies in studio bear witness. Singles out Mignot too, Whittredge, Shattuck, others

April 12 1860 NAD XXVth Exhib, The Private View p. 5. Precise object of the view the night before opening never ascertained, view is only of large crowd of well dressed gmen and ladies, supposed to represent crème de la crème of our metrop soc. RA does supper, with speeches glorifying art and artists, and something of this kind used to take place here, without ladies. But lately punch bowl and chicken salad abolished, oysters and champagne no more, speeches and ptgs no longer. Music and ladies replace edibles and potables, crammed rms, everybody invited.

            Not so many pics as last yr, but higher average char, severer discip of exclusion, no really objectionable pics, and more really gd than we remember. Many old masters whose mannerisms public eye had become wearily familiar are missing, in places some young masters with fresher looks, more vigorous ways, bright promises. No cat ready, if Healy, Gray, Durand, Mount, hicks, Church and Kensett there, not staringly represented. Huntington stronger than usual, versatile, port of Gandy, pict of Doubtful Bill engr in London Illus News, and a Court scene after the storm. Among older artists, Elliott characteristic sound heads, v striking port of Brady, the photog. Staigg, Stearns, JT Pede, Matteson a compos of pillory fr Scarlet Letter, May Ital peasant lovers.More fig pieces, v few orange and vermilion lscapes so prominent before, just one, more sea scenes, mentions Bradford again, Dix, Wm Hart, Shattuck, De Haas, Suydam WA Gay and Geo L Brown with sea pieces, E Moran too. Western artist Newell in mod Fr school, serious domestic scenes, Delizzard little lscapes, Lewis Lary’s Mary Queen of Scott’s best he’s done, Gignoux abandoned rosy snow scenes, idyllic spring morning. Hubbard, James Hart, Gifford, Shattuck, Coleman, Boyle, Mignot, Gifford, Boughton, Nichols, Hazletine, McEntee all char subjs. Wust, H Fenetobel, WT Richards, Frank Howland pupil of Stearns, JG Brown, WH Beard, Elma Gove, Dr Rugden, Leutze, Eastman Johnson may bear off honors of exhib by his Pink, Washington’s Kitchen and Mating, Bierstadt the piece de resistance in View in Rocky Mtns.

            J WRey Mold’s rejected designs for churches in Brooklyn. John Rogers groups in terra cotta most remarkable in sculptures.

April 28 1860 p. 4 Art in Washington, 1st article. Archaeologist of the future will be very confused by our ruins, won’t be able to conclude with history that Am a race of pure descent, refined manners and cultiv taste, but an utterly barbaric and ignorant and prob bastard people who came fr nowhere in partic, and cld hardly, judging fr these evidences of their char have had any special purpose in this world. But plaster and paint a pretence that no greater or more enlightened ? than a negro white-washer can cover into the limbo of dust and oblivion, won’t last long, emblematic designs show poverty of invention (telegraphic machine is telegraph, fire engine is machinery, etc, discreditable to a sign painter, baffling and painful and disorderly as congress, genius of bad taste and genius of disorder, one may have caused the other

May 2, 1860 p. 6 Art Items: Exploit of Elliott in cutting his badly hung port of Kneeland out of its frame at Acad Exhib caused more discussion than any recent event, result of daring act unknown, but woke up sleepy NA members. Suit commenced agst him commanding him to return it, but exhib will close first. Prob Elliott won’t send more ports, bad for institution.

            Friends of Col TB Thorpe say his Niagara equal to Church’s, purchased by Derby for reproduction in London. Fellow student of Elliott at NA, an author.

            Also mentions Geo L Brown, Van Beest, Hall, Coleman, Rowse. Artists in greatest demand are the comic designers. Bedew and McLenan overwhelmed.

May 5 1860 p. 5 Art in Washington (second article), approve of Buchanan’s Art Commission, prefer plain plaster to ancient art without design or method and absurdly out of place, goes on at length, where there are actual scenes, they are false in color, conception and treatment, detestable, suited for houses of prostitution

May 12 1860 p. 5 Art Items Athenaeum Club weekly reception new pic fr E Johnson and fr Delisnard. Johnson low life, happiest manner, delicious in color, simple humor, young negro of Topsy class, with stringless banjo, tries to imitate a master. Delissare field view in style of Bonheur. Page’s Flight into Egypt coming. Page’s Venus back after tour of South. Also notices Cinti Sketch Club, Geo L Brown, Rossiter, Elliott, Engl praise of Cropsey 

May 26 1860 p. 4Art Items: connoisseurs on this side of the Atlantic familiar with name and style of eminent PreRaph Holman Hunt, fr pics like Light of the World, prop of John Wolfe of NY, has been working for 4 years on a pict creating a sensation of Finding of Christ in the Temple. Young artists shld learn by his example, works 6 yrs on a pict. Our artists when commission to Amer hist pict go to Euro (Leutze to Dusseldorf, May to Paris to do Washington’s Resignation for state of Maryland; Powell’s De Soto to Paris as did Vanderlyn for Columbus; Schwartze’s landing ofPilgrims done in Paris or Dusseldorf, so picts are of French and Germ models in masquerade, without least Amer feeling. But Hunt’s feeling for dignity of art seeks local truth in hist pict, goes to Jerusalem for same types of humanity, tradition. Our artists need this spirit. Also praises Mdme Henriette Brown, ldy ptr in Paris, had 5 picts in 1855 exhib, recd a medal, mostly relig subjects and portraits. Real name Mdme de Saux, mom a singer, doesn’t spend more than two hours a day in her atelier, neat in dress, makes her own bonnets, appears in society with elegance and grace of manner. Why don’t we have one on 5th Ave? perhaps there are, we don’t know them, in present NAD exhib at least one ptg by lady gives evidence of hi order of talents, only a flower piece, but so exquis in finish and shows so genuine feeling for nature, wish necessity compelled production of more.

            Royal Acad stingy of space for Amer artists, only 6 admitted, ill hung. One was by Page, best fr his easel. Heart of Andes sent to England for engraver Forrest. His brilliant Sunset is nearly finished and most striking, going to Baltimore.

June 2, 1860 p. 6 Art Items: true studio of the artist under the greenwood tree, Gifford to North Carolina, Boughton to Europe and so too Buchanan Read, Shattuck gets married to sister of Coleman, his almost twin brother in art. Mynheer van Beest at studio in Broadway doing great naval battles. Chas A Barry well known artist in crayon gone to Springfield to do port of Honest Old Abe to be litho by GW Nichols. Notes death of eminent Belgian sculptor Van Geefe of Antwerp. Goupil & Co rec’d works by Edouard Frere, Plasson and Gerome, among best specimens we’ve seen here by them, Frere peculiarly interesting in showing he’s not deficient in talent for color. Most of his subj are of character for low tone and somber tints for sentiment, but little ptg of peasant boy after day’s gleaning in golden twilight, warmth of an arctic rural evening, pendant to boy dragging home in winter a bundle of faggots. Exquis truthfulness and tender sentiment of personal life in France. Countryman Thorn his only pupil says his picts ptd directly fr nature, lives in little village. Gerome’s pic sm study of Candaules, hardly fitting subj for public exhib despite masterly manner. King punished.

            Pictures of certain pop artists bring preposterous prices, Goupil sold sm ptg by Plasson, covered it with gold and its price in half eagles more than covered its surface, yet not so large a price as Meissonier, Gerome and even higher forEnglish artists. London auction 4 sm drwgs by DavidRoberts $960, Frith’s Vicar of Wakefield, $4825, lscapes by Stanfield etc. Large prices are lottery of art, multitudes toil to keep wolf fr door.

            Disreputable practice among auctioneers common of making gross misrepresentations abt picts they sell. At sale of Penniman’s coll in Union Square a few wks ago, advertised as ptgs by Raphael, Guido and Shegogue, but picts inferior copies by the latter “master.” At sale of Burton’s pics last week, Count D’Orsay’s equestrian port of Queen Vic described in cat as the horse being by Landseer—gross ignorance or fraud; ineffectual, pict brought $500. A v inferior copy of Wilkie’s Village Fest, made fr an engraving, cat called orig, which is in Nat Gall in London.

            Bostonians boast more lady artists, had ones exhib by 4, highly praised.

June 9, 1860, p. 5 Art Items: earnest if not lively controversy for some 3-4 months among some of our artists and critics on subj of nudity in art. Female statues of Palmer and Venuses of Page were cause, whether any decision at all, except by not at all fastidious public which likes anything gd and beaut, we don’t know. But subj lately discussed in v hi quarter w/gd deal of liveliness and seriousness, Ld Haddo, Scotch Presbyt, brought resolution to Brit Parliament to prevent artists using nude models. Prudery laughed at by more sensible, same nicety that would exclude would prevent dissection of naked subj in surgical college. Great fault of our own artists is they draw too little in life school.

            Lscape artists change migration, more to sea and less to mtns, Bradford of New Bedford whose marine in NAD exhib excited attn., gone back to Bay state. Giignoux, v fine studies of coast nr Mt Desert goes agn. Wm Hart on Maine coast, earnest study. Cix to sea, Suydam Narragansett, Allen Gay one of closest observers and whose unobtrusive pics in pres exhib greatly admired by those capable of appreciating, near Hingham now.

            Thom Hicks who ptd Seward before Chicago convention, now in Illinois to paint Honest Old Abe. Leutze in Fredericksburg will spend summer at West Point at Cozzens’s.

            Church invention in naming pics, Twilight in the Wilderness alm as gd as Heart of Andes, many think new pic is better of two. More poetical feeling and unity of design and certain parts never excelled. Next will work on Icebergs, worth companionship to Niagara, Andes, Twilight.

            Excellent pics of Belgian and Germ scls in Intl Art Gall 694 Broadway, not attracted attn. enuf, fire recently.

            Evans who has exhib Page’s Venus prep for exhib of collection of his work in connection with that pic, peculiar interest in marked changes in style and effects of his diff methods of color, esp earlier pics. 

June 16, 1860 p.4 Art Items, NAD closes, if interest in it indic pop feeling for art, prospect unflattering. Little excitement, but many visitors, despite no strong attraction. At recent Council mtg proposed to give Secy Cummings $1000.

            Opinions of Am letter writers re prominent ptgs in RA exhib strangely at variance with newsp crit, our countrymen not favorably impressed by Millais’ Black Brunswicker and Landseer’s Flood, so highly extolled. Young of Albion severe on H Hunt’s Finding of Christ, extolled as miracle of art, purchase for $25,000 by pic dealer, more for purchase for Manchester.

            Geo Ward Nichols, proprietor of Crayon Gall in Boradway pub Porte Crayon w/drwgs by Geo L Brown, E Johnson, AF Bellows and Geo Inness.

            Gibson, Engl sculp who caused sensation among connoiss with his polychrome tinted statue of Queen Vic, fig of Hebe, has color and gilded armlets/diadem. If color allowed on statuary, no reason stop short of actual imit of hues of life, Page once attempted to prove that this was the method of the Greeks.

            NY only major city with no free gallery of art. But merchants spend to embellish private residences, perhaps best method of promoting cause of art.

            Geo Inness left NY for vicinity of Boston, first artist we know to do so. Belmont’s pic gall newly decorated and arranged. Elliot compl port of Durand for Walters of Balt, and port of that liberal patron.

June 30, 1860, p.4 Art in Washington, Sculptures, fourth and last article

Greenough’s intended to represent struggle betw civilized and savage life, if conception striking for orig or power or peculiar grace, pardon execution, and vice versa, pardon feebleness of design, but group is coarse and commonplace, thought is meager and spiritless, Indian not modeled fr life but imperfect recollection in Italy, none of interest of a faithful representation of race passing away, woman not partic bad but child monstrous, dead or in convulsions can’t tell what contorts mom’s face, dog with a diff tail watches sedately, reached a degree of xtian civ so advanced as to disapprove of fighting. His GW rarely seen

            Persico a more palpable failure, typify discovery and subjugation of a simple and innocent people suggests a game of bowls, ball no world, but even well rendered illus not a happy one, commonplace re Columbus and no meaning for Indian race. Best place for it where it can’t be seen at all. (back view of woman immodest?)

            Pleasure and relief to Crawford, superintendent required full relief, grace dignity spirit life by simple allegory the advance of civilize, some figures faulty, Freedom for dome in beauty repose quiet dignity and noble aspect worthy. Hates Mills.

p. 8, Affairs in France fr own corresp, correct error in Trib of May 26, concur with sentiments of writer, but it was not may but White who came to Paris to paint Washington’s resignation at Annapolis for Maryland. Pic does more credit to W than painter’s conception. On P White’s canvas GW seems not resigning but backing out. May here to study, truly hist ptg now in his atelier, Columbus writing last will, so nobly large, historically faithful, free fr distracting details, greatest of his works and fit to rank with modern greats. Robt Fleury fave testimony to drwg, color, compos. Despite or with the incoming priest and acolyte, and friendly attendant, and table furnishings and drapery, great deep first and last idea is moral grandeur in words and works, provokes sentiment and thought, contemplation this thought and feeling harmonize, essential unity of pic whole spiritual nature of spec corresponds, so last summary impression is not sense of form a sentiment of great work by man inspired by faith and hope. Pic is not ingenious furniture detail, but high, idealied, real Columbus. But I am not a critic.

            In last London Athenaeum, friendly notice of Cropsey’s Autumn on Hudson, gets geography wrong

July 10, 1860 p. 3 reviews Leslie’s Autobio Recollections, reviewer loves Leslie, but says editor’s critical remarks on art evince little discrim, and betray often a singular degree of ignorance esp of Am art

July 11 1860 p. 6 Art Items: Roman decadence told by debased public architecture, we are very far from that. Prog in artistic culture and diffusion of gd taste, look at public bldgs., white marble stores on Pearl st of 40 years ago consid so superb and remarkable dedicated with eminent banquet, orations, versus new one on Broadway, a casket of jewels, hi artistic taste, French decorator who has had gems at NA exhib, Dellemard (?).

            Geo L Brown, Volk’s bust of Lincoln fr life at Geo Ward Nichols gallery, well exec recently opened, Nichols’Crayon Gall has gems of late NA exhib, inclu Frank Howland, Allan Gay, exquis sentiment, free fr meretricious trickery, low in tone. Mayer of Baltimore’s Plato, venerable colored person, extraord fine, like Edw Frere, strain of struggling poverty exhib in innocent young children, intensifies sentiment, tho here is heartiest prosperity without suffering. Also Eastman Johnson, Inness, Kensett, Van Beest, Brown.

July 21 1860 Art Items: puffs Darley illus of Cooper again, singles out Elliott’s port of Cooper, on exhib in Williams & Stevens in Broadway; notices Baron De Trobriand lscape at Goupil’s, Kensett back fr Dc, goes to Coast; Page’s Flight into Egypt sent fr Rome to Snedicor in Broadway, small and won’t be classed among his great successes. Stories told of fab price pd by Lenox for Turners for Fifth Ave coll, but corresp of Leslie says only 500 pounds, and Lenox didn’t like it at first. Dublin Univ Mag in article American Imaginings gives glowing trib to Wm W Story, mention Hawthorne’s Marble Faun

Aug 6 1860 p. 5 long article on big pic sales at Hotel Drouot; Aug 30, 1860 p. 7 notices WH Derby’s new art gall 625 Broadway Institute of Fine Arts, six statues of celeb artists in niches by Reshner & Saxton and archit by JR Hamilton, $50,000, studios on top.

Sept 8 1860 p. 4, notices expense of Nat Gall pics, John rogers a descendant of Smithfield martyr, a machinist, models w extraord skill and power, ingenuity and genius, 3 sm groups at last NA, Slave Auction noticed in Trib, sold but v few as no place to exhibit it, dealers refusing, now doing Fairy’s Whisper which will hardly raise objection in most timid tradesman, but there may be lurking treason in it after all.

Oct 23 1860 p3 Art Items Prince of Wales missed visiting 10th st studios, saw What Is It at Barnum’s instead. Suggest a portrait of the Prince by one of our artists. Van Beest admirable char marine views in crayon exhib at Nichols. New Cath church St Paul in Brooklyn decorated by Francis Augero, native of Turin. Geo L Brown large lscape at Newport. Hart Kentucky sculp here, Wm Hart lscapist returned, with Gifford and Hubbard, Hicks. Cropsey will pt a char Engl lscape as companion to Autumn on Hudson, view fr Richmond Hill. Edw Kuntze who had studio in Appleton’s did statuettes and medallions o fHathorne, Cropsey, and Young America (Geo Francis Train), is in London getting gd reviews for statue of Ld Elcho. Geo Flagg in London, gd port of Cropsey. Dubufe’s renowned pics of Adam and Eve here 30 yrs ago again exhib, orig shown without pecuniary benefit to artist and destroyed by fire, these are his recent works, many think greatly superior. Private letter fr London mentions Gambart’s exhib of Fr and Engl pics by Robt Crofts, gallery now in London, shows WT Richards, Ruskin likes. Noble creations of sculp Palmer attract female student.

Oct 27, 1860 p. 5

Cattle pieces of Verbrockhoven, Belgian, well known, many brought here, cattle simply animals, no dramatic interest as Landseer does, but external natures with conscientious fidelity, charms by unaffected simplicity of his groupings. V finest specimen just rec’d from his easel by Schaus, exquis delicacy, portraits of sheep and lambs, accuracy of photo.

            Prince of Wales had photos taken by Brady, also given Brown’s City and Bay of NY at Sunrise, 50 gmen subscribed $50 each to purchase admirable pict for him. Will forget the ball here, despite Peter Cooper and Delmonico’s, butpict on walls of his palace with moving clouds and majestic river, a bright vision (HW Beecher, John O Sargent, Col McKay, others)

            Private letter fr a young NY artist in England says constant rain drove him fr study of ruins to Turner, found them far beyond my expectations, require study to enter into feeling of them aright. Superior to Claude. Glory of color, grace of competition, later works, middle of third period are his best. With works of other men, Calcott, Lee, Witherington, Nasmyth, Jones and wretched sentimentalist Eastlake, ea visit become more and more feeble and worthless, a nuisance and a bore, nothing in them, some of our Empire City men could beat them to pieces, with exception of Turner Engl not great in lscape and France is not, know my opinion o fGerm art. Saw Holman Hunt’s pict of Finding of Christ, most remarkable work the realistic school has produced, finish beyond conception, may magnify it to any extent without injury. Char full of life and soul, vastly diff fr pict we had in NY, Light of the World. Christ most orig glorious conception of Savior, plenty of reddish brown hair, eyes depths soul and purpose of Father beam, tightening belt around loins for strength with battle win sin and worldliness, extremely pure and beaut, broad forehead, still a boy you might find among worldy parents, not at all like Ary Scheffer’s lifeless piece of sentiment. Purple robe, marble wonderful, Virgin sweet motherly creature, Rabbis lifelike Jews, passion of lust and avarice, sweet bit of evening sky.

            French and Flem schools emulate duss carry art of delicate finish to exquis degree, 2 perfect little gems in gallery of Schaus, by 2 unfamiliar artists, Meyer von Bremon, Emil Berenger.

            Rev Mr Clover, Episcopal clergyman of Springfiled, once known here as ptr of genre subjects, recently finished portrait of Uncle Abe Lincoln.

            Wertmuller’s Danae, v gd specimen of Fr school of last century, on exhib 30 yrs ago before accustomed to nudes such as Greek Slave, Palmer’s White Captive and Page’s Venus, but this is essentiallya salacious subj not invested with atmosphere of chastity, artist’s treatment does not divest it of impurities. Beyond artistic loveliness, not altogeth proper for public exhib, but tendency of public taste in that direction, Dubufe’s Adam and Eve back too

            Athenaeum Club last night had Geo L Brown’s Newport Beach and City and Bay of NY at Sunrise on exhib Weds night.

            Our active pict dealers take advantage of increased posthumous value of Van Beest’s marines, bought pics at New Bedford, an old friend Van Cleef appointed administrator of his estate. Pupil is Bradford.

Nov 7 1860 p. 7 Art Items: Executor of estate of Van Beest, Hawkins, critical of Trib for calling him a vagrant, Trib says he did wander in search of pictque, we were first to direct attn. to his merits. names variety of artists at work, WH Beard, Blondell, Shattuck, AF Bellows, Ehninger, Farrer, Gifford, McEntee, Kensett, Hubbard, Suydam, Huntingotn, Lambdin, Richards, Mignot, Durand, Elliott, Jame Hart, Wm Hart, young NY artist in Paris gossips only seen E Frere and T Frere, Decamps and Meissonier favorites, Bonheur works for foreign orders. Rousseau is THE man in lscape, Couture hi with art students. Boughton, coleman.

Nov 14 1860 p. 8 Sale of Works of Art: admirable gallery left by Chas M Leupp, at NAD, patronage judicious, native painters to illus brilliant scenery and rich phys life of land, select circle, charming characteristic pics. 82 pics sold, for just under $10,000. Highest price was for Cole’s bold and thorough Mtn Ford, $875. His Kenilworth Castle sold to same gman. Edwin Forrest bought W Alston’s Katherine and Petruchio. Great interest in Mount’s graphic ptgs, Dance of the Haymakers, perfect rustic Am interior, to Wolfe, and Banjo. Leutze’s Mrs Schuyler, masterly handling. Durand sold to Mr Johnson who also bought Leutze’s Holbein. Church delicious in color. Lists the other sales. Isham bought a Kensett. Morris bought Edmonds’ Ital Mendicants, Johnson bought his Gil Blas, Conover bought his Facing the Enemy,Mason his Sam weller and others. Inness, Greuze, lots of Chapman, Forrest bought his Ferdinand and Isabella and a Roman portrait by Page, also Linen’s port of Henry Clay and De Block’s John C Calhoun. Fred Cozzens bought a page portrait ofBryant. Blatchford a buyer too. Cozzens also bought an Inman. Melville bought a lscape for $7.50. An Oddie in the collection. Cozzens bought a Durand June Shower.

Nov 28 1860 p. 6 France, our own corresp, many Am artists in Paris, Cranch, view of Venice’s warmth and vitality is gd omen for her political resurrection, not dead but sleepeth, sunrise effect, Venice now lies restless, disturbed in morning hours, but dreams will prove true, sun struggling up, bringing liberty’s light thru thick, encompassing, oppressive Austrian clouds.

            May and Dana, Howland, Baker, Coleman, Boughton and others here too. 

Nov 20 1860 p. 5 Private view at Derby’s Inst of FA, beaut face of new bldg. amid confused archit of Broadway, chaste and pure is worthy worship of art in temple disting fr shrines to Almighty Dollar, malign influ of signs of golden letters a foot in length. Kaleidoscope of appalling monstrosities, mutely reproach vulgar display of figured bunting and emblazoned paper.

            Alcove inside has familiar Duss coll, genius of natural study of natural forms, simplest sensibility and severest taste, choice sculp like Marguerite  by Launt Thompson, his bust of Trapper will realize his celebrity. Jarves coll of old ptgs in two small rooms, recondite, not to be expected that public shld take to them.

Dec 8 1860 p. 6 Art Items: Current exhibs would have you think that we will be converted into a conglomerate of French, German and Belgic elements, parcel of cattle-fanciers and amateurs of cows and donkeys. Intolerable quantity of Belgium and Germany. In Broadway, new Institute of the Fine Arts has Boker’s Duss coll, the International Gall of Ptgs across the street is same school, Schaus has more with some French and Belgian, Goupil’s has  3rd Annual Exhib of French and Flemish. Fave pics in all are cattle pieces by Troyon, Verbockhoven and Bonheurs, little variety in subj if consid diff in treatment, suitable ornaments for a butcher’s stall, but strange for drwg rm walls, bring barnyard and parlor in too close proximity. But pop and sell for incred prices, Troyon ptg valued at $5000. Nothing on exhib of ideal and heroic char but Jarves’s old Italian masters in Derby’s new gall, or “Christian art” in Bryan’s coll at ‘cooper Inst. Only Engl and Am at Nichols’ and other pict dealers.

            Exhib for Artists’ Fund Soc in NAD rooms on 10th st, to be sold by auction, 200 works, half new, lists contributors, v creditable in comp to French and Belgian, tho nothing to rival Knauss or Leys. Not a single animal, but a head of a terrier. Fathers of modern art ptd demigods, successors to into farm yard and lavish wealth of genius in representations of pigs, ducks, goats, sheep and donkeys.

            Athenaeum Club exhib include lscape by Geo Innes, lscapes Kensett Shattuck and Wm Hart

Dec 11 1860, p. 6 State of Europe, Affairs in France, TB Read poet ptr passed thru, painted Am minister Dallas and Am banker Peabody in Engl, his portrait of Longfellow, a sketch, sold to Engl admirer for fab amount. Resident ptrs doing fine things, May, Cranch, Babcock, 20 or more, Howland’s atelier brilliant proof of profit of studying under Couture, bold in touch, rich in color, Boughton and Saml Coleman, Dana’s sea scapes spoken highly of.

Dec 25 1860 p. 7 Art Items: Leutze finished fine Landing of Cavaliers or Calverts at St Mary’s in Maryland, local scenery ptd on spt, aboriginal magnify of verdure, half built mansion, Calverts in steel armor as conspic group, male and female Indians with dead game occupy foregrd, Catholic altar, commission fr Chas M Connolly a wealthy tobacconist, dominant idea recognize Catholic involvement in early settlement. Vigor, broad, hearty and sensuous effect, not subtl expressions of char or poetical renderings, no sentimentalist, hearty appreciation of actualities of human existence, never attempts to idealize what he can copy, game has toothsome look of Landseer, powerful digestion.

            Dester, Boston sculp, bust ofGov Banks, don’t have NY trad of port commissions, only onle full length port in House of Reps, a mammoth cod, larger than life.

            Pictorial papers take license in artistic represent of current events, truthfulness v little importance in pictorial reporting, male caryatids in Acad of Music become obtrusive females, another omits them altogether.

            Baron Marochetti’s bronze eques of Richard Couer de Lion put up nr new Houses of Parliament, colossal, crits complain can’t see to advantage.

TH Hotchkiss lscape ptr in Rome, Palmer finished port of lady with exquis finish (sculptor), Church commenced iceberg.

Dec 15 1860 p. 5 Art Items: Hicks full length port of exMayor Tiemann for City Hall, striking likeness, strong port, new black frock coat, and yellow curtain Hicks likes, has also done Gov Fish and King. Comm Advert says WJ Stillman disciple of Ruskin visited US.

            Ptgs by Am artists in old Duss gallery, striking contrast with French and Flem subjects, no cattle pieces, most elevated historical char. Nothing more elev and grand, familiar and readily comprehended by the mass, than Page’s pic, Aaron and Hur on Mt Horeb, power adequate, no great ptr done subj before tho suggestive. At this partic time has a moral meaning appeals to heart with peculiar force, acts on feelings like intellectual northwester, bracing nerves, strengthening the will. Aaron prudence of age, Hur, lusty strength of fighting principle, uphold truth and holiness over ignorance, barbarism and unbelief. Need them now to uphold hands of Nation agst assaults of present day. Moses has halo, brilliant effects of color, boldness and mastery, broad masses of crimson, blue, purple, yellow and bright green. Ptd in Rome 5 yrs ago. Rosenberg’s Landing of Columbus badly hung in Exhib of NA, better here, hackneyed subj, but orig rendering

Dec 25, 1860 p. 7 Art Items: Leutze’s landing of Calverts for Chas M Connolly, wealthy tobacconist, recog Papal element in early settlement. Vigor, broad, hearty and sensuous effort, L no sentimentalist, actualities of existence, never attempts to idealize.

NY Tribune, starts Jan 1, 1861, two cents, LOC

4 Potter defends pulpit’s right to discuss issues of day 7 p. 3 Art Items Geo Hall successful in Apain; Crayon for January speaks of ignorance of daily press and makes error re Hicks ptg of Gov King of NY, substitutes father Rufus of current gov. May, Boughton, TB Read, Lang’s commission by Stuart of this city for Mary Queen of Scots, excerpts a London mag praising Cropsey’s Autumn on the Hudson,

 Jan 7 1861 p. 3 Art Items: Geo H Hall in Spain, charming fruit pieces approved there; Crayon in Jan speaks loftily of ignorance of daily press, makes error re Hicks. May in Paris on murder of Adm Coligny, and a Waverley incident, Boughton on Whittier’s Maud Muller, Dana fr Longfellow’s ExcelsiorRead to Rome. Lang on Stuart commission for Mary Queen of Scots being benevolent. Mentions Decamps, that Browning will take up painting, an admirer of Wm Page and laudatory crit on his works in Engl journals were fr his pen. Art j London Builder, ed Geo Pocock secy of London AU alw just in crit of Am artists, notices flattering conversation of profs at U Coll re Cropsey’s Autumn on Hudson, and praises alleg statue of America by Kuntze. O’Neil’s Mozart at Croft’s g in London will be sent to NY, ptd in 1849

11 p. 3 Artists Reception at Dodworth Acad , same night as Belmont’s ball, still elite, 60 members and 111 pics. Church, Staigg, Harts, Gifford, Hubbard, Bellows, Gignoux, Whitridge, Nichols, Brevoort, Suydam, Bierstadt, Shattuck, Richards, Bristol, Edwin White Huguenots, Hays buffaloes, Baker Greene Huntington Ehninger Gray and Oertel taste for small genre, CG Thompson Peri no foreign influ, Dix, Warren, Williamson, Durand, John Phillips, pope, L Lang, Blauvelt

Jan 14 p. 5 praises Eidlitz’s Acad of M in Brooklyn, splendid and perfectly consistent, harmonious, elegance solidity finish, swept away tradition, not imagine fr outside it was a theater but not incongruous, German Gothic, nothing classical, no symbolical figures, no plaster images, no flying women blowing long trumpets, cut direct to pagan mythology, pure Scadinavian. Calyo scenic artist, but drop curtain commonplace tawdry char, customary unmeaning columnar reps and clumsy Apollo

Jan 19 p. 5 Art Items: Leo drwg, Paul Akers author of leading article in Atlantic Monthly for Feb on Am Artists in Italy admiring Page, Page recd his Infant Bacchus, connoisseurs regard it as one of the most superb examples of brilliant coloring. Notes Leutze, Geo L Brown at Athaneum, Gifford twilight, Brooklyn artists

Jan 22 Prof Morse and Hiram Ketchum turn to Rabbi Raphall for biblical support of slavery

Jan 31 p. 7 Art Items: Eastman Johnson, Husking, worthy companion to Old Kentucky Home, no buffoonery or caricature subj usually invested by artists, delicious and natural passage of Am country life, a Ruth among the fields, finish detail beauty one of the finest fr this accomp artist, has another smaller husking scene and two interiors might be taken for Edw Frere and a sportsman, fine healthy feeling in his compositions, fr humble life but sentiment of cheerfulness rather than Euro plaintive and saddening, can represent both sections of country.

            Hays Am life, prairie dogs, buffaloes, Pittsburgh Art Assoc, Boughton Gignoux, Lambdins, Colman, Peale, WT Richards, Rossiter, Shattuck, Sontag, Rothermel and Sully; also Western Acad of Art in St Louis, mocks their catalog descriptions. GC Lambdin the Am Frere, two girls reading, one of his happiest; Cropsey novel view of hackneyed subj Niagara, crude but strong masterly free touch, female in foregrd gracefully drawn. TH Matteson, Cropsey sunset after rainstorm, Geo Hall, late Thos Cole to be auctioned as owner died, Whittridge, fine genre Nap after diner, studio bldg recepetion coming, also Brooklyn Art Assoc and lists officers, describes resolution as extraord fine sentiments: Art must divest itself of selfishness, ignoble purpose, materialistic tendency, and empty, trickish technicalities and become devotional, self sacrificing and an outflow of the soul life existing in the mind and heart of the ?.

            Dubufe’s Adam and Eve removed fr Goupil’s for infinitely superior better knowl of human fig and higher order of artistic talent, statuette by Emma Stebbins Lotus Eater, not Tennyson’s but her own idea

Jan 31 1861 p. 7 Art Items, loves Eastman Johnson’s delicious genre pics of genuine N Eng country life, The Husking a worthy companion to Old Kentucky Home, nothing of buffoonery and caricature, natural passage, finish detail and beauty of color finest. Other interiors might be mistaken for Edw Frere. Fine healthy feeling in his compos, tho subjs fr humble life, sentiment of cheerfulness not in Fr and Germ artists whose pics of peasant life are plaintive and saddening. Represents social existence in both sections of the country.

            Hays doing prairie dogs and buffaloes, notices Pittsburgh Art Assoc exhib and one in St Louis. Lambdin. Cropsey view of Niagara, hackneyed subj, free and masterly touch, crude but strong, female gracefully drawn. TH Matteson. Geo Hall. Cole coming up to auction. Whittridge. Dubufe’s Adam and Eve gone and replaced by infinitely superior work, statuette by Emma Stebbins of Lotus Eater.

Feb 8 1861 Count d’Orsay’s assistants exposed

Feb 11 p. 2 Laura Keene has political tableaux devised by Geo H Mills, Spirit of Disunion etc. p. 3 Art Items: Geo L Brown poetical title of Crown of NE, brawny head of Mt Wash, seldom scene viewpt, so may not seem correct to many. Leutze Calvert, Lafayette, Williamson in Brooklyn doing battle ground of Saratoga, Stone’s Hancock, McEntee who was among poetical contribs to Putnam’s Monthly, Indian Summer, Freeman, TB Read. Samuel (Launt?) Thompson engaged on statue of late Calif Nimrod known as Grizzly Adams

Feb 16 p. 8 Art Items: likes Eidlitz. Knaus remains unsold. Frank Bellow who used to illus for NY humor papers now at Punch, Thomas also a Brit worked here first for Wykoff’s illus paper, Thom Nast working for London papers too. Suydam, Van Beeest, Hubner at Schaus not equal to  some of his others with Germ emigrants but decided merit nonetheless. Angero. Artists’ Fund.

Feb 27 Art Items: p. 3 NAD competition design signed Plumbago, Wight native of NY and Free Acad, same language as in the other paper. JE Freeman’s sale of mostly Euro ptgs, artists not known here. A little critical of Crayon. Casilear Alpine scenery.

Feb 27 1861 p. 3 Art Items: compet for new NAD, designs by Mold, Hunt and Eidlitz great inventive genius, Eidlitz bid fair, when design signed Plumbago seized fancy, was Wright, a native and grad of our Free Academy, beaut on paper, novel and pictque. No symbolical figs, but entire bldg indic purposes.

            Perry in New Orleans emulates Trumbull’s immortal Declar of Indep, for signers of secession, newspaper there hopes will awaken love of Fine Arts that will make South indep of North.

            Notes sale at Leeds’ of coll of JE Freeman now in Rome, most by Ital and Germ artists, some by Geo L Brown and Terry; Goupil’s had sale inclu those of Nichols of Crayon gall, Knaus’s Christening not sold. Rofflers on exhib. Casilear nicely finished lscape of Alps.

March 6 1861 p. 7 reception of Artists of Studio Bldg, Hays and Bierstadt filled with Rocky mtns, Gignoux Alleghenies, Page’s Doce far Niente entitled to place of honor, Bradford marine, Nichols White mtn, rich in lscape. Gignoux, Wm Hart, R Hubbard, Shattuck, Dix, Gifford, McEntee Mignot Suydam etc Gifford’s Twilight one of his most powerful, in striking contrast to his mannerism in other pics. WH Beard humorous Bears on a Bender, Leutze Lafayette, Stanton’s scriptural subj remarkable for energy not loftiness, v striking head of Old Adams the bear hunter by Launt Thompson

March 9 p. 8 Art Items: titian gallery fire at Blenheim; copies, no reliance on old masters. Readers of these promiscuous items discovered weakness for marine views, Van Beest and Clarkson Stanfield among few who don’t make mistakes in rigging. Dix zeal and correct for an amateur, Bradford studied with Van Beest, not conventional but individuality, esp in recent wreck of a whaler. EW Nichols best view of White Mtns. Crayon harsh judgment re costly showy white marble store erected by Astor, ugly by any chaste canons of art, but magnificent nonetheless. Geo L Brown

March 9, 1861 p. 8 Art Items: notes fire destroyed Titian Gallery at Blenheim, but was proven they were copies of an inferior artist, may judge how little reliance on originality of old masters here, pics shld be valued for intrinsic qual, not in regard to it being by an old master. Few marine ptrs get rigging right, Dix has tried, Bradford usu correct, with individuality. Notices EW Nichols view of mts Wash, Jeff and Adams in White mtns. Critic in Crayon says manif store built by Astor is ugliest bldg. on Broadway, which is true if crit by any chaste canons of art, but magnify notwithstanding. Obj of special wonder and delight to vast crowds, far from ugliest, tho better effect might have been prod’d with fewer materials.

            Geo W Nichols will take two pics by Geo L Brown of N eng and NY, exhib and latter given to HRH. Brown back fr Niagara.

March 12 Geo W Dixon died, don’t offer any bio.

March 27 1861 p. 8 NA Exhib: must be a reason why exhib falls off year by year in merit and interest, must be possible to ascertain and remedy. Not in secrets of management, but must get best works of best men on the walls. Public judge Am art by these displays, not the studios, they go to exhibitions, French, English, Flemish and American. When compare this one to others this year, native artist suffers, people order fr abroad. Exhib not as gd as usual, fewer gd pics and more bad ones. Noted artists have not sent their best, Committee accepts everything even a slight studio drwg already engraved for a frontispiece. In first rm the front elevation of a public bldg. that never excited special admiration even 15yrs ago, doesn’t encourage buying a season ticket, nor a front and side view of a proposed village church, or $10,000 cottage, all proper and interesting in their place as are well drawn elevations of horse rakes and threshing machines, but is this the place for them? They do possess more interest and are better worth looking at than some other works, but neither have pretensions to place they occupy.

            Room 1 alw a gd deal of lumber, everything not in oils, so fragmentary character influences judgment, but even of good not much of general interest. Portraits in crayons or miniature are wearisome in large numbers even by Rowse, Staigg or Sointia (?). Beauty of heads of these, and effective and delicate drwgs by others, but none of predominant excellence as call for special commendation. 7 J Henry Hill’s w/c Coast of Maine he praises, 117 Infant Bacchus by Page, familiar as his work, nobody else paints such babies, true flesh tint, manner and peculiarities evident also in 440 Dolce far Niente, Ital Peasants, where best thing is child asleep at mom’s feet. Positiveness and vivacity in every line, individuality in figs even dog, remarkable color. But title seems hardly to describe position of affairs, unless sitting for one’s portrait induces it, for that’ss what these peasants are doing and seem to find it uncommonly hard work. Utter fidelity of ports of Ital of their class, wants sentiment or poetry, but most interesting.

            Likes 136 Gale on Coast of Jersey, FH de Haas, ambitious, semi-transp water, but gets unities of sea compositions wrong, wild storm with no breakers etc. Likes Frank Howland, EW Nichols 148 White Mtns (mildly crit). Likes Wm Hunt’s portraits (one of a lady from the back).

            2nd room perhaps best despite its many portraits, several by SL Waldo of men of generation that has passed, and heads by our best, Gray, Stone, Huntington, Baker and others. Huntington’s lscapes here admirable compositions, have peculiar hue that weknow in ribbons, silks, furn, hangings, his portraits, but not used by nature except sparingly, not pervasive. Risks mere mannerism, despite his real feeling for nature. HP Gray’s 175 Gman admirable, striking contrast with bad ones near it. Also likes WH Furness, Stone, Baker, true to life, in Gray’s style.

            223 Husking, homely scenes in which E Johnson sees with eyes of genius true poetry, real delicacy of sentiment underlies even coarsest life, reveals it to those from whom it might be hidden. Old fashioned barn, ages of man. 225 Twilight in Catskills, SR Gifford, brilliancy fills room, artful contrast, deepest color, radiance, likes it a lot. 227 Marine Sunset, MJ Heade, very critical of how he handles reflections of sunset on the water; if he is true to nature, it is exceptional nature, and therefore in the main, untrue, pity in work with so much beauty. Note 233 pleasant Geo T Thorndike.

April 4 1861 p. 7 Jarves Art Studies, approves his argument abt art’s potency to help civ, cites warnings re falsified pics, and descriptions of artists. Art Items: Kensett, GW Nichols to Euro, Eastman Johnson to Maine for maple sugar camp pic, often attempted by our artists, last pic is Industrial School of idling children. Nehlig pics of Cuba, suggestive of Diaz. Artists complain of RA rejections but NAD takes everything that comes along. Cooper Union.  NY Hist Soc pic gall has a voluptuous Winterhalter, Nineveh sculptures much better than their modern ones. Louis Lang’s hist pic of Mary at Goupil’s, one of his best, but too gay and lux in genl effect for unhappy scene

April 5, 1861 p. 7 NA Exhib: likes F Rondel, Elma M Gove, JB Bristol, AF Bellows, Jervis McEntee, A Wust, T Hicks, WH Beard, TC Welsh, Bierstadt, JR Brevoort (tho some incongruity in his situation of the house of a poor man in 385 Winter Morning), Kensett, HL Hillyer, Frank Howland (mixed review, his Gems for the Market 533, gorgeous color, wants character, beaut slaves impassivity shocks spectator not excites pity, appears a pleasure sail of rich noble beings, except emotion in one girl), Wm Bradford.

Critical of Ad Shattuck’s 263 Summer tresses of the trees, v remarkable trees, full heads of hair, the artist’s branches are of the kind which the artist in hair puts in his showcase, or seamosses, but not trees. Critical of TP Rossiter, 373 coming from the Fields, doubt he ever saw a real hay or harvest field, man or woman coming from long hot day’s work, limp bedraggled, sweaty, dirty and worn out. Could not have then ptd bedizened caricatures of real working men and women, wld excite wonder of real rustic, move him to laughter. These elegant and jaunty young gmen and ladies in stage costume wld do well behind footlights, field the side scene as green as green-baize, but real men and women (white women never go to real hay fields) in v diff manner than Rossiter’s imagining. Edwin Forbes 380 Going to Pasture wld be a pleasant pict if never seen a Troyon.

            Mixed review of Thom W Wood 411 A Southern Cornfield, orig in purpose, opening mine of wealth E Johnson explored in slave life of South, coloring and handling not without merit, but no better crit of figs than plain spoken visitor who sd They don’t look so nice as that—I guess they don’t!

            446 Mdme Lafayette and Daughters joining husband in prison, 1795, E. Leutze. Lafayette not a man of great intellect, but hard to represent him as one might judge fr these faces, not far removed fr idiocy. More meaningless faces cld hardly be ptd, no trace of dignified grief, pious resignation, or any other noble sentiment. Undoubtedly when she visited, they embraced, girls were impatient for their turn, but artist’s imag could not go beyond a fact that might be seen any morning on a rrd platform, why paint a scene which in his conception is the commonest of commonplace? Merit is its haberdashery, all well ptd and in gd taste, tho not such as ladies would travel in or appear in at prison, but impropriety part of want of true idea in artist of a historical ptg.

Apr 6 p. 5 Personal Items description of Kaulbach fr Crayon

Defend the tariff. Notice mobs force Express and Herald to hoist the flag.

Apr 18, 1861, p. 7 Art and Lit inParis, Our special corresp, loves Dore, Edw Frere.

April 24, 1861, p.7 The Icebergs: does anybody care for fine arts at this moment? Turn profitably and with pleasure fr throng in streets to quiet Goupil’s to see most splendid work of art yet produced here. In former great pics of Church, tho felt their power, certain something rather felt than seen to be wanting, withheld praise. But in Icebergs find all ever found it its predecessors, and all we have sought for in them without success, work of genius that illus time and country producing it.

            More orig in concept and exec, nothing produced like it, idea is grant, large canvas of icebergs literally and simply, no animal or vegetable or earth, as if fr day of creation when only firmament divided waters, primeval night, long winter, solemn solitude.

April 28, 1861, p. 3 Art Items: Durand resigns as Pres fr NAD on account of illness and dissatisfaction at adapting Wight’s design for new bldg., instead of one furnished by Mr. Eididias (who Trib praises elsewhere as a designer)(?).  Some academicians propose making Morse Pres once more but prob Danl Huntington will be chosen. Mentions Ingham and Cummings as still active orig members. Notes how much Paris govt appropriates for arts; Dublin hires Foley to do a statue for author of Deserted Village. Mr Rondell, grad won public appreciation, studio on corner of Broadway and Bond, just finished 2 v charming lscapes for Col. Hoe and Van Cleef. Athenaeum exhib open in Boston, Dowse coll the chief attraction, among the NY artists are Bierstadt and Beard. NAD exhib open a month longer, poor attendance. Notes hi prices by certain French artists, Meissonier and Bonheur. 

May 5 1861 p. 3 Art Items: NAD closed early last Thurs, no one time to attend; a novelty was public of a pamphlet of crit by Frank H Norton, as in Paris or by Ruskin. Belmont purchased head by Merle fr Schauss, Merle is doing Hester Prynne, great success. Volunteers for war are Gifford, Whittredge, James Hart, D Johnson, Shumway already connected with 7th Regiment.

May 13 1861 p. 3 Art Items: remarkable that Morse elected Pres of NAD with Durand resigning, HP Gray VP, may yet inaugurate a renaissance. Praises Geo L Brown’s Niagara in winter, mentions Freres again

May 26, 1861, p. 3 Art Items, immed after proclamation of war, leading members of NA met at Kensett and Lang’s rms in Broadway, collected work to be sold at auction to benefit the war in Rotunda of merchant exchange, Kensett 2 lscapes, WH Beard Reflection and Beef for Southern Army full of human and jovial feeling as Hogarth; E Johnson one fr last Exhib, Geo L Brown, Shattuck has two, Gignoux a Niagara, Hicks’ Gypsy Girl and head of Edwin Booth (also inchar of Iago), Hubbard, Durand, Huntington, GG Fish, Edwin White, JM Falconer, Geo A Baker, JW Casilear, HA Loof, JM Hart, S Coleman, Rowse, Warren, AW Griswold, Benson, Barrow, Wenzler, Staigg, Ehninger, Terry, Hazeltine, Carlin, Suydam, Sontag, Brevoort, W Hart, John Inman, Colyer, Thorndike, Lang, EW Nichols, Bellows, Jameson, Blauvelt, Ogilvie, Bierstadt, CG Thompson, Mignot, JG Brown, WO Stone, HP Gray, Launt Thompson.

July 9 1861 p. 3 Art Items: Am artists not prom in Euro exhib, tho Am artist in London writes that our lscapes much better, Kensett, Church, Geo L Brown and Cropsey much superior, successful, same critic attacks Pre Raph as feeble, faulty, obsolete conventionalities, healthful study of nature. Trib disagrees, eccentric but earnest, in opposition to effeminacy and flippancy of Brit art for last half century. At Paris, Fagnani, an Am cit if not Am artist, exhibits Cobden and Garibaldi, EH May exhib his Columbus which was caricatured in Charivari, and Waverley scene, and Capt Bonaparte of Baltimore who is suing crown for recog as an heir. CP Cranch, MPW Dana too. Biard exhib large number of realistic ptgs of Am subj, including Slave Auction, Slavedrivers, etc. Sonntag noticed—going to Europe. Rothermel’s timely ptg of reading of Dec of Indep at Derby’s Institute of Fine Arts in Broadway, where Jarves coll of old masters removed. Rothermel shld study pre Raph, miss homely earnestness of new schl of Engl and Belgian art.